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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 8953-8972, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314518

RESUMO

As a member of the Janus (JAK) family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, TYK2 plays an important role in mediating the signaling of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and type 1 interferons. The nicotinamide 4, identified by a SPA-based high-throughput screen targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase domain, potently inhibits IL-23 and IFNα signaling in cellular assays. The described work details the optimization of this poorly selective hit (4) to potent and selective molecules such as 47 and 48. The discoveries described herein were critical to the eventual identification of the clinical TYK2 JH2 inhibitor (see following report in this issue). Compound 48 provided robust inhibition in a mouse IL-12-induced IFNγ pharmacodynamic model as well as efficacy in an IL-23 and IL-12-dependent mouse colitis model. These results demonstrate the ability of TYK2 JH2 domain binders to provide a highly selective alternative to conventional TYK2 orthosteric inhibitors.

2.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(3): 383-388, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891145

RESUMO

In sharp contrast to a previously reported series of 6-anilino imidazopyridazine based Tyk2 JH2 ligands, 6-((2-oxo-N1-substituted-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)amino)imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine analogs were found to display dramatically improved metabolic stability. The N1-substituent on 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine ring can be a variety of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups, but among them, 2-pyridyl provided much enhanced Caco-2 permeability, attributed to its ability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Further structure-activity relationship studies at the C3 position led to the identification of highly potent and selective Tyk2 JH2 inhibitor 6, which proved to be highly effective in inhibiting IFNγ production in a rat pharmacodynamics model and fully efficacious in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.

3.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(23): 5729-5731, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816517

RESUMO

This Letter describes the synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of furo[2,3-d][1,3]thiazinamine BACE1 inhibitors. The co-crystal structure of a representative thiazinamine 2e bound with the BACE1 active site displayed a binding mode driven by interactions with the catalytic aspartate dyad and engagement of the biaryl amide toward the S1 and S3 pockets. This work indicates that furo[2,3-d]thiazine can serve as a viable bioisostere of the known furo[3,4-d]thiazine.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Furanos/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Tiazinas/química , Tiazinas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/química , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/química , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica
4.
J Med Chem ; 59(19): 9173-9200, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583770

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases. BTK plays an essential role in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling as well as Fcγ receptor signaling in monocytes and Fcε receptor signaling in mast cells and basophils, all of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease. As a result, inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. This article details the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel series of highly potent and selective carbazole and tetrahydrocarbazole based, reversible inhibitors of BTK. Of particular interest is that two atropisomeric centers were rotationally locked to provide a single, stable atropisomer, resulting in enhanced potency and selectivity as well as a reduction in safety liabilities. With significantly enhanced potency and selectivity, excellent in vivo properties and efficacy, and a very desirable tolerability and safety profile, 14f (BMS-986142) was advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Isomerismo , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Med Chem ; 59(17): 7915-35, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531604

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) belongs to the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and plays a critical role in multiple cell types responsible for numerous autoimmune diseases. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SARs) leading to a novel second generation series of potent and selective reversible carbazole inhibitors of BTK. With an excellent pharmacokinetic profile as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable safety profile, 7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide 6 (BMS-935177) was selected to advance into clinical development.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/química , Carbazóis/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinazolinonas/química , Administração Oral , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Antirreumáticos/síntese química , Antirreumáticos/farmacocinética , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carbazóis/síntese química , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Quinazolinonas/síntese química , Quinazolinonas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Med Chem ; 59(18): 8593-600, 2016 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559936

RESUMO

Truncation of the S3 substituent of the biaryl aminothiazine 2, a potent BACE1 inhibitor, led to a low molecular weight aminothiazine 5 with moderate activity. Despite its moderate activity, compound 5 demonstrated significant brain Aß reduction in rodents. The metabolic instability of 5 was overcome by the replacement of the 6-dimethylisoxazole, a metabolic soft spot, with a pyrimidine ring. Thus, truncation of the S3 substituent represents a viable approach to the discovery of orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant BACE1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Tiazinas/química , Tiazinas/farmacologia , Aminação , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/sangue , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazinas/sangue
7.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(3): 271-6, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985314

RESUMO

By targeting the flap backbone of the BACE1 active site, we discovered 6-dimethylisoxazole-substituted biaryl aminothiazine 18 with 34-fold improved BACE1 inhibitory activity over the lead compound 1. The cocrystal structure of 18 bound to the active site indicated two hydrogen-bond interactions between the dimethylisoxazole and threonine 72 and glutamine 73 of the flap. Incorporation of the dimethylisoxazole substitution onto the related aminothiazine carboxamide series led to pyrazine-carboxamide 26 as a very potent BACE1 inhibitor (IC50 < 1 nM). This compound demonstrated robust brain Aß reduction in rat dose-response studies. Thus, compound 26 may be useful in testing the amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 290(17): 11061-74, 2015 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25762719

RESUMO

Inhibition of signal transduction downstream of the IL-23 receptor represents an intriguing approach to the treatment of autoimmunity. Using a chemogenomics approach marrying kinome-wide inhibitory profiles of a compound library with the cellular activity against an IL-23-stimulated transcriptional response in T lymphocytes, a class of inhibitors was identified that bind to and stabilize the pseudokinase domain of the Janus kinase tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), resulting in blockade of receptor-mediated activation of the adjacent catalytic domain. These Tyk2 pseudokinase domain stabilizers were also shown to inhibit Tyk2-dependent signaling through the Type I interferon receptor but not Tyk2-independent signaling and transcriptional cellular assays, including stimulation through the receptors for IL-2 (JAK1- and JAK3-dependent) and thrombopoietin (JAK2-dependent), demonstrating the high functional selectivity of this approach. A crystal structure of the pseudokinase domain liganded with a representative example showed the compound bound to a site analogous to the ATP-binding site in catalytic kinases with features consistent with high ligand selectivity. The results support a model where the pseudokinase domain regulates activation of the catalytic domain by forming receptor-regulated inhibitory interactions. Tyk2 pseudokinase stabilizers, therefore, represent a novel approach to the design of potent and selective agents for the treatment of autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/enzimologia , TYK2 Quinase/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estabilidade Enzimática , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/genética , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores de Interleucina-2/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Receptores de Trombopoetina/metabolismo , TYK2 Quinase/genética
9.
Ther Apher Dial ; 19(1): 50-5, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25196986

RESUMO

Dementia is common in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher mortality. Factors associated with dementia in HD patients are not clear. We investigated factors associated with early dementia in HD patients. Chronic HD patients of 27 hemodialysis centers were enrolled in 2013. Early dementia was identified using the AD8 assessment. Factors associated with early dementia were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 1617 chronic HD patients including 820 males and 797 females, aged 63.3 ± 13 years, dialyzed for 4 (1.8-8.4) years were analyzed. Early dementia was identified in 414 (25.6%) of the patients. Longer HD times were associated with a lower chance of dementia (P = 0.032), with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.522 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.270-0.969) for every one more hour of HD. Patient's age (OR: 1.587, 95% CI: 1.406-1.791, P < 0.001), body mass index (OR: 0.958, 95% CI: 0.921-0.996, P = 0.031), cerebrovascular accident (OR: 1.480, 95% CI: 1.000-2.188), diabetes (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.390-2.581, P < 0.001), and serum albumin (OR: 0.376, 95 % CI: 0.256-0.553, P < 0.001) were independently linked to early dementia. Short hemodialysis times are associated with early dementia in a chronic hemodialysis population with a quarter of patients having early dementia. Patients' age, nutrition status and comorbidity are independently linked to early dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Demência/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 16(6): 582-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21457399

RESUMO

AIM: Vegetarian diets have long been thought of as beneficial to health. However, vegetarian diets are often low in protein, which is contradictory to the high protein diet guideline for uraemia patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of haemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: Patients on chronic HD for over 6 months were included in the study. The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) was used to reflect daily protein intake. Biochemical markers of nutrition, anthropometric parameters, subjective global assessment (SGA) and functional activity of daily living were assessed to evaluate the nutritional status of vegetarians on chronic HD. RESULTS: Nineteen out of 318 HD patients were vegetarians. The nPCR was lower in the vegetarian group (1.20 ± 0.24 vs 1.10 ± 0.29 g/kg per day, non-Veg vs Veg, P < 0.05). The serum albumin and prealbumin were similar in vegetarian and non-vegetarian HD patients. The body mass index (BMI) and mid-arm muscular circumference (MAMC) were lower in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained at a level similar to that of non-vegetarian patients but erythropoietin doses needed were higher in vegetarian patients (P < 0.05). The muscle strength evaluated by the hand-grip test, SGA and activities of daily living were similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that HD patients on vegetarian diets might have a smaller BMI, but SGA and function of daily activities were similar to those of the non-vegetarians. The haematocrit of vegetarians can be maintained with a higher erythropoietin dose.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Diálise Renal , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Eletrólitos/sangue , Feminino , Força da Mão , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Albumina/análise , Albumina Sérica/análise , Taiwan
11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 17(8): 2317-21, 2007 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17317169

RESUMO

The discovery and synthesis of 3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one inhibitors of insulin-like growth factor 1-receptor (IGF-1R) are presented. Installing amine containing side chains at the 4-position of pyridone ring significantly improved the enzyme potency. SAR and biological activity of these compounds is presented.


Assuntos
Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzimidazóis , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Piridonas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 17(7): 1908-11, 2007 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17291752

RESUMO

A new class of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) antagonists is described. Elaboration of the 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-5(7aH)-one scaffold resulted in the synthesis of potent inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. Along with the in vitro activity, we present the X-ray crystal structure of the complex of compound 9b, in a novel binding mode to the I-domain of LFA-1.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/química , Pirróis/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Modelos Químicos , Conformação Molecular , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios X
13.
Cancer Res ; 66(11): 5790-7, 2006 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16740718

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase breakpoint cluster (BCR)-ABL. Current frontline therapy for CML is imatinib, an inhibitor of BCR-ABL. Although imatinib has a high rate of clinical success in early phase CML, treatment resistance is problematic, particularly in later stages of the disease, and is frequently mediated by mutations in BCR-ABL. Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets oncogenic pathways and is a more potent inhibitor than imatinib against wild-type BCR-ABL. It has also shown preclinical activity against all but one of the imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutants tested to date. Analysis of the crystal structure of dasatinib-bound ABL kinase suggests that the increased binding affinity of dasatinib over imatinib is at least partially due to its ability to recognize multiple states of BCR-ABL. The structure also provides an explanation for the activity of dasatinib against imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutants.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/química , Pirimidinas/química , Tiazóis/química , Animais , Benzamidas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dasatinibe , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Modelos Moleculares , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia
14.
J Med Chem ; 45(18): 3905-27, 2002 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12190313

RESUMO

High throughput screening identified 2-acetamido-thiazolylthio acetic ester 1 as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Because this compound is inactive in cells and unstable in plasma, we have stabilized it to metabolic hydrolysis by replacing the ester moiety with a 5-ethyl-substituted oxazole as in compound 14. Combinatorial and parallel synthesis provided a rapid analysis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for these inhibitors of CDK2, and over 100 analogues with IC(50) values in the 1-10 nM range were rapidly prepared. The X-ray crystallographic data of the inhibitors bound to the active site of CDK2 protein provided insight into the binding modes of these inhibitors, and the SAR of this series of analogues was rationalized. Many of these analogues displayed potent and broad spectrum antiproliferative activity across a panel of tumor cell lines in vitro. In addition, A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells undergo rapid apoptosis following exposure to CDK2 inhibitors of this class. Mechanism of action studies have confirmed that the phosphorylation of CDK2 substrates such as RB, histone H1, and DNA polymerase alpha (p70 subunit) is reduced in the presence of compound 14. Further optimization led to compounds such as water soluble 45, which possesses a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in mice and demonstrates significant antitumor activity in vivo in several murine and human models, including an engineered murine mammary tumor that overexpresses cyclin E, the coactivator of CDK2.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Benzenoacetamidas , CDC2-CDC28 Quinases , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Oxazóis/síntese química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/síntese química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclina E/metabolismo , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina , DNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Modelos Moleculares , Oxazóis/farmacocinética , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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