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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361003

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease characterized by eczematous lesions and itching, and it has become a serious health problem. However, the common clinical treatments provide limited relief and are accompanied by adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel and effective therapies to treat AD. Neferine is a small molecule compound isolated from the green embryo of the mature seeds of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). It has a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid structure. Relevant studies have shown that neferine has many pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-diabetic activities. However, there are very few studies on neferine in the skin, especially the related effects on inflammatory skin diseases. In this study, we proved that it has the potential to be used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Through in vitro studies, we found that neferine inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and it reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Through in vivo experiments, we used 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model. Our results show that neferine significantly decreased the skin barrier damage, scratching responses, and epidermal hyperplasia induced by DNCB. It significantly decreased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, blood flow, and ear thickness and increased surface skin hydration. Moreover, it also inhibited the expression of cytokines and the activation of signaling pathways. These results indicate that neferine has good potential as an alternative medicine for the treatment of atopic dermatitis or other skin-related inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzilisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356663

RESUMO

Melanoma represents less than 5% of skin cancers, but is the most lethal, mainly because of its high-metastatic potential and resistance to various therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop effective treatments, especially chemotherapeutic drugs with cytotoxicity, anti-metastaticity, and few side effects. One such natural product is hispidulin, a flavone distributed in plants of the Asteraceae. Previous studies have demonstrated that hispidulin has various pharmacological benefits, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, and anti-allergic effects. This study aims to explore the effects of hispidulin against melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Results revealed that hispidulin selectively decreased the cell viability of A2058 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hispidulin induced cells accumulated in the sub-G1 phase via activating caspase 8 and 9, increased cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP expression. Hispidulin was able to decrease AKT and ERK phosphorylation, which facilitated cell growth and survival. Moreover, hispidulin promoted reactive oxygen species generation in cells and suppressed cell migration through downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Hispidulin significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model. Based on these results, hispidulin produces its anti-melanoma effects by inducing cancer cell apoptosis and reducing its migration. Therefore, we suggest hispidulin as a potent therapeutic candidate for melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107620, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862555

RESUMO

Histamine is released from mast cells when tissues are inflamed or stimulated by allergens. Activation of histamine receptors and calcium influx via TRPV1 could be related to histamine-induced itch and skin inflammation. Quercetin is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-itching effects. This study aims to understand whether quercetin can directly affect histamine-induced calcium influx in human keratinocyte. In it, we investigated quercetin, which acts on histamine-induced intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) elevation in human keratinocyte. Changes in [Ca2+]i were measured using spectrofluorometry and confocal Imaging. We detected the expression of IL-8 after treatment of quercetin using qRT-PCR and evaluated its anti-itching effect in BALB/c mice. We also performed a docking study to estimate the binding affinity of quercetin to H4 receptors. We found that quercetin pretreatment decreased histamine-induced [Ca2+]i elevation in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on histamine-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by JNJ7777120, a selective H4 antagonist, as well as by U73122, a PLC inhibitor, and by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor. We also found that H4 agonist (4-methylhistamine)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation could be inhibited by quercetin. Moreover, the selective TRPV1 blocker capsazepine significantly suppressed the quercetin-mediated inhibition of histamine-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, whereas the TRPV4 blocker GSK2193874 had no effect. Last, quercetin decreased histamine and H4 agonist-induced IL-8 expression in keratinocyte and inhibited the scratching behavior-induced compound 48/80 in BALB/c mice. The molecular docking study also showed that quercetin exhibited high binding affinities with H4 receptors (autodock scores for H4 = -8.7 kcal/mol). These data suggest that quercetin could decrease histamine 4 receptor-induced calcium influx through the TRPV1 channel and could provide a molecular mechanism of quercetin in anti-itching, anti-inflammatory, and unpleasant sensations.

4.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(4): 1133-1139, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755440

RESUMO

Ultraviolet rays are the main cause of skin aging. Isoflavone structures are good anti-ultraviolet natural compounds and have an especially strong anti-ultraviolet B (UVB) effect. However, the anti-ultraviolet A (UVA) effect of isoflavones is more controversial. Therefore, this study aims to discover which isoflavone analogue possesses a strong anti-ultraviolet A. We found the isoflavonoid intermediate deoxybenzoin-3A (DOB-3A) to be a similar isoflavone structural compound with strong anti-ultraviolet A effects. Ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of 350 nm are used to irradiate the fibroblasts of the human skin. Western blot, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscope analyses were used to explore its anti-ultraviolet A mechanism. We established the results that DOB-3A (1) reduced the death of fibroblasts caused by ultraviolet A, (2) avoided the damage to the organelles and structures after UVA irradiation, (3) inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide-induced damage, and (4) decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) caused by UVA. Based on the above findings, DOB-3A is a very good anti-ultraviolet A isoflavone-related structure. Because it is simple to synthesize and has good effects, DOB-3A is a suitable anti-ultraviolet A product with an isoflavone structure. Moreover, DOB-3A's structure provides a reference for the synthesis of anti-UVA isoflavones.


Assuntos
Derme/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta , Derme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173589, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961171

RESUMO

Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid present in Nelumbo nucifera, has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effects. Because reduced glutamatergic transmission through inhibition of glutamate release has been proposed as a mechanism of neuroprotection, we investigated whether and how neferine inhibits glutamate release in the nerve terminals of the cerebral cortex of rats. The results demonstrated that neferine inhibits the glutamate release that is evoked by the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine, doing so in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was prevented by removing extracellular calcium and blocking vesicular transporters or N- and P/Q-type calcium channels but not by blocking glutamate transporters. Neferine decreased the 4-aminopyridine-stimulated elevation in intrasynaptosomal calcium concentration; however, it had no effect on the synaptosomal membrane potential. The inhibition of glutamate release by neferine was also eliminated by the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5HT1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, Gi/o protein inhibitor pertussis toxin, adenylyl cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A, and protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Moreover, immunocytochemical analysis revealed the presence of 5-HT1A receptor proteins in the vesicular transporter of glutamate type 1 positive synaptosomes. The molecular docking study also demonstrated that neferine exhibited the highest binding affinity with 5-HT1A receptors (Autodock scores for 5-HA1A = -11.4 kcal/mol). Collectively, these results suggested that neferine activates 5-HT1A receptors in cortical synaptosomes, which decreases calcium influx and glutamate release through the activation of Gi/o protein and the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A cascade.


Assuntos
Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Nelumbo , Terminações Nervosas/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Benzilisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/química , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Terminações Nervosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/química
6.
Neurochem Int ; 140: 104845, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911011

RESUMO

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruciferous vegetables, has been proposed to exhibit neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the I3C derivative [1(4-chloro-3-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-methanol (CIM), which has superior pharmacokinetic properties to I3C, on glutamate release in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals (synaptosomes). We observed that CIM dose-dependently inhibited glutamate release evoked by the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). CIM-mediated inhibition of glutamate release was attributed to reduced exocytosis, as it correlated with the removal of extracellular calcium and blocking of the vesicular glutamate transporter but not the glutamate transporter. In addition, CIM decreased 4-AP-evoked intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ elevation; however, it did not alter the synaptosomal membrane potential. The inhibition of P/Q-typeCa2+ channels abolished the effect of CIM on 4-AP-evoked glutamate release, and the effect was not prevented by intracellular Ca2+ release inhibitors. Moreover, the molecular docking study showed that CIM exhibited the highest binding affinity with the P/Q-type Ca2+channels. Finally, the CIM-mediated inhibition of glutamate release was sensitive to calmodulin, adenylate cyclase (AC), and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. Based on these results, we propose that CIM, through the direct suppression of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, decreases Ca2+ influx and the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin/AC/PKA signaling, thereby inhibiting glutamate release. This finding is crucial for understanding the role of CIM in the central nervous system and for exploiting its potential in therapeutic interventions.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which causes multiple complications. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among these complications and is a dominant cause of vision loss for diabetic patients. Numerous studies have shown that chrysin, a flavonoid, has many biological activities such as anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. However, it is rarely used in ocular diseases. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of flavonoid on high glucose induced migration of chorioretinal endothelial cells (RF/6A cells) and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of RF/6A cells treated with chrysin was examined with a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The migration of RF/6A cells was assessed by the transwell migration and scratch wound assays. The expression of AKT, ERK, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), HIF-1α and MMP-2 were determined by western blotting. To observe the mRNA expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR), qRT-PCR, was utilized. RESULTS: The results showed that chrysin can dose-dependently inhibit the RF/6A cell migration in vitro transwell and the scratch wound assays which are induced by high glucose. After pretreatment of RF/6A cells with different concentrations of chrysin, they did not produce any cytotoxicity in MTT assay. Moreover, chrysin down-regulated both phosphorylated AKT and ERK, as well as attenuated the expression levels of MMP-2. It also decreased the expression of the VEGF transcription factor and VEGF. Furthermore, it was shown that chrysin could suppress the protein and mRNA expression levels of VEGFR. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that chrysin could down-regulate the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and MMP-2 and reduce the effects of VEGF and VEGFR in a high glucose environment. It further inhibits the high glucose-induced migration of RE/6A cells. Therefore, chrysin may have the potential for visual protection.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2932, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076123

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common non-contagious chronic inflammatory skin lesion, with frequent recurrence. It mainly occurs due to aberrant regulation of the immune system leading to abnormal proliferation of skin cells. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of psoriasis are not fully understood. Although most of the current therapies are mostly efficient, the side effects can result in therapy stop, which makes the effectiveness of treatment strategies limited. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to develop novel therapeutics. Here, we investigated the efficacy of chrysin, a plant flavonoid, which we previously reported to possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, against psoriasis-like inflammation. Our results revealed that chrysin significantly attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice, and improved imiquimod-induced disruption of skin barrier. Moreover, the TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-22-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and JAK-STAT pathways, and activation of the NF-κB pathway were also attenuated by chrysin pretreatment of epidermal keratinocytes. Most importantly, chrysin reduced TNF-α-, IL-17A-, and IL-22-induced CCL20 and antimicrobial peptide release from epidermal keratinocytes. Thus, our findings indicate that chrysin may have therapeutic potential against inflammatory skin diseases. Our study provides a basis for further investigating chrysin as a novel pharmacologic agent and contributes to the academic advancement in the field of Chinese herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL20/metabolismo , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL20/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoríase/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is upregulated by hypoxia and is a crucial stimulator for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration and pathologic myopia, as well as retinal neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Retinal and choroidal endothelial cells play key roles in the development of retinal and CNV, and subsequent fibrosis. At present, the effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the VEGF-induced choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A) cells are still unknown. In our study, we investigated the effects of AuNPs on RF/6A cell viabilities and cell adhesion to fibronectin, a major ECM protein of fibrovascular membrane. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of AuNPs on RF/6A cell migration induced by VEGF and its signaling were studied. METHODS: The cell viability assay was used to determine the viability of cells treated with AuNPs. The migration of RF/6A cells was assessed by the Transwell migration assay. The cell adhesion to fibronectin was examined by an adhesion assay. The VEGF-induced signaling pathways were determined by western blotting. RESULTS: The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay revealed no cytotoxicity of AuNPs on RF/6A cells. AuNPs inhibited VEGF-induced RF/6A cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner but showed no significant effects on RF/6A cell adhesion to fibronectin. Inhibitory effects of AuNPs on VEGF-induced Akt/eNOS were found. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AuNPs are an effective inhibitor of VEGF-induced RF/6A cell migration through the Akt/eNOS pathways, but they have no effects on their cell viabilities and cell adhesion to fibronectin.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corioide/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Retina/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Corioide/citologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Macaca mulatta , Retina/citologia
10.
Proc Math Phys Eng Sci ; 471(2175): 20140943, 2015 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792966

RESUMO

The sub-Laplacian on the Heisenberg group and the Grushin operator are typical examples of sub-elliptic operators. Their heat kernels are both given in the form of Laplace-type integrals. By using Laplace's method, the method of stationary phase and the method of steepest descent, we derive the small-time asymptotic expansions for these heat kernels, which are related to the geodesic structure of the induced geometries.

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