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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4447, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627723

RESUMO

High night temperature (HNT) often reduces yield in field crops. In rice, HNT during the ripening stage diminishes endosperm cell size, resulting in a considerable reduction in final kernel weight; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms at cell level. In this study, we performed picolitre pressure-probe-electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry to directly determine metabolites in growing inner endosperm cells of intact seeds produced under HNT conditions, combining with 13C feeding and water status measurements including in situ turgor assay. Microscopic observation in the inner zone suggested that approximately 24.2% of decrease in cell expansion rate occurred under HNT at early ripening stage, leading to a reduction in cell volume. It has been shown that HNT-treated plants were subjected to mild shoot water deficit at night and endosperm cell turgor was sustained by a decline in osmotic potential. Cell metabolomics also suggests that active solute accumulation was caused by a partial inhibition of wall and starch biosynthesis under HNT conditions. Because metabolites were detected in the single cells, it is concluded that a partial arrest of cell expansion observed in the inner endosperms was caused by osmotic adjustment at mild water deficit during HNT conditions.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4610, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633307

RESUMO

Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment is positively correlated with cancer progression and metastasis as well as the risk of thromboembolism in lung cancer patients. Here we show, in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, the master inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) induced tissue factor expression and procoagulant activity, and these effects were potently inhibited by 4ß-hydroxywithanolide E (4HW), a natural compound isolated from Physalis peruviana. Furthermore, combination of 4HW and TNF-α caused synergistic cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. The underlying mechanism by which 4HW reverses the procoagulant effect of TNF-α but enhances its cytotoxic effect appears to be due to inhibition of NF-κB, which is a key switch for both inflammation-induced coagulation and cell survival. Our results suggest that 4HW may have a potential application for treating inflammation-derived cancer progression and cancer-associated hypercoagulable state.

3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 2): 559-566, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether low skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) defined according to different muscle groups on computed tomography (CT) scans are predictive factors of survival for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed patients who received sorafenib therapy for advanced HCC in a prospective patient cohort between 2007 and 2012. The total skeletal muscle (TSM), paraspinal muscle (PS), psoas muscle (PM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal wall (AW) muscle areas were evaluated using a single CT slice at the third lumbar vertebra before treatment. LSMM was determined according to the TSM, PS, PM, RA and AW indices, which was calculated as the parameters divided by the square of the body height. RESULTS: We enrolled 137 patients. Women had significantly lower TSM index than men did (p < .001). Among men, the optimal cut points of the TSM, PM and RA indices for LSMM diagnosis were 39.1, 8.3 and 2.9 cm2/m2, respectively. Patients with LSMM defined by TSM (median 5.1 vs. 8.0 months, p = .007), PM (5.8 vs. 11.8 months, p < .001), and RA (7.2 vs. 8.1 months, p = .003) indices exhibited poorer overall survival than patients without LSMM. After adjusting for clinical variables, TSM (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.122, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.134-3.971) and PM (HR: 1.730, 95% CI: 1.058-2.828) indices-defined LSMM remained independent predictors for poor OS, but RA index-defined LSMM did not. CONCLUSION: LSMM defined by TSM and PM indices are independent predictors of poor prognosis for advanced HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto do Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6266, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293512

RESUMO

Grain weight (GW) is one of the component traits of wheat yield. Existing reports have shown that multiple phytohormones are involved in the regulation of GW in different crops. However, the potential role of jasmonic acid (JA) remains unclear. Here, we report that triticale grain weight 1 (tgw1) mutant, with marked reductions in both GW and JA content, is caused by a premature stop mutation in keto-acyl thiolase 2B (KAT-2B) involved in ß-oxidation during JA synthesis. KAT-2B overexpression increases GW in wild type and boosts yield. Additionally, KAT-2B compliments the grain defect in tgw1 and rescues the lethal phenotype of the Arabidopsis kat2 mutant in a sucrose-free medium. Despite the suppression of JA synthesis in tgw1 mutant, ABA synthesis is upregulated, which is accompanied by enhanced expression of SAG3 and reduction of chlorophyll content in leaves. Together, these results demonstrate a role of the JA synthetic gene KAT-2B in controlling GW and its potential application value for wheat improvement.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pancreatic cancer, toxicities associated with current chemotherapeutic regimens remain concerning. A modified combination of gemcitabine, S-1, and leucovorin (GSL) was used as the first-line treatment for newly diagnosed locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. METHODS: GSL was administered every 2 weeks-intravenous gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 at a fixed-dose rate of 10 mg/m2/min on day 1 and oral S-1 (80-120 mg/day) plus leucovorin 30 mg twice daily on days 1-7. We retrospectively analyzed the feasibility of GSL and patient outcomes in three medical centers in Taiwan. RESULTS: Overall, 49 patients received GSL with a median follow-up of 24.9 months from May 2015 to March 2019. The median patient age was 68 years (range, 47-83 years), with a marginally higher number of females (57.1%). Among the 44 patients who underwent image evaluation, 13 demonstrated a partial response (29.5%) and 17 presented with stable disease (38.6%). The partial response rate and stable disease rate was 26.5% and 34.7%, respectively, in the intent-to-treat analysis. The median time-to-treatment failure was 5.79 months (95% C.I., 2.63-8.94), progression-free survival was 6.94 months (95% C.I., 5.55-8.33), and overall survival time was 11.53 months (95% C.I., 9.94-13.13). For GSL treatment, the most common grade 3 or worse toxicities were anemia (18.3%), neutropenia (6.1%), nausea (4.1%), and mucositis (4.1%). Treatment discontinuation was mostly due to disease progression (65.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The modified GSL therapy can be a promising and affordable treatment for patients with advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer in Taiwan. A prospective trial of modified GSL for elderly patients is currently ongoing in Taiwan.

6.
J Environ Manage ; : 111657, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229113

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O) generated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has drawn attention due to its high emission load and significant greenhouse effect. In the present study, N2O emissions from a pilot-scale Carrousel oxidation ditch under various chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen ratio (COD/N) and aeration rates were systematically investigated. The highest N2O emission factor was 0.142 ± 0.013%, at COD/N of 5 and aeration rate of 1.8 m3 h-1, which was much lower than the majority of previous studies. The results could be attributed to the high internal recycle ratio of the oxidation ditch process which lightened the burden of influent load to the system. The profiles of N2O emissions and dissolved N2O concentration along the channels showed a distinct spatial variation that N2O emissions primarily occurred in the aeration zones due to the air stripping effect. However, both the aeration and anoxic zones contributed to N2O generation due to autotrophic nitrification (AN), which was considered to be the main N2O generation process. In addition, two simulated shock-load conditions, ammonia overload shock and aeration failure shock, were carried out to explore the response of the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) system. The results indicated that both shock-loads lead to excessive N2O emissions, especially at higher aeration rates, which could be explained by the improved N2O generation by AN process during the shock-load period. This study offered new insights into the role of operational parameters to N2O emission and the alternative approach for N2O mitigation during both the steady-state operation and shock-load conditions in the oxidation ditch process.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19382, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168854

RESUMO

Researchers demonstrated an elegant ability for red discrimination in zebra finches. It is interested to understand whether red activates exhibit much stronger response than other colors in neural network levels. To reveal the question, local field potentials (LFPs) was recorded and analyzed in two visual pathways, the thalamofugal and the tectofugal pathways, of zebra finches. Human studies demonstrate visual associated telencephalons communicate with higher order brain areas such as prefrontal cortex. The present study determined whether a comparable transmission occurs in zebra finches. Telencephalic regions of the thalamofugal (the visual Wulst) and the tectofugal pathway (the entopallium) with their higher order telencephalon, nidopallium caudolateral (NCL) were simultaneously recorded. LFPs of relay nuclei (the nucleus rotundus, ROT) of tectofugal pathway were also acquired. We demonstrated that LFP powers in the tectofugal pathway were higher than those in the thalamofugal pathway when illuminating blue lights. In addition, the LFP synchronization was stronger between the entopallium and NCL. LFPs also revealed a higher Granger causality from the direction of entopallium to NCL and from ROT to entopallium. These results suggest that zebra finches' tectofugal pathway predominately processing color information from ROT to NCL, relayed by entopallium, and blue could trigger the strongest response.

8.
ACS Omega ; 5(33): 20991-20999, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875235

RESUMO

Five new polyketides, asperochrapyran (1) and asperochralactones A-D (2-5), along with 12 known polyketides (6-17), were obtained from the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis. Structures of all isolates were elucidated by their spectroscopic parameters. The relative configurations of the new compounds were deduced by the data of coupling constants and NOESY spectra. The absolute configurations were determined by the comparison of experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Moreover, the plausible biosynthesis pathway of major isolates was proposed as well. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 5 and 7-17 were evaluated with human neutrophils in response to the stimulation of formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP). Asperlactone (9), aspyrone (13), and (-)-(3R)-mellein (14) exerted superoxide anion inhibition at 30 ± 9%, 29 ± 9%, and 26 ± 12%, respectively, at 10 µM. The capacities of asperlactone (9), aspilactonol B (10), penicillic acid (12), and (-)-(3R)-mellein (14) in elastase release inhibition were revealed as 25 ± 4%, 38 ± 8%, 25 ± 5%, and 34 ± 9%, respectively, at 10 µM.

9.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(39): 7892-7898, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996532

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of Aleurites moluccanus yielded one novel dinor-diterpenoid, aleuritin (1), along with a rare diterpenoid, aleuritone (2). Compound 1 has an unprecedented skeleton with a 6/6/5-fused tricyclic ring system. Compound 2 possesses a rare 6/6/5/3-fused tetracyclic skeleton, which is probably an artifact formed photochemically by the Norrish reaction. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic methods (ECD, IR, mass, and NMR) and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. A plausible biogenetic pathway of 1 is proposed. Pharmacological study showed that these two compounds possessed mild in vitro anti-lymphangiogenic activity, which suppressed tube formation with IC50 values of 48.1 ± 1.8 and 34.2 ± 0.8 µg mL-1, respectively.

10.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1108-1117, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957145

RESUMO

Sigesbeckia orientalis, more commonly referred to as Herba Sigesbeckiae or Xi Xian Cao in traditional Chinese medicine and hy thiêm in traditional Vietnamese medicine, is used in China and Vietnam to treat inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, rheumatism, and joint pain. In initial investigations, the dichloromethane extract from the aerial parts of S. orientalis showed distinct inhibitory effects on the release of interleukin-8 in human neutrophils. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive dichloromethane extract and the in vitro analysis of the effects of the isolated compounds on interleukin-8, interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 release, and surface expression of adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11b, and CD62L) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human neutrophils to identify the active principle(s). The separation of the bioactive dichloromethane extract using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of nine compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated from nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data. One diterpene, 17(13 → 14)-abeo-ent-3S*,13S*,16-trihydroxystrob-8(15)-ene, was identified as a new natural product. Three germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones inhibited interleukin-8 production with IC50 values between 1.6 and 6.3 µM, respectively, and tumor necrosis factor-α production with IC50 values between 0.9 and 3.3 µM, respectively. Furthermore, they significantly inhibited interleukin-1ß and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 production and diminished the effects of lipopolysaccharide on the surface expression of the adhesion molecules CD11a, CD11b, and CD62L. These findings support the traditional use of S. orientalis in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Diterpenos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , China , Humanos , Lactonas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Vietnã
11.
Am J Med Sci ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958165
12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947878

RESUMO

Some withanolides, particularly the family of steroidal lactones, show anticancer effects, but this is rarely reported for withanolide C (WHC)-especially anti-breast cancer effects. The subject of this study is to evaluate the ability of WHC to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells, using both time and concentration in treatment with WHC. In terms of ATP depletion, WHC induced more antiproliferation to three breast cancer cell lines, SKBR3, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231, than to normal breast M10 cell lines. SKBR3 and MCF7 cells showing higher sensitivity to WHC were used to explore the antiproliferation mechanism. Flow cytometric apoptosis analyses showed that subG1 phase and annexin V population were increased in breast cancer cells after WHC treatment. Western blotting showed that cleaved forms of the apoptotic proteins poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP) and cleaved caspase 3 (c-Cas 3) were increased in breast cancer cells. Flow cytometric oxidative stress analyses showed that WHC triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX) production as well as glutathione depletion. In contrast, normal breast M10 cells showed lower levels of ROS and annexin V expression than breast cancer cells. Flow cytometric DNA damage analyses showed that WHC triggered γH2AX and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) expression in breast cancer cells. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment reverted oxidative stress-mediated ATP depletion, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Therefore, WHC kills breast cancer cells depending on oxidative stress-associated mechanisms.

13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948007

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation provides an alternative radiotherapy to X-ray. UVC sensitizer from natural products may improve radiotherapy at low cytotoxic side effects. The aim of this study is to assess the regulation for oral cancer cell proliferation by a combined treatment of UVC and our previously reported anti-oral cancer natural product (ethyl acetate extract of Nepenthes adrianii × clipeata; EANA). The detailed possible UVC sensitizing mechanisms of EANA such as effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA damage are investigated individually and in combination using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTS) assay, flow cytometry, and western blotting at low dose conditions. In a 24 h MTS assay, the low dose EANA (5 µg/mL) and low dose UVC (12 J/m2) individually show 80% and combinedly 57% cell proliferation in oral cancer Ca9-22 cells; but no cytotoxicity to normal oral HGF-1 cells. Mechanistically, low dose EANA and low dose UVC individually induce apoptosis (subG1 accumulation, pancaspase activation, and caspases 3, 8, 9), oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide, and mitochondrial membrane potential depletion), and DNA damage (γH2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine). Moreover, the combined treatment (UVC/EANA) synergistically induces these changes. Combined low dose treatment-induced antiproliferation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were suppressed by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, UVC/EANA shows synergistic antiproliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage to oral cancer cells in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. With the selective killing properties of low dose EANA and low dose UVC, EANA provides a novel UVC sensitizing agent to improve the anti-oral cancer therapy.

14.
Front Neurol ; 11: 752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903424

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that seizure occurrences at different zeitgeber times alter sleep and circadian rhythm differently. On the other hand, the synchronized delta wave of electroencephalogram (EEG) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep facilitates seizure, while the desynchronized EEG of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suppresses it. We also elucidated that unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) suppresses seizure recurrence. In the present study, we intraperitoneally injected pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 40 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days (PTZ kindling) to induce spontaneous seizure in rats, and a 30-min (delivered 10 min before each PTZ injection) or a 3-h DBS of unilateral ANT (delivered 1 h before each PTZ injection) was applied to suppress seizure. The frequency of DBS stimulation was 200 Hz and the electrical current consisted of biphasic square pulses with 50-µA intensity, 100-µs pulse width, and 4.1-ms stimulation interval. Our results found that PTZ-induced spontaneous seizure did not cause a significant change in the quantity of NREM sleep but suppressed the amount of REM sleep. Unilateral ANT DBS prolonged the onset latency of ictal seizure, decreased the spontaneous seizure duration, and increased the survival rate but did not change the amplitude of epileptiform EEGs during ictal period. Unilateral ANT DBS did not significantly alter NREM sleep but increased the amount of REM sleep. An analysis of the spectrograms of fast Fourier transform indicated that the intensities of all frequencies were enhanced during the PTZ-induced ictal period and the subsequent spontaneous seizure. Thirty minutes of unilateral ANT DBS suppressed the augmentation of low-frequency (<10 Hz) intensities during the spontaneous seizure induced by PTZ kindling. We further found that consecutive injections of PTZ progressively increased the enhancement of the delta powers during NREM sleep, whereas unilateral ANT DBS inhibited this progressive enhancement. It was also noticed that 30 min of ANT DBS exhibited a better efficacy in epilepsy suppression than 3 h of ANT DBS. These results elucidated that unilateral ANT DBS enhanced the seizure threshold by increasing the amount of REM sleep and decreasing the progressive enhancement of delta power during NREM sleep to suppress spontaneous seizure recurrences in PTZ kindling-induced epileptic rats.

15.
J Sleep Res ; : e13156, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748529

RESUMO

Adenosine exhibits a somnogenic effect; however, there is no adenosinergic hypnotic because of cardiovascular effects. This study investigated whether N6-(4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside (T1-11), extracted from Gastrodia elata, produces somnogenic effects in rodents. We determined the involvement of adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs) in GABAergic neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the cardiovascular effects. Change of cage bedding is employed as a stressor to induce insomnia in rodents, and electroencephalograms and electromyograms were used to acquire and analyse sleep-wake activity. We found that intracerebroventricular administration of T1-11 before a dark period increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during a dark period, and T1-11-induced sleep increases were blocked by the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261, in naïve rats. Oral administration of T1-11 increased NREM sleep during both dark and light periods. Microinjection of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261, into the VLPO blocked sleep effects of T1-11. In addition to the somnogenic effect in naïve mice, T1-11 suppressed the stress-induced insomnia and this suppressive effect was blocked by SCH58261. C-fos expression in GABAergic neurons of VLPO was increased after administration of T1-11 in Gad2-Cre::Ai14 mice, suggesting the activation of GABAergic neurons in the VLPO. T1-11 exhibited no effects on heart rate and the low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability. We concluded that T1-11 elicited somnogenic effects and effectively ameliorated acute stress-induced insomnia. The somnogenic effect is mediated by A2ARs to activate GABAergic neurons in the VLPO. This adenosine analogue could be a potential hypnotic because of no sympathetic and parasympathetic effects on the cardiovascular system.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756347

RESUMO

Some lichens provide the resources of common traditional medicines and show anticancer effects. However, the anticancer effect of Usnproliea barbata (U. barbata) is rarely investigated, especially for oral cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cell killing function of methanol extracts of U. barbata (MEUB) against oral cancer cells. MEUB shows preferential killing against a number of oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, OECM-1, CAL 27, HSC3, and SCC9) but rarely affects normal oral cell lines (HGF-1). Ca9-22 and OECM-1 cells display the highest sensitivity to MEUB and were chosen for concentration effect and time course experiments to address its cytotoxic mechanisms. MEUB induces apoptosis of oral cancer cells in terms of the findings from flow cytometric assays and Western blotting, such as subG1 accumulation, annexin V detection, and pancaspase activation as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. MEUB induces oxidative stress and DNA damage of oral cancer cells following flow cytometric assays, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS)/mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depletion as well as overexpression of γH2AX and 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). All MEUB-induced changes in oral cancer cells were triggered by oxidative stress which was validated by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, MEUB causes preferential killing of oral cancer cells and is associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage.

18.
Biomedicines ; 8(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825464

RESUMO

In this study, the anti-tumor activity of ilimaquinone (IQ), a sesquiterpene quinone isolated from marine sponge Halichondria sp., in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, was investigated. IQ suppressed the viability of the OSCC cell lines SCC4 and SCC2095 with IC50 values of 7.5 and 8.5 µM, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IQ induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SCC4 cells and modulated the expression of several cell growth-related gene products, including Akt, p38, Mcl-1, and p53. Notably, p53 knockdown caused higher resistance to IQ's anti-tumor activity. In addition, IQ increased reactive oxygen species generation, which was partially reversed by the addition of antioxidants. Furthermore, it triggered autophagy, as evidenced by acidic organelle formation and LC3B-II and Atg5 expression in SCC4 cells. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or chloroquine partially decreased IQ-induced apoptosis, suggesting that IQ induced protective autophagy. In summary, IQ has potential to be used in OSCC therapy.

19.
Plant Dis ; 104(10): 2585-2597, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813612

RESUMO

Quinoa black stem is a new disease that affects the stems of quinoa plants and is more likely to develop under cool conditions (15 to 25°C, RH = 55 ± 2%). The typical symptoms include the formation of black necrotic lesions on the stem, which can completely wrap around the stem, causing lodging and blanking (development of 'empty' and sterile grain on the panicle). Furthermore, the pycnidia form small round protrusions on the surface of the lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that representative isolates LMHS-3 and LMHS-5 were closely related to Ascochyta caulina (teleomorph: Neocamarosporium calvescens). Comprehensive morphological and molecular characterizations confirmed A. caulina as the pathogen that caused quinoa black stem. A. caulina mainly infected quinoa stems and could produce many pycnidia, but it rarely infected quinoa leaves. Pathogenicity testing showed that the most suitable temperature for the onset of quinoa black stem was from 15 to 25°C. When the temperature was increased above 30°C, the conidial germination of A. caulina became malformed, and when the temperature was decreased below 5°C, mycelium growth of A. caulina became extremely slow; thus, both extreme high and low temperatures affected the pathogenicity of A. caulina. Mancozeb and azoxystrobin fungicides were revealed to have had the strongest inhibitory effects on the conidial germination of A. caulina, and in some cases caused malformations in conidial germination. Tebuconazole and difenoconazole had the strongest inhibitory effects on A. caulina mycelial growth and less on the effects on the conidial germination. The results of the present study provide a basis for the recognition and management of quinoa black stem.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , China , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854314

RESUMO

Organogenesis in plants occurs across all stages of the life cycle. Although previous studies have identified many genes as important for either vegetative or reproductive development at the RNA level, global information on translational and post-translational levels remains limited. In this study, six Arabidopsis stages/organs were analyzed using quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics, identifying 2187 non-redundant proteins and evidence for 1194 phosphoproteins. Compared to the expression observed in cauline leaves, the expression of 1445, 1644, and 1377 proteins showed greater than 1.5-fold alterations in stage 1-9 flowers, stage 10-12 flowers, and open flowers, respectively. Among these, 294 phosphoproteins with 472 phosphorylation sites were newly uncovered, including 275 phosphoproteins showing differential expression patterns, providing molecular markers and possible candidates for functional studies. Proteins encoded by genes preferentially expressed in anther (15), meiocyte (4), or pollen (15) were enriched in reproductive organs, and mutants of two anther-preferentially expressed proteins, acos5 and mee48, showed obviously reduced male fertility with abnormally organized pollen exine. In addition, more phosphorylated proteins were identified in reproductive stages (1149) than in the vegetative organs (995). The floral organ-preferential phosphorylation of GRP17, CDC2/CDKA.1, and ATSK11 was confirmed with western blot analysis. Moreover, phosphorylation levels of CDPK6 and MAPK6 and their interacting proteins were elevated in reproductive tissues. Overall, our study yielded extensive data on protein expression and phosphorylation at six stages/organs and provides an important resource for future studies investigating the regulatory mechanisms governing plant development.

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