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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949177

RESUMO

The development of enantioconvergent cross-coupling of racemic alkyl halides directly with heteroarene C( sp 2 )-H bonds has been impeded by the commonly necessary use of base at elevated temperature that leads to racemization. We herein report a copper(I)/cinchona-alkaloid-derived N , N , P -ligand catalytic system that enables oxidative addition with racemic alkyl bromides under mild conditions. Thus, the coupling with azole C( sp 2 )-H bonds has been achieved in high enantioselectivity, affording a number of potentially useful α-chiral alkylated azoles, such as 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, oxazoles, and benzo[ d ]oxazoles as well as 1,3,4-triazoles, for drug discovery. Mechanistic experiments indicated facile deprotonation of an azole C( sp 2 )-H bond and the involvement of alkyl radical species under the reaction conditions.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888338

RESUMO

Almost all plants form trichomes, which protect them against insect herbivores by forming a physical barrier and releasing chemical repellents. Glandular trichomes produce a variety of specialized defensive metabolites, including volatile terpenes. Previous studies have shown that the defence hormone jasmonic acid (JA) affects trichome development and induces terpene synthases (TPSs) but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterized a loss-of-function allele of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor woolly (wo) and analysed its role in mediating JA signalling in tomato. We showed that knockout of wo led to extensive trichome defects, including structural and functional changes in type VI glandular trichomes, and a dramatic reduction in terpene levels. We further found that wo directly binds to TPS gene promoters to recruit SlMYC1, a JA signalling modulator, and that together these transcription factors promote terpene biosynthesis in tomato trichomes. The wo/SlMYC1 regulatory module is inhibited by SlJAZ2 through a competitive binding mechanism, resulting in a fine-tuned JA response in tomato trichomes. Enhanced expression of SlMYC1 substantially increased terpene levels and improved tomato resistance to spider mites. Interestingly, we also found that SlMYC1 plays an additional role in glandular cell division and expansion in type VI trichomes, independent of JA. Together, our results reveal a novel, JA-mediated regulatory mechanism that promotes insect resistance in tomato.

3.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853368

RESUMO

Population genetic theory and empirical evidence indicate that deleterious alleles can be purged in small populations. However, this viewpoint remains controversial. It is unclear whether natural selection is powerful enough to purge deleterious mutations when wild populations continue to decline. Pheasants are terrestrial birds facing a long-term risk of extinction as a result of anthropogenic perturbations and exploitation. Nevertheless, there are scant genomics resources available for conservation management and planning. Here, we analyzed comparative population genomic data for the three extant isolated populations of Brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. We showed that C. mantchuricum has low genome-wide diversity and a contracting effective population size because of persistent declines over the past 100,000 years. We compared genome-wide variation in C. mantchuricum with that of its closely related sister species, the Blue eared pheasant (C. auritum) for which the conservation concern is low. There were detrimental genetic consequences across all C. mantchuricum genomes including extended runs of homozygous sequences, slow rates of linkage disequilibrium decay, excessive loss-of-function mutations, and loss of adaptive genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a comprehensive conservation genomic analysis on this threatened pheasant species. Moreover, we demonstrated that natural selection may not suffice to purge deleterious mutations in wild populations undergoing long-term decline. The findings of this study could facilitate conservation planning for threatened species and help recover their population size.

4.
Nanoscale ; 12(31): 16474-16488, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743625

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory capability of biomaterials is of paramount importance for successful material-mediated bone regeneration. Particularly, the design of surface nano-topography can be leveraged to instruct immune reactions, yet the understanding of such "nano-morphology effect" is still very limited. Herein, highly ordered nano-concave pit (denoted as NCPit) and nano-convex dot (denoted as NCDot) microarrays with two different sizes were successfully constructed on a 316LSS surface via anodization and subsequently immersion-coating treatment, respectively. We, for the first time, comparatively investigated the interactions of NCPit and NCDot microarrays with RAW264.7 macrophages and their immunomodulatory impacts on osteogenesis and angiogenesis of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). NCDot microarrays induced macrophages towards M2 polarization with the higher expression level of anti-inflammatory markers (IL-10 and CD 206) and the lower level of pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and CD 86) than those of the corresponding NCPit microarrays. During the process, the expressions of osteogenesis-related genes (Runx2, OPN and OCN) of hBMSCs, and angiogenesis-related genes (eNOS, HIF-1α, KDR and VEGF) of HUVECs were significantly upregulated by the NCDot microarray-modulating immune microenvironment of macrophages, and finally stimulated osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Thus, the prepared NCDot arrays were able to significantly promote osteo-/angiogenic activity by generating a more suitable immune microenvironment than NCPit arrays, offering substantial evidence for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials with specific microstructures and optimal bioactivity.

5.
Sci Adv ; 6(32): eabb1311, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821831

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy (PTT), an emerging tumor treatment technology, has attracted tremendous interest, but excessive heat will cause damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, in situ temperature monitoring during PTT is of great importance to determine optimal treatment temperature and repair heat-damaged normal tissues. Here, we report the preparation of multifunctional Nd-Ca-Si silicate glasses and glass/alginate composite hydrogels that not only have photothermal property but also emit fluorescence under 808-nm laser irradiation, and its fluorescence intensity is linearly correlated with in situ temperature. With this feature, optimal PTT temperature for effective tumor treatment with minimal normal tissue damage can be obtained. In addition, because of the bioactive silicate components, the composite hydrogel has bioactivity to repair heat damage caused by PTT. This implantable multifunctional material with unique temperature monitoring, photothermal function, and wound healing bioactivity can be used for localized thermal therapy.

6.
Dose Response ; 18(3): 1559325820942065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821253

RESUMO

Background: The prognostic value of the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) in patients with pancreatic cancer is controversial, based on previous studies. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to explore the relationship between mGPS and prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Methods: The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify eligible studies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the associations between mGPS score and survival outcomes. Results: A total of 26 studies with 5198 patients were included in this meta-analysis. In a pooled analysis, elevated mGPS predicted poorer overall survival (OS; HR = 1.98, 95% CI, 1.65-2.37, P < .001). In addition, elevated mGPS was also significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS; HR = 1.95, 95% CI, 1.36-2.80, P < .001). Subgroup analyses confirmed a significant association between mGPS and survival outcomes. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that high mGPS was correlated to worse OS, PFS, DFS, and CSS in patients with pancreatic cancer. Therefore, mGPS could be employed as an effective prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer in clinical practice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840135

RESUMO

A range of preliminary designs of customised total knee implants (CTKIs) was created by resurfacing the distal femur and applying different tibial bearing surface curvatures. These were then compared with a scaled off-the-shelf symmetric total knee implant (STKI). To evaluate the biomechanical performance, a dynamic knee simulation model was created with patient-specific muscle and ankle joint loads calculated from an OpenSim musculoskeletal model. Simulation results showed the transverse curvatures of the tibial bearing surface influenced femoral mediolateral translation, while its longitudinal curvatures affected femoral adduction. Compared to the STKI, the CTKIs could restore patient knee function.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicated that females have a lower morbidity, severe cases rate, mortality and better outcome than those of male. However, it remained to be addressed why this was the case. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To find the factors that potentially protect females from COVID-19, we recruited all confirmed patients hospitalized at three branches of Tongji Hospital (n=1902) from January 28 to March 8, 2020, and analyzed the correlation between menstrual status (n=509,including 68 from Mobile Cabin Hospital)/female hormones (n=78)/ cytokines related to immunity and inflammation(n=263), and the severity/clinical outcomes in female patients under 60 years of age.Non-menopausal female patients had milder severity and better outcome compared with age-matched men (p<0.01/p<0.01). Menopausal patients had longer hospitalization times than non-menopausal patients ( hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.46,p= 0.033). Both anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) showed a negative correlation with severity of infection (AHR=0.146/0.304, 95%CI = [0.026-0.824]/[0.092-1.001], p=0.029/0.05). E2 levels were negatively correlated with IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα in luteal phase (Pearson Correlation=-0.592, -0.558, -0.545, -0.623; p=0.033, 0.048, 0.054, 0.023), and with C3 in follicular phase (Pearson Correlation=-0.651; p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Menopause is an independent risk factor for female COVID-19 patients. AMH and E2 are potential protective factors, negatively correlated with COVID-19's severity, among which E2 is attributed to its regulation of cytokines related to immunity and inflammation. Hormone supplement might be a potential therapy for COVID-19 patients.

9.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(34): 7713-7722, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724972

RESUMO

Stem-cell therapy has been proved as a promising strategy for myocardial infarction (MI) treatment. However, the therapeutic efficacy is mainly limited by the cellular activity of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, a novel bioglass (BG)/γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA)/chitosan (CS) hydrogel was obtained by in situ adding BG to stimulate the imine bond formation. And the effect of the composite hydrogel on MI therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in a rat acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in vivo and the possible mechanism of the BG/γ-PGA/CS hydrogel for the stimulation of the intercellular interaction between MSCs and cardiomyocytes (CMs) was explored by a MSC and CM co-culture experiment in vitro. The implantation of the MSC loaded BG/γ-PGA/CS composite hydrogel in the mice AMI model showed a significant improvement in the therapeutic efficacy with improved cardiac function, attenuation of heart remodeling, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and accelerated vascularization. The in vitro cell experiments demonstrated that the BG/γ-PGA/CS hydrogel activated the intercellular interaction between MSCs and CMs, which resulted in reduced cell apoptosis and enhanced angiogenesis. Silicate based bioactive hydrogels activated MSCs and cell-cell interactions in cardiac tissue after AMI and significantly enhanced the efficacy, which suggests that this bioactive hydrogel based approach is an effective way to enhance stem-cell therapy.

10.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc endopeptidases that play a key role in both physiological and pathological tissue degradation. MMPs have reportedly shown great potentials in degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), have shown great potentials in targeting of bioactive and imaging agents in cancer treatment. MMPs could provoke epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells and manipulate their signaling, adhesion, migration and invasion to promote cancer cell aggressiveness. Therefore, targeting and particularly inhibiting MMPs within tumor microenvironment is an effective strategy for cancer treatment. Based on this idea, different MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) have been developed to manipulate the tumor microenvironment towards conditions appropriate for actions of antitumor agents. Studies are ongoing to improve the selectivity and specificity of MMPIs. Structural optimization has facilitated the discovery of selective inhibitors of the MMPs. However, so far no selective inhibitor for MMP-7 has been proposed. AIMS: This study aims to comprehensively review the potentials and advances in applications of MMPs particularly MMP-7 in targeted cancer treatment approaches with the main focus on targeted drug delivery. Different targeting strategies for manipulating and inhibiting MMPs for treatment of cancer are discussed. MMPs are upregulated at all stages of expression in cancers. Different MMP subtypes have shown significant targeting applicability at the genetic, protein, and activity levels in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a variety of cancers. Expression of MMPs significantly increases at advanced cancer stages, which can be used for controlled release in cancers in advance stages. METHODS: Moreover, this study presents the synthesis and characteristics of a new and highly selective inhibitor against MMP-7 and discusses its applications in targeted drug delivery systems for therapeutics and diagnostics modalities. RESULTS: Our findings showed that the structure of the inhibitor P3' side chains play the crucial role in developing an optimized MMP-7 inhibitor with high selectivity and significant degradation activities against ECM.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(2): 296-302, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703426

RESUMO

Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2) is essential for the B cell differentiation, BCR signaling and humoral immune response. However, the role of DOCK2 in the memory response of B cell is unknown. By using two DOCK2 deficient patients, we found that the memory B cells were decreased and the early activation of DOCK2 deficient memory B cells was abolished to the degree of naïve B cells due to the decreased expression of CD19 and CD21 mechanistically. Interestingly the expression of LEF-1, a negative regulator of CD21, was increased in DOCK2 deficient B cells. This was linked to the increased expression of HIF-1α and cell metabolism, which in turn affected the ER structure. Finally, the reduction of memory B cells in DOCK2 patients was due to the increased apoptosis, which might be related with the increased metabolism.

12.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; : 954411920941400, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723134

RESUMO

Few studies have been conducted to investigate kinematics and kinetics of the patellofemoral joint under physiological muscle forces and ankle joint loads. In this study, a preliminary design of a customised total knee implant was proposed and created. To compare the influences of different patella treatment scenarios, a dynamic knee simulation model was created with patient-specific muscle forces and ankle joint loads that are calculated from an OpenSim musculoskeletal model. The goal is to improve patellar implant-bone connection and restore patellofemoral joint mobility. Identical dynamic boundary conditions were applied on an unresurfaced patella and three different dome-shaped patellar implants. It was found that the unresurfaced patella and patellar implants resulted in different motions of patellar internal rotation and medial tilt. The size of the dome-shaped patellar implant affected the motion and loading of the patellofemoral joint. When the exposed patella bone was not fully covered by the patellar implant, the patella bone then contacted the femoral component during knee flexion. This would most likely lead to anterior knee pain and subsequent revision.

13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(30): 5816-5821, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678401

RESUMO

The manuscript describes a straightforward functionalization of 2-alkyl-3-furfurals via simple aminocatalytic conjugate addition. The reaction proceeds through the formation of dearomatized dienamine-like intermediate that undergoes 1,6-addition to 4-alkylidene-2,6-dialkylcyclohexa-2,5-dienones. This process can be described as doubly rearomative as it proceeds with the re-formation of both furan and phenyl aromatic moieties. Target products have been obtained in a highly stereoselective manner, providing an interesting example of 2-alkyl-3-furfural functionalization via doubly vinylogous Michael addition. The mechanism of the reaction has been studied by means of computational methods.

14.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Apart from respiratory complications, acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in some patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we described the clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment and outcomes of CVD complicating SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments and clinical outcomes were collected and analysed. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of patients with COVID-19 with or without new-onset CVD were compared. RESULTS: Of 219 patients with COVID-19, 10 (4.6%) developed acute ischaemic stroke and 1 (0.5%) had intracerebral haemorrhage. COVID-19 with new onset of CVD were significantly older (75.7±10.8 years vs 52.1±15.3 years, p<0.001), more likely to present with severe COVID-19 (81.8% vs 39.9%, p<0.01) and were more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes and medical history of CVD (all p<0.05). In addition, they were more likely to have increased inflammatory response and hypercoagulable state as reflected in C reactive protein (51.1 (1.3-127.9) vs 12.1 (0.1-212.0) mg/L, p<0.05) and D-dimer (6.9 (0.3-20.0) vs 0.5 (0.1-20.0) mg/L, p<0.001). Of 10 patients with ischemic stroke; 6 received antiplatelet treatment with aspirin or clopidogrel; and 3 of them died. The other four patients received anticoagulant treatment with enoxaparin and 2 of them died. As of 24 March 2020, six patients with CVD died (54.5%). CONCLUSION: Acute CVD is not uncommon in COVID-19. Our findings suggest that older patients with risk factors are more likely to develop CVD. The development of CVD is an important negative prognostic factor which requires further study to identify optimal management strategy to combat the COVID-19 outbreak.

15.
Curr Med Sci ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437068

RESUMO

The efficient transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from patients to health care workers or family members has been a worrisome and prominent feature of the ongoing outbreak. On the basis of clinical practice and in-vitro studies, we postulated that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) using Arbidol is associated with decreased infection among individuals exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on family members and health care workers who were exposed to patients confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and chest computed tomography (CT) from January 1 to January 16, 2020. The last follow-up date was Feb. 26, 2020. The emergence of fever and/or respiratory symptoms after exposure to the primary case was collected. The correlations between post-exposure prophylaxis and infection in household contacts and health care workers were respectively analyzed. A total of 66 members in 27 families and 124 health care workers had evidence of close exposure to patients with confirmed COVID-19. The Cox regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or not showed that Arbidol PEP was a protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.003-0.209, P=0.0006 for family members and HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.662, P=0.0221 for health care workers). Our findings suggest Arbidol could reduce the infection risk of the novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings. This treatment should be promoted for PEP use and should be the subject of further investigation.

16.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 395-399, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556163

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cats, rats, and chickens in the border areas of Yunnan Province. A total of 259 samples was collected from 10 border areas in Yunnan Province including 94 cats, 58 rats, and 107 chickens. Samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the positive products were analyzed by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genotypes. Toxoplasma gondii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected from 15.96% of 94 cats, 15.52% of 58 rats, and 6.54% of 107 chickens, respectively, and the average infection rate is 11.97%. Using the multilocus PCR-RFLP, we found that the genotype of T. gondii in cats and rats was ToxoDB#9. Because of low DNA concentration, no genotype was determined from chickens. These results fill the gaps of knowledge in the prevalence and genotype of T. gondii in the border areas of Yunnan Province and have implications for the better control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.

17.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(3): 480-485, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474860

RESUMO

The efficient transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from patients to health care workers or family members has been a worrisome and prominent feature of the ongoing outbreak. On the basis of clinical practice and in-vitro studies, we postulated that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) using Arbidol is associated with decreased infection among individuals exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on family members and health care workers who were exposed to patients confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and chest computed tomography (CT) from January 1 to January 16, 2020. The last follow-up date was Feb. 26, 2020. The emergence of fever and/or respiratory symptoms after exposure to the primary case was collected. The correlations between post-exposure prophylaxis and infection in household contacts and health care workers were respectively analyzed. A total of 66 members in 27 families and 124 health care workers had evidence of close exposure to patients with confirmed COVID-19. The Cox regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or not showed that Arbidol PEP was a protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.003-0.209, P=0.0006 for family members and HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.662, P=0.0221 for health care workers). Our findings suggest Arbidol could reduce the infection risk of the novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings. This treatment should be promoted for PEP use and should be the subject of further investigation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 476-484, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593759

RESUMO

In this preliminary study, the acidic hydrolysate fingerprints of polysaccharides based on hydrophilic-interaction chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-ELSD/ESI-TOF/MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was developed and applied to investigate the quality of Ganoderma lucidum from different regions. Projection-to-latent-structure discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) could distinguish samples of Zhejiang regions from those of other regions. Orthogonal-projection-to-latent-structure discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) provided clear discrimination between G. lucidum samples cultivated in Zhejiang and that from other regions, in which Polysaccharides and D-galactose could be considered as candidate biomarkers. In addition, the intraspecific differentiation of G. lucidum was preliminarily investigated with samples from Shaanxi region. They were classified into four groups by PCA and PLS-DA, in which L-rhamnose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, and mannose were considered as potential chemical markers. These preliminary results contributed to our understanding of the variance of polysaccharides in Ganoderma spp. from different geographic origins and the intraspecific differentiation from the same region, which suggest great potential in the quality control of Ganoderma spp.

19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 171, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many developing countries are rapidly urbanising because of large migration flows from rural to urban areas. However, migrants' socio-cultural transitions might be challenging, and their extent of social integration and sense of hometown identity might impede resettlement and quality of life. Although a sense of belonging in the host city and a sense of attachment to the hometown might be important to migrants' ability to assimilate, adapt and succeed in a new place, these factors have not adequately been studied in China. METHODS: The data were derived from the 2014 China Migrants Dynamic Survey, a large-scale questionnaire survey of Chinese migrants. This study's sample comprised 15,990 individuals in eight Chinese cities. Life satisfaction was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the key independent variables (social integration, sense of hometown identity and sense of belonging in the host city) were measured using multi-item constructs. Cronbach's alpha coefficients on the four main variables were 0.76 to 0.90. A multivariable linear regression analysis was applied to a path model that assessed the mediating and moderating effects of sense of belonging in the host city on direct relationships with life satisfaction (social integration ⇢ life satisfaction and hometown identity ⇢ life satisfaction). RESULTS: Social integration positively related to life satisfaction (B = 0.267) and sense of belonging in the host city (B = 0.912). A weak hometown identity related to higher life satisfaction and stronger sense of belonging in the host city (B = 0.087 and B = 0.176, respectively). Sense of belonging in the host city significantly mediated the relationships between social integration and life satisfaction (B = 0.267 decreased to B = 0.085) and between hometown identity and life satisfaction (B = 0.087 decreased to B = 0.048). Last, sense of belonging in the host city significantly moderated the relationship between social integration and life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: A sense of belonging to a place is important to migrants' life satisfaction regarding the hometown and the host city. Promoting migrants' sense that they are part of the new living environment is important to China's sustainable urban development.

20.
J Psychoactive Drugs ; : 1-9, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530370

RESUMO

Individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) undergo treatment to recover from addiction. However, exerting self-control, which is essential for successful abstinence from drug addiction, can cause ego depletion. This study experimentally investigated the effect of ego depletion on interpersonal trust and examined possible changes in the ego depletion effect across different abstinence periods. This study employed a 2 (ego depletion: high vs. low) × 2 (partners: non-SUD vs. SUD) mixed factorial design. The participants were 273 male individuals with SUD and with periods of drug abstinence ranging from several days to 2 years, who resided in a compulsory drug rehabilitation center. The participants were first asked to complete an ego depletion task, followed by a decision-making task in a trust game, first with a non-SUD stranger, and then with a SUD stranger. Ego depletion was not related to trust in non-SUD strangers. However, ego depleted participants were more likely to trust SUD strangers than non-ego depleted participants. Moreover, this ego depletion effect fluctuated near the end of SUD treatment. This study highlights the importance to ensure follow-up outpatient care and offer social support services for individuals with SUD after compulsory SUD treatment.

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