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1.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 7, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study objective was to compare titration of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and with ventilator-embedded pressure-volume loop in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We have designed a prospective study with historical control group. Twenty-four severe ARDS patients (arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio, PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg) were included in the EIT group and examined prospectively. Data from another 31 severe ARDS patients were evaluated retrospectively (control group). All patients were receiving medical care under identical general support guidelines and protective mechanical ventilation. The PEEP level selected in the EIT group was the intercept point of cumulated collapse and overdistension percentages curves. In the control group, optimal PEEP was selected 2 cmH2O above the lower inflection point on the static pressure-volume curve. RESULTS: Patients in the EIT group were younger (P < 0.05), and their mean plateau pressure was 1.5 cmH2O higher (P < 0.01). No differences in other baseline parameters such as APACHE II score, PaO2/FiO2, initial PEEP, driving pressure, tidal volume, and respiratory system compliance were found. Two hours after the first PEEP titration, significantly higher PEEP, compliance, and lower driving pressure were found in the EIT group (P < 0.01). Hospital survival rates were 66.7% (16 of 24 patients) in the EIT group and 48.4% (15 of 31) in the control group. Identical rates were found regarding the weaning success rate: 66.7% in the EIT group and 48.4% in the control group. CONCLUSION: In severe ARDS patients, it was feasible and safe to guide PEEP titration with EIT at the bedside. As compared with pressure-volume curve, the EIT-guided PEEP titration may be associated with improved oxygenation, compliance, driving pressure, and weaning success rate. The findings encourage further randomized control study with a larger sample size and potentially less bias in the baseline data. Trial Registration NCT03112512.

2.
J Nurs Res ; 25(4): 276-282, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clients with a spinal cord injury (SCI) must learn to manage their disabilities and may never be able to resume their previous lifestyle. Therefore, receiving relevant information and support from care practitioners and institutions is essential for clients with long-term SCI. PURPOSE: This study investigated the long-term homecare needs of clients with SCIs. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from March to May 2013. Four SCI associations were selected using purposive sampling, and four focus group interviews were conducted in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan. Each focus group was composed of 7-12 participants. In-depth interviews (1.5-2.5 hours) were conducted. A content analysis method was adopted for data analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants took part in the study. The long-term care needs of clients with SCI require the following dynamic processes for rebuilding their lives: physical care and complication prevention, life planning, social support, discovery of the value of existence, and sexual satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results reveal the long-term care needs of clients with SCI. Nurses are expected to provide client-centered care, emphasize prevention rather than treatment of complications, initiate life planning at the early stages of a client's rehabilitation, enhance a client's social support, encourage a client's search for companionship and search for the value of existence and a life purpose, and be attentive to the sexual concerns of people with physical disabilities.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/enfermagem , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan
3.
West J Nurs Res ; 38(12): 1574-1594, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27330046

RESUMO

Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Vida Independente , Qigong/métodos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 62(6): 13-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26645440

RESUMO

The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies that may be referenced in evidence-based nursing practices.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qigong , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Yin-Yang
6.
West J Nurs Res ; 37(11): 1383-403, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24869492

RESUMO

Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Qigong , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Complement Ther Med ; 22(3): 489-99, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24906589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored the differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) based on data from 2007 and 2011 national surveys in Taiwan. RESEARCH DESIGN: Two cross-sectional, community-based epidemiological surveys were conducted in Taiwan. Participants 18 years and older were interviewed regarding their CAM use in the previous 12 months. Nationally representative random-household telephone surveys using a sampling method with a probability proportional to size were conducted in 2007 and 2011. The data were analysed to compare the results between surveys. RESULTS: We obtained a total of 1260 and 2266 valid responses in 2007 and 2011, respectively. The use of at least one or more CAM therapies during the previous year decreased from 48.9% in 2007 to 37.8% in 2011 (p < .001). In both surveys, the most common CAM therapies used were Chinese medicinal herbs followed by health supplement products and tuina. We observed the greatest relative increase in CAM use between 2007 and 2011 in health supplement products (12.8% vs. 16.0%) and massage (1.3% vs. 2.9%), whereas the largest relative decrease occurred for tuina (24.4-13.4%) and Chinese medicinal herbs (31.6-25.4%). CONCLUSION: Widespread CAM use reflects a more personal orientation towards maintaining health and selecting health care support services. Thus, a set of standards should be established for the safety and effectiveness of therapies, and consensus building is required to overcome the differences among practitioners from various backgrounds and traditions.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Forsch Komplementmed ; 20(5): 345-52, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24200824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In numerous countries worldwide, fall prevention among older adults is a major public health issue. For older adults, regular participation in moderate physical activity or exercise lowers the risks of falls. However, scant information is available regarding the prevention strategies that the most at-risk groups may undertake. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a fall prevention strategy, eight forms of moving meditation (EFMM), on community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults in Taiwan. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study; 84 participants were recruited from Taipei in Taiwan. For 12 weeks, participants in the experimental group performed 30-min EFMM 3 times per week. The measurements included a Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Get-up-and-Go Test (TGUG), and a One-Leg Stance Test (OLST) with eyes both opened and closed. All were conducted at the baseline and 12 weeks after intervention. RESULTS: The participants who performed EFMM showed a significant and positive performance on FRT, TGUG, and OLST with eyes opened and eyes closed compared to those in the control group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that EFMM is an effective strategy for enhancing balance and functional mobility and preventing falls among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/normas , Meditação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Am J Health Promot ; 28(1): 16-22, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23470186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a Tai Chi Chung (TCC) program, an efficiency approach, on anxiety and cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study. SETTING: A community in Taipei City, Taiwan. Subjects. One hundred thirty-three adults aged 55 years and older. Intervention. Sixty-four participants (experimental group) attended a 60-minute Tai Chi exercise three times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 69 participants (control group) maintained their usual daily activities. MEASURES: Anxiety states, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks into the experiment, and 12 weeks into the experiment. ANALYSIS: Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the changes. RESULTS: Participants showed a greater drop in anxiety levels (ß = -2.57, p = .001) and DBP (ß = -7.02, p < .001) at the 12-week follow-up than did the controls. SBP significantly decreased in the 6-week follow-up and 12-week follow-up tests. The participants in the intervention achieved a greater drop in BMI at the 6-week and 12-week follow-up visits than the controls. The interventions demonstrated decreased average WC at the 6-week and 12-week follow-up visits as compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the long-term benefits of a TCC program in facilitating health promotion by reducing anxiety and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Tai Ji , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Taiwan
10.
PLoS One ; 7(7): e40999, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22848421

RESUMO

PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating monocyte adhesion; however, the underlying mechanisms of PKC-mediated cell adhesion are still unclear. In this study, we elucidated the signaling network of phorbol ester PMA-stimulated human monocyte adhesion. Our results with pharmacological inhibitors suggested the involvement of AMPK, Syk, Src and ERK in PKC-dependent adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to culture plates. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the ability of PMA to activate these kinases, as well as the involvement of AMPK-Syk-Src signaling in this event. Direct protein interaction between AMPK and Syk, which requires the kinase domain of AMPK and linker region of Syk, was observed following PMA stimulation. Notably, we identified Syk as a novel downstream target of AMPK; AICAR can induce Syk phosphorylation at Ser178 and activation of this kinase. However, activation of AMPK alone, either by stimulation with AICAR or by overexpression, is not sufficient to induce monocyte adhesion. Studies further demonstrated that PKC-mediated ERK signaling independent of AMPK activation is also involved in cell adhesion. Moreover, AMPK, Syk, Src and ERK signaling were also required for PMA to induce THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells as well as to induce adhesion response of human primary monocytes. Taken together, we propose a bifurcated kinase signaling pathway involved in PMA-mediated adhesion of monocytes. PKC can activate LKB1/AMPK, leading to phosphorylation and activation of Syk, and subsequent activation of Src and FAK. In addition, PKC-dependent ERK activation induces a coordinated signal for cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. For the first time we demonstrate Syk as a novel substrate target of AMPK, and shed new light on the role of AMPK in monocyte adhesion, in addition to its well identified functions in energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Monócitos/enzimologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/citologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinase Syk , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
11.
J Altern Complement Med ; 18(6): 567-75, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22537466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to examine the effect of a 12-week 30-minute-a-day Ping Shuai Qigong exercise program on climacteric symptoms and sleep quality in perimenopausal women. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study. SETTINGS/LOCATION: The subjects (N=70) from two communities were women aged 45 years and above who were experiencing menopausal symptoms. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five (35) women from one community were assigned to a Ping Shuai Qigong intervention group, while 35 women from the other community were assigned to the control group. INTERVENTIONS: This was a 12-week, 30-minute-a-day Ping Shuai Qigong program. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Greene Climacteric Symptom scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were the outcome measures. METHODS: Descriptive analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used. RESULTS: Pretest scores at baseline found no significant group differences in climacteric symptoms or sleep quality. Significant improvements in climacteric symptoms were found at 6 weeks and 12 weeks (t=4.07, p<0.001 and t=11.83, p<0.001) in the intervention group. They were also found to have significant improvements in sleep quality in those times (t=5.93, p<0.001 and t=10.58, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Ping Shuai Qigong improved climacteric symptoms and sleep quality in perimenopausal women at 6 weeks and 12 weeks. The longer a person practiced this form of meditative exercise, the greater the improvement in sleeping quality and climacteric symptoms.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios , Menopausa , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Observação , Perimenopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência
12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 80(8): 1210-20, 2010 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20615388

RESUMO

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical signaling molecule for regulating energy homeostasis, might bi-directionally regulate inflammation, and its action mechanism leading to inflammation is not fully understood. We utilized 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) as a pharmacological activator of AMPK to unveil the effects of and signaling cascades mediated by AMPK on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), murine macrophage cell line (J774), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Biochemical approaches were further conducted to elucidate interactions among signaling molecules. We found that AICAR could induce COX-2 protein expression in the cell types tested. This event was mediated by COX-2 gene transcription, and abrogated by compound C and 5'-iodotubercidin, suggesting the essential role of AMPK in COX-2 induction. Pharmacological and biochemical studies indicated that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is the common downstream signal of AMPK in COX-2 expression in all three cell types. Furthermore, we also found that TAK1 is associated with AMPKalpha2, and this binding requires an interaction between the kinase domains of both molecules. Notably data of TAK1 phosphorylation indicate that the activating state is enhanced upon AMPK activation in vivo and in vitro. Our data for the first time prove a pivotal role of TAK1 in the AMPK signaling axis. Such interaction gives AMPK an additional pathway for regulating cellular functions. Via a downstream p38 MAPK signaling cascade, AMPK-dependent TAK1 activation leads to the expression of the inflammatory COX-2 gene in various cell types.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epoprostenol/genética , Epoprostenol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
13.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 55(2): 76-80, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18393212

RESUMO

With the rapid pace of development and reform in education learners face many challenges. Learning how to acquire skills and how to think are very important issues. The application of mind mapping can help students to enhance the creative thinking and problem-solving abilities of the whole brain. In other words, mind-mapping is a visual or pictorial thinking method. This paper introduces the basic concept of mind-mapping, radiant thinking, the methods of mind-mapping, its rules of application, and examples of such application, to improve understanding and knowledge about mind-mapping.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem
14.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 45(1): 65-74, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17022985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most research into the impact on mothers of having a child with an intellectual disability has been done in Western cultures. These mothers are at increased risk of stress, along with poorer health and weakened family relationships. Nurses are well placed to support these mothers. OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe across three different cultures-Irish, Taiwanese and Jordanian-the inter-relationships among three indicators of maternal well-being. (2) To identify the coping strategies of mothers and the professional and informal supports available to them. (3) To identify the variables that have a negative impact on maternal well-being and possible moderating influences on them. DESIGN: A survey approach with three groups of self-selected mothers. PARTICIPANTS: The characteristics of the child determined the inclusion criteria; namely aged 5-18 years with a diagnosis of intellectual disability of such severity that the children attended special schools or centres. In each country, the special services within particular geographical areas were approached and all families known to them were given the opportunity to participate. In all 206 mothers agreed to participate. METHODS: Mothers were interviewed individually at home or in the day centre attended by their child. They completed various rating scales of known reliability and validity. In addition they described in their own words, the impact the child had on their lives and how they coped. RESULTS: In all three countries, mothers experienced poor mental health, increased levels of child-related stress and poorer family functioning which the qualitative data further illuminated. Their child's behaviour problems were a major factor in this. The impacts on mothers' well-being were not alleviated by access to professional supports or use of coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals need to adopt family-centred approaches that embrace the support needs of mothers. Similar strategies would apply across all cultures although they must be responsive to individual need.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/etnologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comparação Transcultural , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Irlanda , Jordânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
15.
J Cell Biochem ; 103(3): 931-40, 2008 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17615555

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme involved in energy homeostasis, might be a novel signaling pathway in regulating inflammatory response, but the precise intracellular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we have demonstrated that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophages and microglial cells at the gene transcription level. Data obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and promoter activity assay have further confirmed the ability of AICAR to block LPS-mediated NF-kappaB, AP-1, CREB, and C/EBPbeta activation. However, AICAR did not affect LPS-mediated IKK, ERK, and p38 activation. Regardless of the ability of AICAR to activate AMPK, the inhibitory effects of AICAR on iNOS and COX-2 expression were not associated with AMPK. An adenosine kinase inhibitor 5'-iodotubercidin, which effectively abolished AMPK activation caused by AICAR, did not reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of AICAR. Moreover, another AMPK activator metformin was not able to mimic the effects of AICAR. Direct addition of AICAR in EMSA assay interrupted binding of NF-kappaB, CREB, and C/EBPbeta to specific DNA elements. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effects of AICAR against LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 gene transcription are not associated with AMPK activation, but might be resulting from the direct interference with DNA binding to transcription factors.


Assuntos
Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Adenosina Quinase/metabolismo , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Camundongos , Microglia/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
16.
J Clin Nurs ; 16(12): 2349-56, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18036124

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions of families in Taiwan of living with a child who have learning disability and the parents perspectives on the cultural influences on their spiritual experiences. BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the family is the most important unit of society, family functioning is a key field of interest among helping professionals who provide family interventions. DESIGN: This study adopted qualitative research with semi-structured interviews. The study analysis used content analysis which was a process of identifying, coding and categorizing the themes in the data. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 117 parents in their homes and were interpreted by using content analysis to extract key conceptual themes from the transcribed interview texts. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the perceptions of families with learning disability children were wide-ranging. The stressors did not occur in a fixed order, they were different in degree and importance from one family to another. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the experience of analysing qualitative data was extremely valuable for parents in that it aided their own understanding of the real-life experiences of the parents and in coming to know the parents in a richer, more meaningful way. In doing so, nurses need to be aware of their own thoughts and environment without letting it influence others. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The nurse should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the family's culture and be able to show respect for cultural difference to assess and identify culturally acceptable health-care interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Confucionismo , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Saúde da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Pesar , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Pais/educação , Relações Profissional-Família , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
17.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 53(2): 67-72, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16602049

RESUMO

The focus group interview, an increasingly popular method in qualitative research, is used to obtain information that is highly accurate and relevant through a dynamic group interactive technique. Focus groups are used to gather ideas, opinions, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs based on participants experiences in a defined area of interest. Focus groups can be used during the preliminary or exploratory stage of a study; during the course of a study (e.g., to develop or evaluate a particular / interesting program of activities); or after a program has been completed (e.g., to assess impact or generate further avenues of research). Focus group interviews can be used either as a method in their own right or as a complement to other methods, especially to check triangulation and validity. While our study concluded that focus group interviews are an "easy and cost efficient" method to collect quality data, validity and relationship issues between focus group data and other data must be determined and considered in the results. This article introduces the background, definitions, focus group process, participants, interview guidelines, moderator responsibilities, and data collection and analysis related to the focus group methodology.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos
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