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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 558432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195192

RESUMO

Deficiency of tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) in humans and animals leads to growth retardation and premature death during postnatal developmental stages. Skin integrity is essential for organism survival due to its protection against dehydration and hypothermia. Our previous report demonstrated that human epidermal suprabasal cells express WWOX protein, and the expression is gradually increased toward the superficial differentiated cells prior to cornification. Here, we investigated whether abnormal skin development and homeostasis occur under Wwox deficiency that may correlate with early death. We determined that keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were decreased, while apoptosis was increased in Wwox -/- mouse epidermis and primary keratinocyte cultures and WWOX-knockdown human HaCaT cells. Without WWOX, progenitor cells in hair follicle junctional zone underwent massive proliferation in early postnatal developmental stages and the stem/progenitor cell pools were depleted at postnatal day 21. These events lead to significantly decreased epidermal thickness, dehydration state, and delayed hair development in Wwox -/- mouse skin, which is associated with downregulation of prosurvival MEK/ERK signaling in Wwox -/- keratinocytes. Moreover, Wwox depletion results in substantial downregulation of dermal collagen contents in mice. Notably, Wwox -/- mice exhibit severe loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue and significant hypothermia. Collectively, our knockout mouse model supports the validity of WWOX in assisting epidermal and adipose homeostasis, and the involvement of prosurvival ERK pathway in the homeostatic responses regulated by WWOX.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764489

RESUMO

Synthetic Zfra4-10 and WWOX7-21 peptides strongly suppress cancer growth in vivo. Hypothetically, Zfra4-10 binds to the membrane Hyal-2 of spleen Z cells and activates the Hyal-2/WWOX/SMAD4 signaling for cytotoxic Z cell activation to kill cancer cells. Stimulation of membrane WWOX in the signaling complex by a WWOX epitope peptide, WWOX7-21, is likely to activate the signaling. Here, mice receiving Zfra4-10 or WWOX7-21 peptide alone exhibited an increased binding of endogenous tumor suppressor WWOX with ERK, C1qBP, NF-κB, Iba1, p21, CD133, JNK1, COX2, Oct4, and GFAP in the spleen, brain, and/or lung which led to cancer suppression. However, when in combination, Zfra4-10 and WWOX7-21 reduced the binding of WWOX with target proteins and allowed tumor growth in vivo. In addition to Zfra4-10 and WWOX7-21 peptides, stimulating the membrane Hyal-2/WWOX complex with Hyal-2 antibody and sonicated hyaluronan (HAson) induced Z cell activation for killing cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, Zfra4-10 binds to membrane Hyal-2, induces dephosphorylation of WWOX at pY33 and pY61, and drives Z cell activation for the anticancer response. Thus, Zfra4-10 and WWOX7-21 peptides, HAson, and the Hyal-2 antibody are of therapeutic potential for cancer suppression.

3.
FASEB Bioadv ; 2(4): 234-253, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259050

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) governs the protein degradation process and balances proteostasis and cellular homeostasis. It is a well-controlled mechanism, in which removal of the damaged or excessive proteins is essential in driving signal pathways for cell survival or death. Accumulation of damaged proteins and failure in removal may contribute to disease initiation such as in cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. In this notion, specific protein-protein interaction is essential for the recognition of targeted proteins in UPS. WW domain plays an indispensable role in the protein-protein interactions during signaling. Among the 51 WW domain-containing proteins in the human proteomics, near one-quarter of them are involved in the UPS, suggesting that WW domains are crucial modules for driving the protein-protein binding and subsequent ubiquitination and degradation. In this review, we detail a broad spectrum of WW domains in protein-protein recognition, signal transduction, and relevance to diseases. New perspectives in dissecting the molecular interactions are provided.

4.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 6, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000863

RESUMO

Human WWOX gene resides in the chromosomal common fragile site FRA16D and encodes a tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase. Loss-of-function mutations in both alleles of WWOX gene lead to autosomal recessive abnormalities in pediatric patients from consanguineous families, including microcephaly, cerebellar ataxia with epilepsy, mental retardation, retinal degeneration, developmental delay and early death. Here, we report that targeted disruption of Wwox gene in mice causes neurodevelopmental disorders, encompassing abnormal neuronal differentiation and migration in the brain. Cerebral malformations, such as microcephaly and incomplete separation of the hemispheres by a partial interhemispheric fissure, neuronal disorganization and heterotopia, and defective cerebellar midline fusion are observed in Wwox-/- mice. Degenerative alterations including severe hypomyelination in the central nervous system, optic nerve atrophy, Purkinje cell loss and granular cell apoptosis in the cerebellum, and peripheral nerve demyelination due to Schwann cell apoptosis correspond to reduced amplitudes and a latency prolongation of transcranial motor evoked potentials, motor deficits and gait ataxia in Wwox-/- mice. Wwox gene ablation leads to the occurrence of spontaneous epilepsy and increased susceptibility to pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in preweaning mice. We determined that a significantly increased activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) occurs in Wwox-/- mouse cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Inhibition of GSK3ß by lithium ion significantly abolishes the onset of PTZ-induced seizure in Wwox-/- mice. Together, our findings reveal that the neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative deficits in Wwox knockout mice strikingly recapitulate the key features of human neuropathies, and that targeting GSK3ß with lithium ion ameliorates epilepsy.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752354

RESUMO

Membrane hyaluronidase Hyal-2 supports cancer cell growth. Inhibition of Hyal-2 by specific antibody against Hyal-2 or pY216-Hyal-2 leads to cancer growth suppression and prevention in vivo. By immunoelectron microscopy, tumor suppressor WWOX is shown to be anchored, in part, in the cell membrane by Hyal-2. Alternatively, WWOX undergoes self-polymerization and localizes in the cell membrane. Proapoptotic pY33-WWOX binds Hyal-2, and TGF-ß induces internalization of the pY33-WWOX/Hyal-2 complex to the nucleus for causing cell death. In contrast, when pY33 is downregulated and pS14 upregulated in WWOX, pS14-WWOX supports cancer growth in vivo. Here, we investigated whether membrane WWOX receives extracellular signals via surface-exposed epitopes, especially at the S14 area, that signals for cancer growth suppression and prevention. By using a simulated 3-dimentional structure and generated specific antibodies, WWOX epitopes were determined at amino acid #7 to 21 and #286 to 299. Synthetic WWOX7-21 peptide, or truncation to 5-amino acid WWOX7-11, significantly suppressed and prevented the growth and metastasis of melanoma and skin cancer cells in mice. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that WWOX7-21 peptide potently enhanced the explosion and death of 4T1 breast cancer stem cell spheres by ceritinib. This is due to rapid upregulation of proapoptotic pY33-WWOX, downregulation of prosurvival pERK, prompt increases in Ca2+ influx, and disruption of the IkBα/WWOX/ERK prosurvival signaling. In contrast, pS14-WWOX7-21 peptide dramatically increased cancer growth in vivo and protected cancer cells from ceritinib-mediated apoptosis in vitro, due to a prolonged ERK phosphorylation. Further, specific antibody against pS14-WWOX significantly enhanced the ceritinib-induced apoptosis. Together, the N-terminal epitopes WWOX7-21 and WWOX7-11 are potent in blocking cancer growth in vivo. WWOX7-21 and WWOX7-11 peptides and pS14-WWOX antibody are of therapeutic values in suppressing and preventing cancer growth in vivo.

7.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 76, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor suppressor WWOX physically binds p53 and TIAF1 and together induces apoptosis and tumor suppression. To understand the molecular action, here we investigated the formation of WWOX/TIAF1/p53 triad and its regulation of cancer cell migration, anchorage-independent growth, SMAD promoter activation, apoptosis, and potential role in neurodegeneration. METHODS: Time-lapse microscopy was used to measure the extent of cell migration. Protein/protein interactions were determined by co-immunoprecipitation, FRET microscopy, and yeast two-hybrid analysis. The WWOX/TIAF1/p53 triad-mediated cancer suppression was determined by measuring the extent of cell migration, anchorage-independent growth, SMAD promoter activation, and apoptosis. p53-deficient lung cancer cell growth in nude mice was carried out to assess the tumor suppressor function of ectopic p53 and/or WWOX. RESULTS: Wwox-deficient MEF cells exhibited constitutive Smad3 and p38 activation and migrated individually and much faster than wild type cells. TGF-ß increased the migration of wild type MEF cells, but significantly suppressed Wwox knockout cell migration. While each of the triad proteins is responsive to TGF-ß stimulation, ectopically expressed triad proteins suppressed cancer cell migration, anchorage-independent growth, and SMAD promoter activation, as well as caused apoptosis. The effects are due in part to TIAF1 polymerization and its retention of p53 and WWOX in the cytoplasm. p53 and TIAF1 were effective in suppressing anchorage-independent growth, and WWOX ineffective. p53 and TIAF1 blocked WWOX or Smad4-regulated SMAD promoter activation. WWOX suppressed lung cancer NCI-H1299 growth and inhibited splenomegaly by inflammatory immune response, and p53 blocked the event in nude mice. The p53/WWOX-cancer mice exhibited BACE upregulation, APP degradation, tau tangle formation, and amyloid ß generation in the brain and lung. CONCLUSION: The WWOX/TIAF1/p53 triad is potent in cancer suppression by blocking cancer cell migration, anchorage-independent growth and SMAD promoter activation, and causing apoptosis. Yet, p53 may functionally antagonize with WWOX. p53 blocks WWOX inhibition of inflammatory immune response induced by cancer, and this leads to protein aggregation in the brain as seen in the Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/deficiência
8.
Cell Death Discov ; 5: 97, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123603

RESUMO

Proapoptotic tumor suppressor WWOX is upregulated in the early stage of cancer initiation, which probably provides limitation to cancer growth and progression. Later, WWOX protein is reduced to enhance cancer cell growth, migration, invasiveness and metastasis. To understand how WWOX works in controlling cancer progression, here we demonstrate that apoptotic stress mediated by ectopic WWOX stimulated cancer cells to secrete basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in order to support capillary microtubule formation. This event may occur in the cancer initiation stage. Later, when WWOX loss occurs in cancer cells, hyaluronidase production is then increased in the cancer cells to facilitate metastasis. We determined that inhibition of membrane hyaluronidase Tyr216-phosphorylated Hyal-2 by antibody suppresses cancer growth in vivo. WWOX-negative (WWOX-) cells dodged WWOX+cells in the microenvironment by migrating individually backward to avoid physical contacts and yet significantly upregulating the redox activity of WWOX+parental cells or other WWOX+cell types for causing apoptosis. Upon detecting the presence of WWOX+cells from a distance, WWOX- cells exhibit activation of MIF, Hyal-2, Eph, and Wnt pathways, which converges to MEK/ERK signaling and enables WWOX- cells to evade WWOX+cells. Inhibition of each pathway by antibody or specific chemicals enables WWOX- cells to merge with WWOX+cells. In addition, exogenous TGF-ß assists WWOX- cells to migrate collectively forward and merge with WWOX+cells. Metastatic WWOX- cancer cells frequently secrete high levels of TGF-ß, which conceivably assists them to merge with WWOX+cells in target organs and secure a new home base in the WWOX+microenvironment. Together, loss of WWOX allows cancer cells to develop strategies to dodge, compromise and even kill WWOX-positive cells in microenvironment.

9.
Front Oncol ; 9: 60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805310

RESUMO

The Hippo pathway is a conserved signaling pathway originally defined in Drosophila melanogaster two decades ago. Deregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to significant overgrowth in phenotypes and ultimately initiation of tumorigenesis in various tissues. The major WW domain proteins in the Hippo pathway are YAP and TAZ, which regulate embryonic development, organ growth, tissue regeneration, stem cell pluripotency, and tumorigenesis. Recent reports reveal the novel roles of YAP/TAZ in establishing the precise balance of stem cell niches, promoting the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and provoking signals for regeneration and cancer initiation. Activation of YAP/TAZ, for example, results in the expansion of progenitor cells, which promotes regeneration after tissue damage. YAP is highly expressed in self-renewing pluripotent stem cells. Overexpression of YAP halts stem cell differentiation and yet maintains the inherent stem cell properties. A success in reprograming iPSCs by the transfection of cells with Oct3/4, Sox2, and Yap expression constructs has recently been shown. In this review, we update the current knowledge and the latest progress in the WW domain proteins of the Hippo pathway in relevance to stem cell biology, and provide a thorough understanding in the tissue homeostasis and identification of potential targets to block tumor development. We also provide the regulatory role of tumor suppressor WWOX in the upstream of TGF-ß, Hyal-2, and Wnt signaling that cross talks with the Hippo pathway.

10.
J Biomed Opt ; 23(11): 1-8, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444085

RESUMO

Conventional temporal focusing-based multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) can offer widefield optical sectioning with an axial excitation confinement of a few microns. To improve the axial confinement of TFMPEM, a binary computer-generated Fourier hologram (CGFH) via a digital-micromirror-device (DMD) was implemented to intrinsically improve the axial confinement by filling the back-focal aperture of the objective lens. Experimental results show that the excitation focal volume can be condensed and the axial confinement improved about 24% according to the DMD holography. In addition, pseudouniform MPE can be achieved using two complementary CGFHs with rapid pulse-width modulation switching via the DMD. Furthermore, bioimaging of CV-1 in origin with SV40 genes-7 cells demonstrates that the TFMPEM with binary DMD holography can improve image quality by enhancing axial excitation confinement and rejecting out-of-focus excitation.


Assuntos
Holografia/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Desenho de Equipamento , Holografia/instrumentação , Lasers , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/instrumentação
11.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 563, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158849

RESUMO

Homozygous null mutation of tumor suppressor WWOX/Wwox gene leads to severe neural diseases, metabolic disorders and early death in the newborns of humans, mice and rats. WWOX is frequently downregulated in the hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro analysis revealed that knockdown of WWOX protein in neuroblastoma cells results in aggregation of TRAPPC6AΔ, TIAF1, amyloid ß, and Tau in a sequential manner. Indeed, TRAPPC6AΔ and TIAF1, but not tau and amyloid ß, aggregates are present in the brains of healthy mid-aged individuals. It is reasonable to assume that very slow activation of a protein aggregation cascade starts sequentially with TRAPPC6AΔ and TIAF1 aggregation at mid-ages, then caspase activation and APP de-phosphorylation and degradation, and final accumulation of amyloid ß and Tau aggregates in the brains at greater than 70 years old. WWOX binds Tau-hyperphosphorylating enzymes (e.g., GSK-3ß) and blocks their functions, thereby supporting neuronal survival and differentiation. As a neuronal protective hormone, 17ß-estradiol (E2) binds WWOX at an NSYK motif in the C-terminal SDR (short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase) domain. In this review, we discuss how WWOX and E2 block protein aggregation during neurodegeneration, and how a 31-amino-acid zinc finger-like Zfra peptide restores memory loss in mice.

12.
J Biomed Opt ; 23(9): 1-7, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858548

RESUMO

Using multiphoton microscopy (MPM), we demonstrated that effective inducing of two-photon excited luminescence and second-harmonic generation signals in nano/microparticles of clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) by femtosecond near-infrared laser excitation can be successfully utilized in multiphoton imaging of the drug adsorption processes. Adsorption of photodynamic active dyes (hypericin, chlorin e6, methylene blue, and fluorescein) and their release from CZ pores in the presence of biomolecules, such as collagen from bovine Achilles tendon, albumin, and hemoglobin, were investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectrometry. To quantify the experimental results on hypericin release, here we use a kinetic curves fitting approach and calculate hypericin release rates in different environments. This approach allows to compare various mathematical models and uses more parameters to better characterize drug release profiles. In addition, magnetic CZ particles were fabricated and proposed as a promising material for drug delivery and controlled release in biological systems. Optical spectrometry and MPM are effective approaches that may reveal potential of natural zeolites in controlled drug delivery and biomedical imaging.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Zeolitas/química , Zeolitas/farmacocinética , Tendão do Calcâneo/química , Adsorção , Animais , Bovinos , Colágeno/química , Corantes/análise , Corantes/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/análise , Perileno/farmacocinética
13.
Cell Death Discov ; 4: 45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581896

RESUMO

A feasible design is made to measure three protein/protein interactions to visualize signal pathways by time-lapse Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. When interacting proteins are in close proximity, excitation energy is provided to allow the energy flow from the first molecule to excite the second, followed by energy transfer to the third. By phorbol ester/calcium ionophore stimulation, for example, a real-time complex formation of ectopic IκBα/ERK/WWOX occurs as measured by FRET microscopy, indicative of an ongoing functional signaling. Hyaluronan induces membrane Hyal-2 signaling, which allows FRET measurement of the complex formation of ectopic Smad4/WWOX/Hyal-2 for causing bubbling cell death. If ectopic p53 is recruited to replace Hyal-2, the resulting ectopic Smad4/WWOX/p53 complex induces membrane blebbing without cell death. Together, in this perspective review article, we demonstrate the utilization of time-lapse FRET microscopy to visualize the signaling event via the tri-molecular protein complex formation and their biological outcomes. We show an initial two-protein binding to form the driving force to jumpstart the tri-molecular execution for the signal pathway.

14.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 243(2): 137-147, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310447

RESUMO

Abnormal differentiation and growth of hematopoietic stem cells cause the development of hematopoietic diseases and hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular events underlying leukemia development are not well understood. In our recent study, we have demonstrated that calcium ionophore and phorbol ester force the differentiation of T lymphoblastic leukemia. The event involves a newly identified IκBα/WWOX/ERK signaling, in which WWOX is Ser14 phosphorylated. Additional evidence also reveals that pS14-WWOX is involved in enhancing cancer progression and metastasis and facilitating neurodegeneration. In this mini-review, we update the current knowledge for the functional roles of WWOX under physiological and pathological settings, and provide new insights regarding pS14-WWOX in T leukemia cell maturation, and switching the anticancer pY33-WWOX to pS14-WWOX for cancer promotion and disease progression. Impact statement WWOX was originally designated as a tumor suppressor. However, human newborns deficient in WWOX do not spontaneously develop tumors. Activated WWOX with Tyr33 phosphorylation is present in normal tissues and organs. However, when pY33-WWOX is overly induced under stress conditions, it becomes apoptotic to eliminate damaged cells. Notably, WWOX with Ser14 phosphorylation is upregulated in the lesions of cancer, as well as in the brain hippocampus and cortex with Alzheimer's disease. Suppression of pS14-WWOX by Zfra reduces cancer growth and mitigates Alzheimer's disease progression, suggesting that pS14-WWOX facilitates disease progression. pS14-WWOX can be regarded as a marker of disease progression.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/patologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Fosforilação
15.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 3(2): 189-204, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zinc finger-like protein that regulates apoptosis (Zfra) is a naturally occurring 31-amino-acid protein. Synthetic peptides Zfra1-31 and Zfra4-10 are known to effectively block the growth of many types of cancer cells. METHODS: Ten-month-old triple-transgenic (3×Tg) mice for Alzheimer's disease (AD) received synthetic Zfra peptides via tail vein injections, followed by examining restoration of memory deficits. RESULTS: Zfra significantly downregulated TRAPPC6AΔ, SH3GLB2, tau, and amyloid ß (Αß) aggregates in the brains of 3×Tg mice and effectively restored their memory capabilities. Zfra inhibited melanoma-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus and plaque formation in the cortex. Mechanistically, Zfra blocked the aggregation of amyloid ß 42 and many serine-containing peptides in vitro, suppressed tumor necrosis factor-mediated NF-κB activation, and bound cytosolic proteins for accelerating their degradation in ubiquitin/proteasome-independent manner. DISCUSSION: Zfra peptides exhibit a strong efficacy in blocking tau aggregation and amyloid Αß formation and restore memory deficits in 3×Tg mice, suggesting its potential for treatment of AD.

16.
Oncotarget ; 8(12): 19137-19155, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845895

RESUMO

Malignant cancer cells frequently secrete significant amounts of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), hyaluronan (HA) and hyaluronidases to facilitate metastasizing to target organs. In a non-canonical signaling, TGF-ß binds membrane hyaluronidase Hyal-2 for recruiting tumor suppressors WWOX and Smad4, and the resulting Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 complex is accumulated in the nucleus to enhance SMAD-promoter dependent transcriptional activity. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that WWOX acts as a bridge to bind both Hyal-2 and Smad4. When WWOX-expressing cells were stimulated with high molecular weight HA, an increased formation of endogenous Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 complex occurred rapidly, followed by relocating to the nuclei in 20-40 min. In WWOX-deficient cells, HA failed to induce Smad2/3/4 relocation to the nucleus. To prove the signaling event, we designed a real time tri-molecular FRET analysis and revealed that HA induces the signaling pathway from ectopic Smad4 to WWOX and finally to p53, as well as from Smad4 to Hyal-2 and then to WWOX. An increased binding of the Smad4/Hyal-2/WWOX complex occurs with time in the nucleus that leads to bubbling cell death. In contrast, HA increases the binding of Smad4/WWOX/p53, which causes membrane blebbing but without cell death. In traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal death, the Hyal-2/WWOX complex was accumulated in the apoptotic nuclei of neurons in the rat brains in 24 hr post injury, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. Together, HA activates the Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 signaling and causes bubbling cell death when the signaling complex is overexpressed.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/fisiologia , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ratos , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW
17.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 4: 141, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27999774

RESUMO

Hyaluronidase HYAL-2 is a membrane-anchored protein and also localizes, in part, in the lysosome. Recent study from animal models revealed that both HYAL-1 and HYAL-2 are essential for the metabolism of hyaluronan (HA). Hyal-2 deficiency is associated with chronic thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolytic anemia in mice due to over accumulation of high molecular size HA. HYAL-2 is essential for platelet generation. Membrane HYAL-2 degrades HA bound by co-receptor CD44. Also, in a non-canonical signal pathway, HYAL-2 serves as a receptor for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) to signal with downstream tumor suppressors WWOX and SMAD4 to control gene transcription. When SMAD4 responsive element is overly driven by the HYAL-2-WWOX-SMAD4 signaling complex, cell death occurs. When rats are subjected to traumatic brain injury, over accumulation of a HYAL-2-WWOX complex occurs in the nucleus to cause neuronal death. HA induces the signaling of HYAL-2-WWOX-SMAD4 and relocation of the signaling complex to the nucleus. If the signaling complex is overexpressed, bubbling cell death occurs in WWOX-expressing cells. In addition, a small synthetic peptide Zfra (zinc finger-like protein that regulates apoptosis) binds membrane HYAL-2 of non-T/non-B spleen HYAL-2+ CD3- CD19- Z lymphocytes and activates the cells to generate memory anticancer response against many types of cancer cells in vivo. Whether the HYAL-2-WWOX-SMAD4 signaling complex is involved is discussed. In this review and opinion article, we have updated the current knowledge of HA, HYAL-2 and WWOX, HYAL-2-WWOX-SMAD4 signaling, bubbling cell death, and Z cell activation for memory anticancer response.

18.
Oncoimmunology ; 5(9): e1213935, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27757310

RESUMO

When naive mice receive short Zfra peptides via tail vein injections, they develop lifetime resistance to growth of many cancer xenografts, due to activation of a novel spleen memory Hyal-2+ CD3- CD19- Z lymphocyte. In vitro education of spleen cells with Zfra activates Z cell for conferring memory anticancer response in vivo.

19.
J Biol Chem ; 291(33): 17319-31, 2016 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27339895

RESUMO

Whether tumor suppressor WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) stimulates immune cell maturation is largely unknown. Here, we determined that Tyr-33-phosphorylated WWOX physically binds non-phosphorylated ERK and IκBα in immature acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 T cells and in the naïve mouse spleen. The IκBα·ERK·WWOX complex was shown to localize, in part, in the mitochondria. WWOX prevents IκBα from proteasomal degradation. Upon stimulating MOLT-4 with ionophore A23187/phorbol myristate acetate, endogenous IκBα and ERK undergo rapid phosphorylation in <5 min, and subsequently WWOX is Tyr-33 and Tyr-287 de-phosphorylated and Ser-14 phosphorylated. Three hours later, IκBα starts to degrade, and ERK returns to basal or non-phosphorylation, and this lasts for the next 12 h. Finally, expression of CD3 and CD8 occurs in MOLT-4 along with reappearance of the IκBα·ERK·WWOX complex near 24 h. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by U0126 or IκBα degradation by MG132 prevents MOLT-4 maturation. By time-lapse FRET microscopy, IκBα·ERK·WWOX complex exhibits an increased binding strength by 1-2-fold after exposure to ionophore A23187/phorbol myristate acetate for 15-24 h. Meanwhile, a portion of ERK and WWOX relocates to the nucleus, suggesting their role in the induction of CD3 and CD8 expression in MOLT-4.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Animais , Calcimicina/farmacologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/patologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Células U937 , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW
20.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 241(12): 1306-15, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075929

RESUMO

Cell death emanating from the nucleus is largely unknown. In our recent study, we determined that when temperature is lowered in the surrounding environment, apoptosis stops and bubbling cell death (BCD) occurs. The study concerns the severity of frostbite. When exposed to severe cold and strong ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, people may suffer serious damages to the skin and internal organs. This ultimately leads to limb amputations, organ failure, and death. BCD is defined as "formation of a single bubble from the nucleus per cell and release of this swelling bubble from the cell surface to extracellular space that causes cell death." When cells are subjected to UV irradiation and/or brief cold shock (4℃ for 5 min) and then incubated at room temperature or 4℃ for time-lapse microscopy, each cell releases an enlarging nuclear gas bubble containing nitric oxide. Certain cells may simultaneously eject hundreds or thousands of exosome-like particles. Unlike apoptosis, no phosphatidylserine flip-over, mitochondrial apoptosis, damage to Golgi complex, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation are shown in BCD. When the temperature is increased back at 37℃, bubble formation stops and apoptosis restarts. Mechanistically, proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase and p53 block the protective TNF receptor adaptor factor 2 that allows nitric oxide synthase 2 to synthesize nitric oxide and bubble formation. In this mini-review, updated knowledge in cell death and the proposed molecular mechanism for BCD are provided.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Baixa , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Plantas , Raios Ultravioleta
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