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1.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(4): 72-80, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PROBLEM: The provision by nurses of effective swallowing assessments and eating safety guidance improves eating safety in the elderly. The authors of this study found that elderly clients experienced a high proportion of aspiration pneumonia after choking episodes and that the rate of implementation of eating safety guidance among these clients by nursing staff was only 64.6%. The problems identified included a lack of education and training related to eating safety for the elderly, inconsistent health education methods, oral health education only, lack of unified health education content, and lack of proper health education guidance aids. PURPOSE: To raise the rate of implementing eating safety guidance among the elderly from 64.6% to 90.0%. RESOLUTION: The project included promoting an eating safety guidance workflow for the elderly using cross-team collaboration, using human body models and food models, promoting oral healthcare and oral exercises, using multilingual instructional leaflets and videos on eating safety and hygiene education, promoting a treasure hunting activity to the elderly related to eating safely using a food texture selection chart, and implementing a workshop on simulated eating safety scenarios. RESULTS: After project implementation, the eating safety guidance implementation rate increased from 64.6% to 92.1%, demonstrating that the intervention measures achieved remarkable results. CONCLUSIONS: Formulating care procedures and cooperating across teams to draft concrete and feasible improvement measures effectively increased the rate of eating safety guidance implementation for elderly clients by nursing staff.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Pneumonia Aspirativa , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Exercício Físico , Humanos
2.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 389-394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262283

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the integrated care for older people (ICOPE) screening tool to identify functional impairment. We explore the association of geriatric functional impairment and hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: We enrolled individuals aged at least 65 with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia; or those aged at least 75 from May to July 2019. We applied ICOPE tools to evaluate six function assessments: cognitive decline, limited mobility, malnutrition, visual impairment, hearing loss, and depressive symptoms. Factors were analyzed using stepwise multivariable linear regression for ICOPE scores and logistic regression for geriatric functional impairment. All analyses were adjusted for age and glomerular filtration rate. Results: We enrolled 457 participants including 303 (66.3%) participants with hypertension, 296 (64.8%) diabetes, and 221 (48.4%) dyslipidemia. Seventy-eight (17.1%) participants have at least one geriatric functional impairment, including 41 (25.9%) participants aged ≥ 75 and 37 (12.4%) aged 65-74. The ICOPE score (0.4 ± 0.6) of participants aged at least 75 was higher than that (0.1 ± 0.4) of the participants aged 65-74 (p < 0.001). Dyslipidemia (p = 0.002) was positively associated with ICOPE score. Dyslipidemia (odds ratio: 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.70, p = 0.005), not hypertension (p = 0.3) and diabetes (p = 0.9), was associated with geriatric functional impairment. Visual impairment was the most common function impairment. Female was linked to limited mobility, renal function was associated with mobility (p < 0.001) and nutrition (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Dyslipidemia but not hypertension, diabetes is linked to geriatric functional impairment in community-dwelling elderly. Lower renal function is associated with decreased mobility and nutrition. More studies are needed to determine if treatment of dyslipidemia reduces geriatric functional impairment.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Vida Independente , Afeto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Dislipidemias/psicologia , Dislipidemias/terapia , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Fragilidade/psicologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Estado Funcional , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Audição , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Limitação da Mobilidade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Visão Ocular
3.
Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080493

RESUMO

Background: Breastfeeding benefits both mothers and infants. Even though Taiwan national policy promotes exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), the rates in Taiwan are below those in other developed countries. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with EBF cessation at 1 and 2 months postpartum. Methods: This study was conducted in a community hospital in southern Taiwan between December 2016 and June 2017. Birth mothers (n = 1077) were interviewed by telephone at 1 and 2 months postpartum to collect information on infant feeding patterns (EBF since birth or not) and reasons for EBF cessation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors associated with EBF cessation at 1 and 2 months. Results: At 1 month, 432 participants (40.1%) maintained EBF. Factors associated with cessation were lack of tertiary education, primiparity, perceived low milk quantity, mother/infant separation, medical condition in mother, inconvenience/fatigue due to breastfeeding, and baby-centered factors. At 2 months, 316 participants (29.3%) maintained EBF. Factors associated with cessation were lack of tertiary education, primiparity, perceived low milk quantity, and return to work. Conclusions: Education level, primiparity, perceived low milk quantity, and return to work are associated with premature cessation of EBF in Taiwan. Strategies about health education, family support, and baby-mother friendly environment can be used to achieve higher EBF rate.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Retorno ao Trabalho , Taiwan
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 108: 254-262, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223096

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a profound neurodegenerative disorder with gradual loss of dopamine nigrostriatal neurons linked to serious behavioral symptoms. While the current treatment strategies present limitations on halting the progression of PD, this study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of honokiol, as a partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) mimic, on the proceeding behavioral and biochemical alterations in hemiparkinsonian mice. Results showed that unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mice exhibited motor impairment, reflecting the contralateral rotation induced by apomorphine at 1-3 weeks post-lesion. Subchronic honokiol administration for 1-2 weeks, beginning 7 days after 6-OHDA-lesion, dose-dependently ameliorated motor dysfunction in hemiparkinsonian mice. Recovery of motor function was correlated with reversal of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss, accompanied by higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) density, dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) levels. Furthermore, honokiol attenuated oxidative stress and reactive astrocyte induction via decreasing NADPH-oxidase and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum. The reversal effects of honokiol on behavioral impairment and striatal PPARγ expression were impeded by PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Notably, subchronic honokiol treatment extended the lifespan of these hemiparkinsonian mice. The present findings demonstrate the therapeutic activities of honokiol in ameliorating motor impairment and progressive dopaminergic damage that could be associated with regulating PPARγ signaling. Therefore, honokiol may potentially exert as a novel therapeutic candidate through PPARγ activation for management of motor symptoms and progressive neurodegeneration in PD.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Neural/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Gliose/patologia , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Neostriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Neostriado/patologia , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Oxirredução , Oxidopamina , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
5.
Pharmacol Rep ; 70(4): 668-676, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and profound movement disorder resulting from neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, but current treatment neither cures nor stops PD from advancing. Based on the ability to suppress oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation, the potential of honokiol as a novel neuroprotective agent for PD treatment was determined. METHODS: The hemi-parkinsonian model was used to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of honokiol on motor dysfunctions and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice, with a single unilateral striatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). RESULTS: One day after 6-OHDA-induced lesion, the mice exhibited spontaneous ipsilateral turning, motor imbalance, and incoordination which were mild with a single administration of honokiol prior to 6-OHDA injection. Thereafter, honokiol was continually applied daily for 14 days, which ameliorated apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation and reduced the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) fibers in the lesioned striatum. In addition, honokiol posttreatment, beginning on day 8 after 6-OHDA lesion, for 14 days efficiently rescued motor deficits and recovered the TH-ir neuronal loss in both the lesioned striatum and the ipsilateral substantia nigra. The 6-OHDA-induced increases in nigrostriatal expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and decreases in that of nNOS were also reversed by honokiol posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that honokiol has both protective and therapeutic effects on motor impairments and dopaminergic progressive damage, at least in part through modulation of NOS signaling, in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Honokiol may represent a potential therapeutic candidate for the management of motor symptoms and neurodegeneration in PD.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lignanas/farmacologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apomorfina/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Microinjeções , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/administração & dosagem , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16336, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180627

RESUMO

The electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and specific heat of Ti50Ni50-x Fe x (x = 2.0-10.0 at.%) shape memory alloys (SMAs) were measured to investigate the influence of point defects (Fe) on the martensitic transformation characteristics. Our results show that the Ti50Ni48Fe2 and Ti50Ni47Fe3 SMAs have a two-step martensitic transformation (B2 → R and R → B19'), while the Ti50Ni46Fe4, Ti50Ni44.5Fe5.5, and Ti50Ni44Fe6 SMAs display a one-step martensitic transition (B2 → R). However, the compounds Ti50Ni42Fe8 and Ti50Ni40Fe10 show strain glass features (frozen strain-ordered state). Importantly, the induced point defects significantly alter the martensitic transformation characteristics, namely transition temperature and width of thermal hysteresis during the transition. This can be explained by the stabilization of austenite B2 phase upon Fe substitution, which ultimately leads to the decrease in enthalpy that associated to the martensitic transition. To determine the boundary composition that separates the R-phase and strain glass systems in this series of SMAs, a Ni-rich specimen Ti49Ni45Fe6 was fabricated. Remarkably, a slight change in Ti/Ni ratio converts Ti49Ni45Fe6 SMA into a strain glass system. Overall, the evolution of phase transformation in the Fe-substituted TiNi SMAs is presumably caused by the changes in local lattice structure via the induced local strain fields by Fe point defects.

7.
Leuk Res ; 62: 64-69, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987819

RESUMO

In a search for anticancer drugs by screening for inhibitors of telomerase, we have identified several small-molecule inhibitors that selectively inhibit telomerase in a cell-free system. Among these inhibitors, N-(1-pyrenyl) maleimide (NPM) induced apoptosis and displayed the greatest differential cytotoxicity against acute T cell leukemia-derived Jurkat cells cultured in vitro. In this work, the in vivo anti-leukemia activity of NPM was investigated using a bioluminescent mouse model. The luciferase-expressing Jurkat cells (Jurkat-Luc) were mixed with matrigel and injected subcutaneously into the nude mice. Drug treatment was commenced on day 7 after tumor implantation. The growth of xenografted tumors was significantly inhibited in the mice treated with NPM, which is comparable to the inhibitory effect of a classical anti-leukemia drug, cyclophosphamide. Combined treatment with NPM and cyclophosphamide further enhanced the growth inhibition of xenografted Jurkat-Luc cells. Immunohistochemistry staining with cleaved caspase 3 (cl-caspase 3) indicated a very heavy staining of cl-caspase 3 only in the tumor implants excised from the NPM-treated mice. We conclude that NPM induced apoptosis and inhibited the growth of xenografted Jurkat-Luc cells in nude mice, demonstrating that NPM displays anti-leukemia activity in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Leucemia de Células T , Maleimidas/farmacologia , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Medições Luminescentes , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
8.
Ethn Health ; 18(1): 1-17, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22417322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare intensiveness of use of child preventive health services (CPHS) between cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan and to explore factors associated with differences in intensiveness of CPHS use. DESIGN: Cross-cultural immigrant families were defined as families where the mother was an immigrant from another southeast Asian country. In native-born families, both parents were Taiwanese-born. Data were collected from 318 immigrant mothers and 340 native-born mothers of children aged 7 years or younger in a cross-sectional survey in central Taiwan. A social determinants framework of health inequities was constructed, and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of four domains of intermediary determinants on the relationship between family type and underuse of CPHS: CPHS-related factors, medical-related factors, maternal acculturation factors, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: Cross-cultural immigrant families were less likely to intensively use CPHS than native-born families. This difference appeared to be mediated by the greater likelihood of having an older child or a lower educated father in cross-cultural families. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study highlight the importance of promoting health behaviors and combating health inequities and social inequalities for cross-cultural immigrant families in Taiwan from a sociodemographic/socioeconomic and political context.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aculturação , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Barreiras de Comunicação , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan , Transportes/métodos
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