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1.
Clin J Pain ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbance is prevalent among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence regarding the: (1) temporal relations between changes in sleep quality/quantity and the corresponding changes in pain and/or disability; and (2) role of baseline sleep quality/quantity in predicting future pain and/or disability in patients with CLBP. METHODS: Four databases were searched from their inception to February 2021. Two reviewers independently screened the abstract and full text, extracted data, assessed the methodological quality of the included studies, and evaluated the quality of evidence of the findings using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Of 1,995 identified references, six articles involving 1,641 participants with CLBP were included. Moderate-quality evidence substantiated that improvements in self-reported sleep quality and total sleep time were significantly correlated with the corresponding LBP reduction. Low-quality evidence showed that self-reported improvements in sleep quality were related to the corresponding improvements in CLBP-related disability. There was conflicting evidence regarding the relation between baseline sleep quality/quantity and future pain/disability in patients with CLBP. DISCUSSION: This is the first systematic review to accentuate that improved self-reported sleep quality/quantity may be associated with improved pain/disability, although it remains unclear whether baseline sleep quality/quantity is a prognostic factor for CLBP. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms underlying the relation between sleep and CLBP, which may inform the necessity of assessing or treating sleep disturbance in people with CLBP.

2.
Elife ; 102021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787078

RESUMO

Hypersomnolence disorder (HD) is characterized by excessive sleep, which is a common sequela following stroke, infection, or tumorigenesis. HD is traditionally thought to be associated with lesions of wake-promoting nuclei. However, lesions of a single wake-promoting nucleus, or even two simultaneously, did not exert serious HD. Therefore, the specific nucleus and neural circuitry for HD remain unknown. Here, we observed that the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) exhibited higher c-fos expression during the active period (23:00) than during the inactive period (11:00) in mice. Therefore, we speculated that the PVH, in which most neurons are glutamatergic, may represent one of the key arousal-controlling centers. By using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vglut2Cre) mice together with fiber photometry, multichannel electrophysiological recordings, and genetic approaches, we found that PVHvglut2 neurons were most active during wakefulness. Chemogenetic activation of PVHvglut2 neurons induced wakefulness for 9 hr, and photostimulation of PVHvglut2→parabrachial complex/ventral lateral septum circuits immediately drove transitions from sleep to wakefulness. Moreover, lesioning or chemogenetic inhibition of PVHvglut2 neurons dramatically decreased wakefulness. These results indicate that the PVH is critical for arousal promotion and maintenance.

3.
Phys Ther Sport ; 52: 256-262, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To culturally adapt the VISA-A into a simplified Chinese version (VISA-A-CHN) and test its measurement properties. DESIGN: Methodological study; SETTING: Hospital and university laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 240 subjects were divided into the healthy (n = 80), at-risk (n = 80), and tendinopathy groups (n = 80). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and the floor and ceiling effect of the VISA-A-CHN. RESULTS: The VISA-A-CHN showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.81), excellent test-retest reliability (ICC3A,1 = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95 to 0.98), standard error of measurement of 2.2 points, minimum detectable change of 6.0 points, with no floor and ceiling effects. Two factors (pain/symptoms and physical function/activity) were extracted in exploratory factor analysis. There were moderate associations of VISA-A-CHN score with scores of Lower Extremity Functional Scale and SF-36 physical components (rs = 0.53-0.74, P < 0.01) but low associations with SF-36 mental components (rs = 0.12-0.22, P > 0.05). VISA-A-CHN mean score of Achilles tendinopathy group was significantly lower than those of healthy and at-risk groups (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The VISA-A-CHN is equivalent to the original version in terms of language and measurement properties. It can be used as the outcome measure for Chinese patients with Achilles tendinopathy.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Tendinopatia , China , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Idioma , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nature ; 600(7887): 59-63, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666339

RESUMO

Mare volcanics on the Moon are the key record of thermo-chemical evolution throughout most of lunar history1-3. Young mare basalts-mainly distributed in a region rich in potassium, rare-earth elements and phosphorus (KREEP) in Oceanus Procellarum, called the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT)4-were thought to be formed from KREEP-rich sources at depth5-7. However, this hypothesis has not been tested with young basalts from the PKT. Here we present a petrological and geochemical study of the basalt clasts from the PKT returned by the Chang'e-5 mission8. These two-billion-year-old basalts are the youngest lunar samples reported so far9. Bulk rock compositions have moderate titanium and high iron contents  with KREEP-like rare-earth-element and high thorium concentrations. However, strontium-neodymium isotopes indicate that these basalts were derived from a non-KREEP mantle source. To produce the high abundances of rare-earth elements and thorium, low-degree partial melting and extensive fractional crystallization are required. Our results indicate that the KREEP association may not be a prerequisite for young mare volcanism. Absolving the need to invoke heat-producing elements in their source implies a more sustained cooling history of the lunar interior to generate the Moon's youngest melts.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore susceptibility loci associated with uveitis in Behcet's disease (BD). METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) primarily involving 978 BD uveitis cases and 4388 controls and a replication study of 953 BD uveitis cases and 2129 controls in the Chinese population. Luciferase reporter analysis and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were performed to explore the functional role of susceptibility genetic variants nearby ZMIZ1. RESULTS: Three independent HLA alleles (HLA-B51, HLA-A26 and HLA-C0704) were identified in a genome-wide association with BD uveitis. In the non-HLA region, besides confirming 7 previously reported loci, we identified 22 novel susceptibility variants located in 16 loci. Meta-analysis of the Chinese cohort involving 1931 cases and 6517 controls and a published Japanese cohort of 611 cases and 737 controls showed genome-wide significant associations with ZMIZ1, RPS6KA4, IL10RA, SIPA1-FIBP-FOSL1 and VAMP1. Functional experiments demonstrated that genetic variants of ZMIZ1 were associated with an enhanced transcriptional activity and an increased expression of ZMIZ1. CONCLUSIONS: This GWAS study identified a novel set of genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to uveitis in BD. These findings enriched our understanding of the contribution of genetic factors to the disease.

6.
J Sleep Res ; : e13484, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510626

RESUMO

Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders, which imparts tremendous societal and economic impact. However, the present pharmacotherapy is greatly limited by adverse effects, so it is necessary to explore new drugs for the treatment of insomnia. Radix Bupleuri (RB) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for >2000 years; it has many pharmacological effects, including sedation and anticonvulsant properties. The present study investigated the effects of saikosaponin a (SSa), an active component of RB, on sleep and locomotion. Male C57BL/6j mice received intraperitoneal injections of SSa at three different dosages (0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg). Sleep parameters were analysed by electroencephalography and electromyography. The open-field test was used to measure locomotor activities. Our present results showed that SSa treatment significantly increased the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep and shortened sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner. A high dose of SSa (2.5 mg/kg) also decreased locomotor activities. Moreover, by measuring c-Fos expression and the calcium signal in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), we found that SSa treatment decreased neuronal activity in the LH. In conclusion, SSa might be the sleep-promoting component in RB and its mechanism may be related to the modulation of neuronal activity in the LH.

7.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(22): 2971-2980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532982

RESUMO

A thymoma is a type of thymic tumor which is rarely malignant that is frequently reported in adult patients. A number of thymoma-related immune disorders are observed including autoimmune diseases, which suggests a strong connection between thymoma development and immunological mechanisms. Characterized by association with humoral and cellular immunodeficiency, thymoma patients are susceptible to opportunistic infections by environmental factors. Recent reports have suggested that viral infection may play a role in the etiological mechanisms of thymoma development associated with dysregulated immunity. In this review, we summarize the case reports and studies related to viral infection, such as CMV, EBV and HSV, that probably play a part in the pathogenesis of thymoma and related diseases. Furthermore, we demonstrate the underlying mechanisms by which viruses may induce the occurrence of thymoma with autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the potential application of antiviral therapy in the treatment of thymic diseases.

8.
J Pain Res ; 14: 2641-2649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471380

RESUMO

Purpose: Poor sleep quality and pain were common and had been proved as an important influenced factor of quality of life for patients with COPD. The association of sleep quality with pain has been observed in other population but remains unclear in mild patients with COPD from a community setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to include eligible mild patients with COPD in Pudong New District of Shanghai. A structured questionnaire was used to collect general and clinical information for the patients. The Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the short form of McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) was used to assess sleep quality and intensity of pain. Logistic regression was performed to test the association between sleeping quality and pain intensity. Results: Two hundred and sixty-four patients with COPD, with an average age of 64 years (SD 5.78 years), were enrolled, and of 52% were women. Seventy-one (26.9%) participants reported at least one exacerbation during the past year. About 28.2% of the patients were classified as having poor sleep quality. Sleep quality was significantly associated with PRI score (adjusted odds ratio (ORad)=2.16, 95% CI: 1.16-4.00) and PPI rank (ORad=1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.34). People with daytime disturbance were more likely to have pain (ORad =2.03, 95% CI: 1.18-3.50). Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was common in mild patients with COPD in community and was associated with higher pain intensity. Pain may involve an impairment of sleep quality.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(32): 12467-12472, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355892

RESUMO

The asymmetric construction of allylic C-O bonds with primary or secondary aliphatic alcohols remains a substantial challenge in Pd-catalyzed allylation chemistry. Here, we report the development of an additive-free, palladium-catalyzed asymmetric aminomethylative etherification of conjugated dienes that enables the efficient, asymmetric O-allylation of primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols as well as water. Mechanism studies revealed that the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the alcohol and the in situ introduced aminomethyl moiety is critical to facilitate the nucleophilic addition of the alcohol to the π-allylpalladium species, which opened up the possibility of using aliphatic alcohols and water as nucleophilic substrates. This reaction tolerates a broad range of functional groups and shows remarkable regioselectivities and uniformly high enantioselectivities, which provides a direct and rapid approach to optically pure allylic 1,3-amino ethers and 1,3-amino alcohols from simple starting materials.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(29): 11251-11261, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269582

RESUMO

Radical hydroalkylation of olefins enabled by hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) catalysis represents a straightforward means to access C(sp3)-rich molecules from abundant feedstock chemicals without the need for prefunctionalization. While Giese-type hydroalkylation of activated olefins initiated by HAT of hydridic carbon-hydrogen bonds is well-precedented, hydroalkylation of unactivated olefins in a similar fashion remains elusive, primarily owing to a lack of general methods to overcome the inherent polarity-mismatch in this scenario. Here, we report the use of visible-light-driven dual HAT catalysis to achieve this goal, where catalytic amounts of an amine-borane and an in situ generated thiol were utilized as the hydrogen atom abstractor and donor, respectively. The reaction is completely atom-economical and exhibits a broad scope. Experimental and computational studies support the proposed mechanism and suggest that hydrogen-bonding between the amine-borane and substrates is beneficial to improving the reaction efficiency.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 684522, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222252

RESUMO

Fuchs' uveitis syndrome (FUS) is one of the most under- or misdiagnosed uveitis entities. Many undiagnosed FUS patients are unnecessarily overtreated with anti-inflammatory drugs, which may lead to serious complications. To offer assistance for ophthalmologists in the screening and diagnosis of FUS, we developed seven deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) to detect FUS using slit-lamp images. We also proposed a new optimized model with a mixed "attention" module to improve test accuracy. In the same independent set, we compared the performance between these DCNNs and ophthalmologists in detecting FUS. Seven different network models, including Xception, Resnet50, SE-Resnet50, ResNext50, SE-ResNext50, ST-ResNext50, and SET-ResNext50, were used to predict FUS automatically with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) that ranged from 0.951 to 0.977. Our proposed SET-ResNext50 model (accuracy = 0.930; Precision = 0.918; Recall = 0.923; F1 measure = 0.920) with an AUC of 0.977 consistently outperformed the other networks and outperformed general ophthalmologists by a large margin. Heat-map visualizations of the SET-ResNext50 were provided to identify the target areas in the slit-lamp images. In conclusion, we confirmed that a trained classification method based on DCNNs achieved high effectiveness in distinguishing FUS from other forms of anterior uveitis. The performance of the DCNNs was better than that of general ophthalmologists and could be of value in the diagnosis of FUS.

12.
Mar Genomics ; 58: 100846, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217483

RESUMO

Bacteria of the genus Shewanella have been studied for their versatile electron-accepting abilities, particularly for extracellular electron transfer via minerals. Shewanella marisflavi ECSMB14101 was isolated from naturally formed biofilms in the East China Sea. The genome of S. marisflavi ECSMB14101 encodes 3891 genes with a total size of 4,343,492 bp in one chromosome. Its GC content is 49.89%. S. marisflavi ECSMB14101 is able to synthesize a red pigment, which may be achieved through Cytochrome c3 and electron transfer to reduce Fe(III) oxide. The genomic data presented here could provide fundamental insights to better understand the physiological characteristics of S. marisflavi, the ecological significance of red pigment synthesis, and its inductive effects on the settlement of marine invertebrate larvae.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Shewanella/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Composição de Bases , Oceano Pacífico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25360, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832116

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer, and most patients in China are diagnosed at the intermediate or later stages, which is not suitable for the first line therapies. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a commonly selected therapeutic option for intermediate and later stage HCC in China, but patients often suffer from postembolization syndrome (PES), manifesting as fever, liver area pain, nausea, vomiting, paralyzed intestinal obstruction, and abdominal pain after TACE. We try to conduct a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to observe whether Chaihu Guizhi decoction (CGD), a classic traditional Chinese formula, could prophylactically alleviate the incidence of PES in HCC patients after TACE. METHODS: Patients will be randomly assigned sequentially in a 1:1 ratio by using preformed randomization envelopes. After TACE procedures, patients in the treatment group will be administrated with Chinese herbal formula CGD, and patients in the control group with CGD simulations, twice a day, continuously for 7 days. The outcomes are the incidence of PES hospitalization and, complications. SPSS version 22 (IBM, Chicago, IL) will be used for the data, and a P < .05 will be considered statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The findings will explore the prophylactic effect of CGD in alleviating the incidence of PES following TACE in HCC patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: OSF Registration number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/FKRSN.


Assuntos
Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Febre/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/etiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Síndrome , Vômito/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 629306, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842459

RESUMO

Whether ambient temperature influences immune responses leading to uveitis is unknown. We thus tested whether ambient temperature affects the symptoms of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice and investigated possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were kept at a normal (22°C) or high temperature (30°C) housing conditions for 2 weeks and were then immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP651-670) peptide to induce EAU. Histological changes were monitored to evaluate the severity of uveitis. Frequency of Th1 cells and Th17 cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA was measured by real-time qPCR. The generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Differential metabolites in the plasma of the mice kept in the aforementioned two ambient temperatures were measured via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ/MS). The differential metabolites identified were used to evaluate their effects on differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells and generation of NETs in vitro. The results showed that EAU mice kept at high temperature experienced a more severe histopathological manifestation of uveitis than mice kept at a normal temperature. A significantly increased frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells in association with an upregulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA was observed in the splenic lymphocytes and retinas of EAU mice in high temperature. The expression of NETs as evidenced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE), was significantly elevated in serum and supernatants of neutrophils from EAU mice kept at high temperature compared to the normal temperature group. The metabolites in the plasma from EAU mice, fumaric acid and succinic acid, were markedly increased in the high temperature group and could induce the generation of NETs via the NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway, but did not influence the frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells. Our findings suggest that an increased ambient temperature is a risk factor for the development of uveitis. This is associated with the induction of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as the generation of NETs which could be mediated by the NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8775, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888854

RESUMO

The presence of actinic keratoses (AKs) increases a patient's risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma by greater than six-fold. We evaluated the effect of topical treatment with imiquimod on the tumor microenvironment by measuring transcriptomic differences in AKs before and after treatment with imiquimod 3.75%. Biopsies were collected prospectively from 21 patients and examined histologically. RNA was extracted and transcriptomic analyses of 788 genes were performed using the nanoString assay. Imiquimod decreased number of AKs by study endpoint at week 14 (p < 0.0001). Post-imiquimod therapy, levels of CDK1, CXCL13, IL1B, GADPH, TTK, ILF3, EWSR1, BIRC5, PLAUR, ISG20, and C1QBP were significantly lower (adjusted p < 0.05). Complete responders (CR) exhibited a distinct pattern of inflammatory gene expression pre-treatment relative to incomplete responders (IR), with alterations in 15 inflammatory pathways (p < 0.05) reflecting differential expression of 103 genes (p < 0.05). Presence of adverse effects was associated with improved treatment response. Differences in gene expression were found between pre-treatment samples in CR versus IR, suggesting that higher levels of inflammation pre-treament may play a part in regression of AKs. Further characterization of the immune micro-environment in AKs may help develop biomarkers predictive of response to topical immune modulators and may guide therapy.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratose Actínica/genética , Transcriptoma , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Imiquimode/administração & dosagem , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Science ; 372(6539): 271-276, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859030

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals are three-dimensional (3D) gapless topological phases with Weyl cones in the bulk band. According to lattice theory, Weyl cones must come in pairs, with the minimum number of cones being two. A semimetal with only two Weyl cones is an ideal Weyl semimetal (IWSM). Here we report the experimental realization of an IWSM band by engineering 3D spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms. The topological Weyl points are clearly measured via the virtual slicing imaging technique in equilibrium and are further resolved in the quench dynamics. The realization of an IWSM band opens an avenue to investigate various exotic phenomena that are difficult to access in solids.

17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 587393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732231

RESUMO

To investigate aqueous metabolic profiles in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) and Behcet's disease (BD), we applied ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometry in aqueous humor samples collected from these patients and controls. Metabolite levels in these three groups were analyzed by univariate logistic regression. The differential metabolites were subjected to subsequent pathway analysis by MetaboAnalyst. The results showed that both partial-least squares discrimination analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis showed specific aqueous metabolite profiles when comparing VKH, BD, and controls. There were 28 differential metabolites in VKH compared to controls and 29 differential metabolites in BD compared to controls. Amino acids and fatty acids were the two most abundant categories of differential metabolites. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis identified several perturbed pathways, including pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis when comparing VKH with the control group, and D-arginine and D-ornithine metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism when comparing BD with the control group. Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was altered in both VKH and BD when compared to controls. Our findings suggest that amino acids metabolism as well as two fatty acids, palmitic acid and oleic acid, may be involved in the pathogenesis of BD and VKH.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Síndrome de Behçet/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Síndrome Uveomeningoencefálica/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
18.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(3): 366-370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747810

RESUMO

AIM: To analyze whether wet-lab training (WLT) or surgical-simulator training (SST) is better for ophthalmology residents to master the chopping technique. METHODS: Sixty ophthalmology residents (in their second year) and three cataract surgeons participated in the study. The residents were randomly separated into two groups, WLT group and SST group. The residents in WLT group were asked to perform 10 trials of chopping using pig eyes and scored by the surgeons, and then they performed and scored using simulator for one time. The residents in SST group underwent 10 trials of chopping using simulator, and the simulator scored each trail. Then, this group were asked to perform the chopping using pig eyes and scored by the surgeons. At last, we investigated the residents' satisfaction about the training. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics had no significant differences between the two groups. Recorded by the simulator, the residents in SST group got significantly higher overall score (83.90±1.31) than WLT group (78.73±1.92, P=0.03). And the residents in SST group got less corner area injured, and they spend less time than WLT group (P<0.05). Moreover, the residents in WLT group used more ultrasonic energy value than SST group (P=0.03). However, scored by the surgeons, the residents in two groups got nearly the same overall score. The residents in WLT group performed better on the frequencies of posterior capsule torn and incisional stress (P=0.03, 0.008, respectively). In the survey, the residents in two groups held the same opinion that the training was helpful and they strongly recommended this training. And all of them enjoyed the training, and enjoyed being randomized in their own group. However, with respect to the realistic character, the residents thought that WLT was better than SST (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Both of the Eyesi surgical-stimulator and the wet-lab improve the residents' chopping ability and each has its own advantages. The combination of the two training ways could be considered to be a part of the training curriculum for new residents.

19.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 637489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718374

RESUMO

The diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is mainly based on a complex clinical manifestation while it lacks objective laboratory biomarkers. To explore the potential molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and disease activity in VKH, we performed an untargeted urine metabolomics analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Through univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, we found 9 differential metabolites when comparing VKH patients with healthy controls, and 26 differential metabolites were identified when comparing active VKH patients with inactive VKH patients. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism were significantly altered in VKH versus healthy controls. Lysine degradation and biotin metabolism pathways were significantly altered in active VKH versus inactive VKH. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the combination of acetylglycine and gamma-glutamylalanine could differentiate VKH from healthy controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.808. A combination of ureidopropionic acid and 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICAR) had an excellent AUC of 0.958 for distinguishing active VKH from inactive VKH. In summary, this study identified abnormal metabolites in urine of patients with VKH disease. Further studies are needed to confirm whether these metabolites are specific for this disease.

20.
Small ; 17(19): e2008114, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760401

RESUMO

Nanoassemblies based on self-assembly of biological building blocks are promising in mimicking the nanostructures, properties, and functionalities of natural enzymes. However, it remains a challenge to design of biomimetic nanozymes with tunable nanostructures and enhanced catalytic activities starting from simple biomolecules. Herein, the construction of nanoassemblies through coassembly of an amphiphilic amino acid and hemin is reported. The nanostructures and morphologies of the resulting nanoassemblies are readily controlled by tuning the molar ratio between the amino acid and hemin, thus leading to tailored peroxidase-mimicking activities of the nanoassemblies. Importantly, the optimized nanoassemblies exhibit a remarkable catalytic efficiency that is comparable to the natural counterpart when considering molecular mass along with good robustness in multiple catalytic cycles. The nanoassemblies are effectively integrated as biomimetic nanozymes in a sensing system for catalytic detection of glucose. Therefore, this work demonstrates that nanozymes with advanced catalytic capabilities can be constructed by self-assembly of minimalist biological building blocks and may thus promote the rational design and catalytic applications of biomimetic nanozymes.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Nanoestruturas , Aminoácidos , Biomimética , Catálise , Hemina , Oxirredução
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