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1.
Am J Pathol ; 190(3): 642-659, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972158

RESUMO

Ischemia due to hypoperfusion is one of the most common forms of acute kidney injury. We hypothesized that kidney hypoxia initiates the up-regulation of miR-218 expression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to guide endocapillary repair. Murine renal artery-derived EPCs (CD34+/CD105-) showed down-regulation of mmu-Mir218-5p/U6 RNA ratio after ischemic injury, while in human renal arteries, MIR218-5p expression was up-regulated after ischemic injury. MIR218 expression was clarified in cell culture experiments in which increases in both SLIT3 and MIR218-2-5p expressions were observed after 5 minutes of hypoxia. ROBO1 transcript, a downstream target of MIR218-2-5p, showed inverse expression to MIR218-2-5p. EPCs transfected with a MIR218-5p inhibitor in three-dimensional normoxic culture showed premature capillary formation. Organized progenitor cell movement was reconstituted when cells were co-transfected with Dicer siRNA and low-dose Mir218-5p mimic. A Mir218-2 knockout was generated to assess the significance of miR-218-2 in a mammalian model. Mir218-2-5p expression was decreased in Mir218-2-/- embryos at E16.5. Mir218-2-/- decreased CD34+ angioblasts in the ureteric bud at E16.5 and were nonviable. Mir218-2+/- decreased peritubular capillary density at postnatal day 14 and increased serum creatinine after ischemia in adult mice. Systemic injection of miR-218-5p decreased serum creatinine after injury. These experiments demonstrate that miR-218 expression can be triggered by hypoxia and modulates EPC migration in the kidney.

2.
BJU Int ; 125(1): 2-3, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901010
3.
Urology ; 135: 44-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of in-hospital pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (PTP) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 2004 and 2014 and to assess the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) across the study period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 8322 patients without contraindications to PTP undergoing radical cystectomy in the US using the Premier Healthcare Database. Nonparametric Wilcoxon type test for trend was employed to examine the trend of PTP utilization across the study period. Ensuing, we employed multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear regression models to examine the odds of receiving PTP and the risk of being diagnosed with VTE, respectively. RESULTS: Based on VTE risk-stratification, the majority of patients (87.8%) qualified as "high-risk." Across the study period the use of PTP increased (Odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.03, P = .044), but remained underutilized as the maximum percentage of patients receiving in-hospital PTP did not exceed 58.6%. The risk of VTE did not vary across the study period (risk ratio 0.97, 95%CI 0.92-1.02, P = .178). CONCLUSION: Utilization of PTP increased throughout the study period, while the risk of VTE did not change. Future studies are necessary to improve implementation of guideline-driven care, as PTP remained underutilized throughout the study period.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(1): 74-80, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis programs, including postdischarge pharmacologic prophylaxis, have been associated with decreased VTE rates. Such practices have not been widely adopted in managing radical cystectomy (RC) patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a perioperative VTE prophylaxis program on VTE rates after RC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Single-institution, nonrandomized, pre- and post-intervention analysis of 319 patients undergoing RC at Brigham and Women's Hospital between July 2011 and April 2017. Patient and outcome data were prospectively collected as part of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. INTERVENTION: Before June 2015, patients only received postoperative pharmacologic and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in the inpatient setting. Starting June 2015, a perioperative VTE prophylaxis program was implemented as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, including a 28-d course of postdischarge enoxaparin. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary outcome was 30-d postoperative VTE rate. Secondary outcomes were perioperative bleeding rates, 30-d complication, readmission, and mortality rates, and length of stay. Univariate analysis was performed comparing outcomes between pre- and post-intervention cohorts. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 319 patients who underwent RC, 210 (66%) were in the pre- and 109 (34%) in the post-intervention cohort. VTE rate was significantly lower in the post-intervention cohort (n=1, 0.9% vs n=13, 6.2%; p=0.04). Rates of perioperative bleeding (35% vs 33%; p=0.80) and 30-d readmissions related to bleeding (1% vs 3.7%; p=0.19) did not differ significantly. Single-institution data limits generalizability, and patient compliance with postdischarge enoxaparin was unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a perioperative VTE prophylaxis program as part of an ERAS protocol that includes extended postdischarge pharmacologic prophylaxis was associated with decreased rate of VTE events after RC. Perioperative bleeding and readmissions related to bleeding did not increase with this intervention. PATIENT SUMMARY: This study evaluated whether clotting complication rates after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer can be reduced by implementing a new postoperative care pathway. This pathway reduced rates of clotting complications without increasing bleeding rates and should be considered for all patients undergoing RC.

5.
Urol Oncol ; 38(3): 74.e13-74.e20, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early surgical resection remains the recommended treatment option for most small renal mass (≤4 cm). We examined the long-term overall survival (OS) of patients managed with delayed and immediate nephrectomy of cT1a renal cancer. PATIENT AND METHODS: We utilized the National Cancer Database (2005-2010) to identify 14,677 patients (immediate nephrectomy: 14,050 patients vs. late nephrectomy: 627 patients) aged <70 years with Charlson Comorbidity Index 0 and cT1aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma. Immediate nephrectomy and late nephrectomy were defined as nephrectomy performed <30 days and >180 days from diagnosis, respectively. Inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to compare OS of patients in the 2 treatment arms. Influence of patient age and Charlson Comorbidity Index on treatment effect was tested by interactions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the outcome of delaying nephrectomy for >12 months. RESULTS: Median patient age was 55 years with a median follow-up of 82.5 months. Inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted Kaplan-Meier curves suggest no significant difference between treatment arms (immediate nephrectomy [<30 days] vs. delayed nephrectomy [>180 days]) (Hazard ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.26; P = 0.77). This outcome was consistent between all patients regardless of age (P = 0.48). Sensitivity analysis reports no difference in OS even if nephrectomy was delayed by >12 months (P = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: We report that delayed and immediate nephrectomy for cT1a renal cell carcinoma confers comparable long-term OS. These findings suggest that a period of observation of between 6 and 12 months is safe to allow identification of renal masses, which will benefit from surgical resection.

6.
World J Urol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of variant histologies on overall survival (OS), as well as their influence on the response to neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is well studied in patients diagnosed with bladder cancer. However, little is known about tumors with variant histologies of the upper urinary tract. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of the predominant variant histologies of tumors of the renal pelvis (RPT) after surgical intervention, and to examine the influence of AC on the OS of the different variant histologies. METHODS: We identified 21,318 patients with RPT undergoing surgical intervention using the National Cancer Database for the period 2004-2015. We employed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves to evaluate the OS according to variant histology. Separate multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the specific effect of AC on OS of the histological subgroups. RESULTS: The majority of patients were diagnosed with pure urothelial carcinoma (PUC) (96.1%). Overall, 826 patients were diagnosed with variant histologies (adenocarcinoma N = 298, squamous cell carcinoma N = 291, sarcomatoid N = 137, others N = 100). Compared to PUC, adenocarcinomas showed longer OS (HR 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-0.94, p = 0.01), while sarcomatoid tumors had shorter OS (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.12-2.26, p = 0.011). A subgroup analysis of patients undergoing AC showed a survival benefit in patients with PUC (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.9, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found that variant histologies of upper urinary tract carcinomas exhibit different survival rates and that AC was only associated with an OS benefit in patients with PUC.

7.
Eur Urol ; 76(6): 852-860, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upfront cytoreductive nephrectomy (CRN) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has come into question in recent prospective clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of systemic therapies on primary tumor response in patients with metastatic RCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A pooled analysis of 12 phase II/III clinical trials of metastatic RCC patients treated with systemic therapy between 2003 and 2013 was performed. Patients with one target lesion in the kidney and no prior nephrectomy were identified as having their primary tumor in place. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The objective response rate (ORR) of the primary tumor was defined as per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). ORR was assessed in the overall population and patient subsets based on prior treatment and International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk group. Cox's models adjusting for baseline characteristics, treatment, line of therapy, and site of metastases were used for survival analyses. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In total, 4736 patients were identified, of whom 565 had their primary tumor in place: 461 (82%) were treatment naïve, 283 (50%) received first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy, and 222 (39%) were IMDC poor risk. The ORRs of the primary tumor were 19% (95% confidence interval 16-23) in patients treated with first-line therapy (any type), 28% (22-33) in those treated with first-line VEGF-targeted therapy, and 23% (19-28) in those treated with VEGF-targeted therapy (any line). The ORRs were 9% (5-13) and 20% (15-27) in IMDC poor- and intermediate-risk patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic therapy reduces primary tumor size in patients with metastatic RCC. Responses in primary tumors treated with VEGF-targeted therapy were observed in upward of 28% of patients. Selection of patients for immediate CRN requires careful consideration of patient and disease characteristics. PATIENT SUMMARY: Antiangiogenic therapy meaningfully decreases the size of primary kidney tumor. Hence, for patients with metastatic disease who are not undergoing upfront cytoreductive nephrectomy, systemic therapy can palliate both primary tumor and metastases.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(6): 995-1002, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationship of hospital charges relative to recorded costs for surgical episodes of care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected individuals who underwent any of 8 index urologic surgical procedures at 392 unique institutions from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. For each surgical encounter, cost and charge data reported by hospitals were extracted and adjusted to 2016 US dollars. Trend analysis and multivariable logistic regression modeling were used to assess outcomes. The primary outcome was trend in median charge and cost. Secondary outcomes consisted of hospital characteristics associated with membership in the highest quartile of institutional charge-to-cost ratio. RESULTS: Cohort-level median cost per encounter trended down from $6824 in 2005 to $5586 in 2015 (P for trend<.001), and charges increased from $20,210 to $25,773 during the same period (P for trend<.001). Hospitals in the highest quartile of institutional charge-to-cost ratio were more likely to be safety net, nonteaching, urban, lower surgical volume, smaller, and located outside the Midwest (P<.001 for each characteristic). CONCLUSION: The pricing trends shown herein could indicate some success in cost-containment for surgical episodes of care, although higher hospital charges may be increasingly used to bolster reimbursement from third-party payers and to compensate for escalating costs in other areas.


Assuntos
Cuidado Periódico , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/economia
10.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 276-283, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099657

RESUMO

Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CRN) has long been considered a standard of care in the management of mRCC. This is largely based on randomized trials in the era of interferon (IFN) that demonstrate an improvement in overall survival (OS). With the advent of targeted therapies, the role of CRN has been questioned and multiple retrospective analyses have shown a potential benefit, particularly in intermediate-risk disease. Two long-awaited prospective trials have been published in the past year that explore the role of CRN. The CARMENA trial randomly assigned patients to therapy with sunitinib with or without CRN, showing noninferiority of sunitinib alone versus sunitinib plus CRN with a median OS of 18.4 months versus 13.9 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] for mortality, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.71-1.1). The SURTIME trial randomly assigned patients to immediate CRN followed by sunitinib versus a deferred CRN after three cycles of sunitinib. Analysis is limited by early termination as a result of low accrual. Although there was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS), median OS was significantly improved among patients in the deferred CRN arm (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.95; p = .032). Early systemic therapy is paramount, but there are patients who may derive benefit by incorporating the removal of the primary tumor in their multimodal therapy, perhaps in a deferred setting. As systemic treatment paradigms shift and immunotherapy again moves to the frontline setting with the potential for novel therapeutic approaches, the role of CRN will continue to evolve with the potential to offer surgical interventions with minimal, if any, delay in systemic treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nefrectomia/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(11): 923-931, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811282

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with locally advanced prostate cancer have an increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. In this phase II trial, we evaluate neoadjuvant enzalutamide and leuprolide (EL) with or without abiraterone and prednisone (ELAP) before radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had a biopsy Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7 or greater, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) greater than 20 ng/mL, or T3 disease (by prostate magnetic resonance imaging). Lymph nodes were required to be smaller than 20 mm. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to ELAP or EL for 24 weeks followed by RP. All specimens underwent central pathology review. The primary end point was pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease (residual tumor ≤ 5 mm). Secondary end points were PSA, surgical staging, positive margins, and safety. Biomarkers associated with pathologic outcomes were explored. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled at four centers. Most patients had high-risk disease by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria (n = 65; 87%). The pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease rate was 30% (n = 15 of 50) in ELAP-treated patients and 16% (n = four of 25) in EL-treated patients (two-sided P = .263). Rates of ypT3 disease, positive margins, and positive lymph nodes were similar between arms. Treatment was well-tolerated. Residual tumors in the two arms showed comparable levels of ERG, PTEN, androgen receptor PSA, and glucocorticoid receptor expression. Tumor ERG positivity and PTEN loss were associated with more extensive residual tumors at RP. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant hormone therapy followed by RP in locally advanced prostate cancer resulted in favorable pathologic responses in some patients, with a trend toward improved pathologic outcomes with ELAP. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the impact of therapy on recurrence rates. The potential association of ERG and PTEN alterations with worse outcomes warrants additional investigation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leuprolida/administração & dosagem , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Leuprolida/efeitos adversos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasia Residual , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
Urology ; 125: 79-85, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine how Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) has affected hospital pricing practices for surgical episodes of care. METHODS: Given that safety net hospitals would be more vulnerable to decreasing reimbursement due to an increase in proportion of Medicaid patients, we utilized the Premier Healthcare Database to compare institutional charge-to-cost ratio (CCR) in safety net hospitals vs nonsafety net hospitals for 8 index urologic surgery procedures during the period from 2012 to 2015. The effect of Medicaid expansion on CCR was assessed through difference-in-differences analysis. RESULTS: CCR among safety net hospitals increased from 4.06 to 4.30 following ACA-related Medicaid expansion. This did not significantly differ from the change among nonsafety net hospitals, which was from 4.00 to 4.38 (P = .086). The census division with the highest degree of Medicaid expansion experienced a smaller increase in CCR among safety net hospitals relative to nonsafety net (P < .0001). CCR increased by a greater degree in safety net hospitals compared to nonsafety net in the census division where Medicaid expansion was the least prevalent (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Safety net hospitals have not preferentially increased CCR in response to ACA-related Medicaid expansion. Census divisions where safety net hospitals did increase CCR more than their nonsafety net counterparts do not correspond to those where Medicaid expansion was most prevalent. This could indicate that, despite being more vulnerable to an increased proportion of more poorly reimbursing Medicaid patients, safety net hospitals have not reacted by increasing charges to private payers.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Cuidado Periódico , Hospitalização/economia , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
World J Urol ; 37(4): 639-646, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to analyze patient demographics, hospital characteristics, and clinical risk factors which predict penile prosthesis removal. We also examine costs of penile prosthesis removal and trends in inflatable versus non-inflatable penile prostheses implantation in the USA from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from Premier Perspective Database was completed using data from 2003 to 2015. We compared the relative proportion of inflatable versus non-inflatable penile prostheses implanted. We separated the prosthesis removal group based on indication for removal-Group 1 (infection), Group 2 (mechanical complication), and Group 3 (all explants). All groups were compared to a control group of patients with penile implants who were never subsequently explanted. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze patient and hospital factors which predicted removal. Cost comparison was performed between the explant groups. RESULTS: There were 5085 penile prostheses implanted with a stable relative proportion of inflatable versus non-inflatable prosthesis over the 13-year study period. There were 3317 explantations. Patient factors associated with prosthesis removal were non-black race, Charlson Comorbidity Index, diabetes, and HIV status. Hospital factors associated with removal included non-teaching status, hospital region, year of removal, and annual surgeon volume. Median hospitalization costs of all explantations were $10,878. Explantations due to infection cost $11,252 versus $8602 for mechanical complications. CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based study demonstrates a stable trend in inflatable versus non-inflatable prosthesis implantation. We also identify patient and hospital factors that predict penile prosthesis removal which has clinical utility for patient risk stratification and counseling.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Implante Peniano/tendências , Falha de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prótese de Pênis , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
14.
World J Urol ; 37(10): 2059-2065, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease and is one of the most expensive malignancies to treat on a per patient basis. In part, this high cost is attributed to the need for long-term surveillance. We sought to perform an economic analysis of surveillance strategies to elucidate cumulative costs for the management of NMIBC. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to determine the average 5-year costs for the surveillance of patients with NMIBC. Patients were stratified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups based on the EORTC risk calculator to determine recurrence and progression rates according to each category. The index patient was a compliant 65-year-old male. A total of four health states were utilized in the Markov model: no evidence of disease, recurrence, progression and cystectomy, and death. RESULTS: Cumulative costs of care over a 5-year period were $52,125 for low-risk, $146,250 for intermediate-risk, and $366,143 for high-risk NMIBC. The primary driver of cost was progression to muscle-invasive disease requiring definitive therapy, contributing to 81% and 92% of overall cost for intermediate- and high-risk disease. Although low-risk tumors have a high likelihood of 5-year recurrence, the overall cost contribution of recurrence was 8%, whereas disease progression accounted for 71%. CONCLUSION: Although protracted surveillance cystoscopy contributes to the expenditures associated with NMIBC, progression increases the overall cost of care across all three patient risk groups and most notably for intermediate- and high-risk disease patients.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/economia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medição de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/classificação , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
15.
BJU Int ; 124(1): 40-46, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of perioperative complications after radical cystectomy (RC) and assess their impact on 90-day postoperative mortality during the index stay and upon readmission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 57 553 patients with bladder cancer (unweighted cohort: 9137 patients) treated with RC, at 360 hospitals in the USA between 2005 and 2013 within the Premier Healthcare Database, were used for analysis. The 90-day perioperative mortality was the primary outcome. Multivariable regression was used to predict the probability of mortality; models were adjusted for patient, hospital, and surgical characteristics. RESULTS: An increase in the number of complications resulted in an increasing predicted probability of mortality, with a precipitous increase if patients had four or more complications compared to one complication during hospitalisation following RC (index stay; 1.0-9.7%, P < 0.001) and during readmission (2.0-13.1%, P < 0.001). A readmission complication nearly doubled the predicted probability of postoperative mortality as compared to an initial complication (3.9% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001). During the initial hospitalisation cardiac- (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-5.1), pulmonary- (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.8-8.4), and renal-related (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2-6.7) complications had the most significant impact on the odds of mortality across categories examined. CONCLUSIONS: The number and nature of complications have a distinct impact on mortality after RC. As complications increase there is an associated increase in perioperative mortality.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to understand how Medicaid expansion under the ACA has affected utilization of surgical services. METHODS: The State Inpatient Databases were used to compare utilization of a broad array of surgical procedures among nonelderly adults (aged 19-64 years) in a multistate population that experienced ACA-related Medicaid expansion to one that did not. We performed a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis to determine the effect of Medicaid expansion on utilization of surgical services from 2012 to 2014. RESULTS: There were 259,061 cases identified in the Medicaid expansion population and 261,269 in the control population. In the expansion group, there was a smaller decrease in utilization - by a margin of 21.68 cases per 100,000 individuals (p < 0.001). Percent of surgical patients covered by Medicaid increased among the expansion group from 12.00% to 15.48% (DID = 3.93%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Year one of Medicaid expansion under the ACA was associated with a modest but statistically significant difference in utilization of surgical services as well as an increase in percent of surgery patients covered by Medicaid.

17.
Urol Oncol ; 36(9): 400.e15-400.e22, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data revealed the benefit of high-volume care in many complex disease processes. Among patients undergoing nephrectomy, those receiving cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) for metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) constitute a unique subset. They often have a greater medical and surgical complexity. Against this backdrop, we sought to investigate the effect of hospital volume on overall survival among patients undergoing CN for mRCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 11,089 patients who received CN for mRCC in the National Cancer Database from 1998 to 2012. We ranked hospitals based on annual CN volume. Patients who received surgery in hospitals in the top vs. bottom deciles were compared. Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting (IPTW)-adjusted Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to compare the primary endpoint of overall survival between balanced cohorts of patients. Secondary endpoints were 30-day mortality, 30-day readmissions, and receipt of subsequent systemic therapy. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 60.39 months (interquartile range [IQR] 35.09-95.95). Median overall survival was 17.61 months (IQR 7.16-44.58). Following propensity score weighting, surgery at a high-volume hospital was associated with a decreased risk of mortality (IPTW-adjusted Cox proportional Hazard Ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.96). On our IPTW-adjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median survival was 19.94 months (IQR 7.98-50.27) at high-volume hospitals vs. 15.97 months (IQR 6.6-41.56) at low-volume hospitals. With regard to secondary endpoints, the data did not reveal a significant advantage for treatment at a high-volume hospital. CONCLUSION: We found a significant association between receipt of CN at high-volume hospitals and prolonged overall survival, demonstrated by a nearly 4 month survival benefit.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(6): 830-838, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With improvements in early detection and treatment, a growing proportion of the population now lives with a personal history of a cancer. Although many cancer survivors are in excellent health, the underlying risk factors and side effects of cancer treatment increase the risk of medical complications and secondary malignancies. METHODS: The 2013 National Health Interview Survey was utilized to assess the association between personal history of cancer and receipt of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force-recommended services, comprising three cancer screening tests (mammography, colonoscopy, and Pap smear) and six general medical preventive care services (aspirin for prevention of cardiovascular disease; blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes screening; diet/activity counseling; and tobacco use counseling). For each preventive service, patients with a history that would preclude that test were excluded. One to three matching of cancer survivors to controls was performed using propensity scores generated from patient-level demographic variables. Conditional logistic regression models were employed to compare odds of screening between matched cohorts of cancer survivors and controls. The years of analysis were 2015 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 2,639 cancer patients and 31,885 controls were extracted from the merged 2013 National Health Interview Survey. In the propensity score-matched cohorts of eligible adults, only one of the three cancer screening tests, colorectal, was more common in cancer survivors (OR=1.52, 95% CI=1.32, 1.75, p<0.001), whereas breast and cervical cancer screening were not more common in survivors. By contrast, all of the medical screening tests, with the exception of diabetes screening, were more common among cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The association between receipt of recommended preventive medical care and personal history of cancer varied, depending on the preventive service in question, but in the majority of preventive services assessed, cancer survivors had more frequent screening compared with non-cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
19.
Urol Oncol ; 36(11): 500.e11-500.e19, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a known increased risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) in patients with prostate cancer (CaP) treated with radiotherapy (RT). It is unclear how age at diagnosis influences the risk of SPMs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 1973 to 2013 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we studied the impact of age on SPMs (defined as a bladder or rectal tumor) after localized CaP treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) or RT. SPM risk was compared using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-adjusted cumulative incidence function and competing-risk proportional hazard models. Overall survival (OS) in patients with SPM was compared using Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 579,608 patients met inclusion criteria, and 51.8% of the cohort was treated with RT. The 10- and 20-year cumulative incidences of competing risk (IPTW adjusted) of SPMs were 1.9% (95%CI = 1.8-1.9%) and 3.6% (95%CI = 3.4-3.7%) after RP vs. 2.7% (95%CI = 2.6-2.8%) and 5.4%(95%CI = 5.3-5.6%) after RT. IPTW-adjusted competing risk hazard ratio (HR) of SPM after RT compared to RP was increased in the entire cohort (HR 1.46; 95%CI = 1.39-1.53, P < 0.001) and was highest in the youngest patients: Age <55 HR = 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-2.24, P<0.001), Age 55 to 64 HR = 1.66 (95%CI = 1.54-1.79, P < 0.001), Age 65-74 HR = 1.41 (95%CI = 1.33-1.48, P < 0.001), Age ≥75 HR = 1.14 (95%CI = 0.97-1.35, P = 0.112). At 10 years, SPM-specific mortality occurred in 28.9% of patients treated with RT, though OS with SPM was worse in the youngest patients: Age <55 HR = 1.88 (95%CI = 1.25-2.81, P = 0.002), Age 55-64 HR = 1.60 (95%CI = 1.42-1.81, P < 0.001), Age 65-74 HR = 1.40 (95%CI = 1.30-1.52, P < 0.001), Age ≥ 75 HR = 1.27 (95%CI = 1.06-1.53, P = 0.009). All of the age categories had similar median follow-up times. CONCLUSION: At 10 years there is a 1.8% increased incidence of SPM after RT compared to RP, of which <30% of RT-treated patients with an SPM die as a result of a SPM. However, the risk of SPMs was greatest among younger men treated with RT for localized CaP, and this relationship could not be explained solely by follow-up time, latency time, or life expectancy. An improved understanding of those at the highest risk of SPMs may help tailor treatment and surveillance strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
20.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940133

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate population-based costs variations and predictors of outlier costs for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the U.S. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database, we identified all patients diagnosed with kidney/ureter calculus who underwent PCNL from 2003-2015. We evaluated 90-day direct hospital costs, defining high- and low-cost surgery as those >90th and <10th percentile, respectively. We constructed a multilevel, hierarchical regression model and calculated the pseudo-R2 of each variable, which translates to the percentage variability contributed by that variable on 90-day direct hospital costs. RESULTS: A total of 114 581 patients underwent PCNL during the 12-year study period. Mean cost in the low-cost group was $5787 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5716-5856) vs. $38 590(95% CI 37 357-39 923) in the high-cost group. Cost variations were substantially impacted by patient (63.7%) and surgical (18.5%) characteristics and less so by hospital characteristics (3.9%). Significant predictors of high costs included more comorbidities (≥2 vs. 0: odds ratio [OR] 1.81; p=0.01) and hospital region (Northeast vs. Midwest: OR 2.04; p=0.03). Predictors of low cost were hospital bed size of 300-499 beds (OR 1.35; p<0.01) and urban hospitals (OR 2.77; p=0.01). Factors less likely to be associated with low-cost PCNL were more comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] ≥2: OR 0.69; p<0.0001), larger hospitals (OR 0.61; p=0.01), and teaching hospitals (OR 0.33; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our contemporary analysis demonstrates that patient and surgical characteristics had a significant effect on costs associated with PCNL. Poor comorbidity status contributed to high costs, highlighting the importance of patient selection.

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