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1.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9642-9657, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664585

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace mineral, but its excessive intake can lead to potentially toxic effects on host physiology. The mammalian intestine harbors various microorganisms that are associated with intestinal barrier function and inflammation. In this study, the influences of Cu on barrier function, microbiota, and its metabolites were examined in the jejunum and colon of pigs. Here, we identified that the physical and chemical barrier functions were impaired both in the jejunum and colon, as evidenced by the decreased expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin-1, and JAM-1) and mucous secretion-related genes, positive rate of Muc2, and secretion of SIgA and SIgG. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were overexpressed in the jejunum and colon. Furthermore, Cu might increase the abundances of Mycoplasma, Actinobacillus and unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum, which significantly affected pentose and glucoronate interconversions, histidine metabolism, folate biosynthesis, porphyrin metabolism, and purine metabolism. Meanwhile, the abundances of Lactobacillus and Methanobrevibacter were remarkably decreased and Streptococcus, unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae, and unidentified_Muribaculaceae were significantly increased in the colon, with an evident impact on glycerophospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. These findings revealed that excess Cu had significant effects on the microbiota and metabolites in the jejunum and colon, which were involved in intestinal barrier dysfunction and inflammation.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105196, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534643

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida, an important gram-negative pathogen that mainly inhibits the upper respiratory tracts of domestic and wild animals such as chicken, duck, cattle and pig, which can cause cholera fowl, haemorrhagic septicaemia and infectious pneumonia. Currently, the prevalence and infection of P.multocida is still one of the most serious threats to the poultry industry in China, but studies on its characteristics are still insufficient. Here, this study was conducted to isolate and identify P.multocida in infected ducks and determined the leading serotypes and epidemiology of the diseases this pathogen causes. Results indicated that all the isolates were positive for KMT1 gene and the PCR amplified products were approximately 460 bp, demonstrating that these strains were all P.multocida. Moreover, all the isolated strains were identified as capsular type A and lipopolysaccharide type L1. Virulence factor identification results revealed that all strains possessed genes related to pili, adhesin, iron metabolism and uptake. In contrast, toxin coding gene (toxA) and sialidase encodes genes (nan B and nan H) were not detected in any isolates. The drug susceptibility results indicated that all the isolates were resistant to Lincomycin, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin and Oxacillin but were sensitive to Ceftriaxone and Cefalotin. The animal experiments were also performed to further determine the pathogenicity of these isolated strains. Animal experiment revealed that the liver, kidney, and heart of infected ducks were swollen and had bleeding spots. We also observed hepatocyte hypertrophy, hepatic sinus congestion and single-cell infiltration in infected ducks through H&E staining. In summary, this study demonstrated that all the isolated strains belong to capsular A and lipopolysaccharide type L1 P.multocida, but their virulence factors, drug resistance and pathogenicity were different.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pasteurella , Pasteurella multocida , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Patos , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Suínos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360998

RESUMO

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungus, causes dental caries and contributes to mucosal bacterial dysbiosis leading to a second infection. Furthermore, C.albicans forms biofilms that are resistant to medicinal treatment. To make matters worse, antifungal resistance has spread (albeit slowly) in this species. Thus, it has been imperative to develop novel, antifungal drug compounds. Herein, a peptide was engineered with the sequence of RRFSFWFSFRR-NH2; this was named P19. This novel peptide has been observed to exert disruptive effects on fungal cell membrane physiology. Our results showed that P19 displayed high binding affinity to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acids (LTA) and the plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), cardiolipin, and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), further indicating that the molecular mechanism of P19 was not associated with the receptor recognition, but rather related to competitive interaction with the plasma membrane. In addition, compared with fluconazole and amphotericin B, P19 has been shown to have a lower potential for resistance selection than established antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/química , Fosfatidilgliceróis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Teicoicos/metabolismo , Triptofano/química
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131683, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351278

RESUMO

Butachlor being an important member of chloroacetanilide herbicides, is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Exposure to butachlor can induce cancer, human lymphocyte aberration, and immunotoxic effects in animals. The current experimental trial was executed to determine the potential risks of herbicide butachlor to immunotoxicity and its mechanism of adverse effects on the spleen. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 8 mg/kg butachlor for 28 days, and the toxicity of butachlor on the spleen of mice was evaluated. We found that butachlor exposure led to an increase in serum ALB, GLU, TC, TG, and TP and changes in the morphological structure of the spleen of mice. More importantly, results showed that butachlor significantly increased the expression level of ATG-5, decreased the protein expression of LC3B and M-TOR, and significantly decreased the mRNA content of M-TOR and p62. Results revealed that the mRNA contents of APAF-1, CYTC, and CASP-9 related genes were significantly decreased after butachlor treatment. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10) were reduced in the spleen of treated mice. This study suggested that butachlor induce spleen toxicity and activate the immune response of spleen tissue by targeting the CYTC/BCL2/M-TOR pathway and caspase cascading activation of spleen autophagy and apoptosis pathways which may ultimately lead to immune system disorders.

6.
Toxicology ; 461: 152906, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450209

RESUMO

Fluoride is one of the most widely distributed elements in nature, while some fluorine-containing compounds are toxic to several vertebrates at certain levels. The current study was performed to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of fluoride exposure in ducks. The results showed that the renal index was decreased in NaF group, and fluoride exposure significantly decreased the levels of serum Albumin, Glucose, Total cholesterol, Urea, protein and Triglycerides, confirming that NaF exhibited adverse effects on the kidney. The overall structure of renal cells showed damage with the signs of nuclelytic, vacuolar degeneration, atrophy, renal cystic cavity widening after fluoride induction. Renal vascular growth was impaired as the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α decreased (p > 0.05). More importantly, autophagy and apoptosis levels of CYT C, LC3, p62, Beclin, M-TOR, Bax and Caspase-3 were increased (p < 0.05) in the NaF treated group. Interestingly, our results showed that Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) activated the M-TOR autophagy pathway. Meanwhile, the PE acted on Atg5/ LC3 autophagy factor, followed by the auto-phagosome generation and activation of cell autophagy. These results indicate that NaF exposure to duck induced nephron-toxicity by activating autophagy, apoptosis and glucolipid metabolism pathways, which suggest that fluorine exposure poses a risk of poisoning.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 257: 109058, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862332

RESUMO

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pleuropneumoniae) causes serious economic loss for the swine industry. A high-temperature requirements A (HtrA)-like protease and its homologs have been reported to be involved in protein quality control and expression of important immunoprotective antigens in many pathogens. In this study, we showed that HtrA of A.pleuropneumoniae exhibited both chaperone and proteolytic activities. Moreover, Outer membrane protein P5 (OmpP5) in A.pleuropneumoniae and Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in porcine lung tissues were first discovered and identified as specific proteolytic substrates for rHtrA. The maximum cleavage activity occurs at 50 ℃ in a time-dependent manner. In addition, rHtrA mainly induced IgG 2a subtype of IgG and Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) response in a mice model, and promoted a significant proliferation of spleen lymphocytes compare with negative control (P < 0.05). The survival rates of 37.5 % were observed against A.pleuropneumoniae strain. Together, these data demonstrate that rHtrA plays a multi-functional role in A.pleuropneumoniae.


Assuntos
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/química , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteólise , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Células Th1/imunologia
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 939-953, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929941

RESUMO

Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira species, has emerged as a widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. Macrophages mediate the elimination of pathogens through phagocytosis and cytokine production. Scavenger receptor A1 (SR-A1), one of the critical receptors mediating this process, plays a complicated role in innate immunity. However, the role of SR-A1 in the immune response against pathogenic Leptospira invasion is unknown. In the present study, we found that SR-A1 is an important nonopsonic phagocytic receptor on murine macrophages for Leptospira. However, intraperitoneal injection of leptospires into WT mice presented with more apparent jaundice, subcutaneous hemorrhaging, and higher bacteria burdens in blood and tissues than that of SR-A1-/- mice. Exacerbated cytokine and inflammatory mediator levels were also observed in WT mice and higher recruited macrophages in the liver than those of SR-A1-/- mice. Our findings collectively reveal that although beneficial in the uptake of Leptospira by macrophage, SR-A1 might be exploited by Leptospira to modulate inflammatory activation and increase the susceptibility of infection in the host. These results provide our new insights into the innate immune response during early infection by L. interrogans.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112225, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864983

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to excessive fluoride causes chronic damage in the body tissues and could lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Cartilage damage caused by excessive fluoride intake has gained wide attention, but how fluoride accumulation blocks the development of chondrocytes is still unclear. Here, we report a negative correlation between the length and growth plate width after NaF treatments via apoptosis and autophagy, with shrinkage of cells, nuclear retraction, dissolution of chondrocytes. Whereas, fluoride exposure had no significant effect on the number and distribution of the osteoclasts which were well aligned. More importantly, fluoride exposure induced apoptosis of tibial bone through CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways via targeting Caspase3, Caspase9, Bak1, and Bax expressions. Meanwhile, the Beclin1, mTOR, Pakin, Pink, and p62 were elevated in NaF treatment group, which indicated that long-term excessive fluoride triggered the autophagy in the tibial bone and produced the chondrocyte injury. Altogether, fluoride exposure induced the chondrocyte injury by regulating the autophagy and apoptosis in the tibial bone of ducks, which demonstrates that fluoride exposure is a risk factor for cartilage development. These findings revealed the essential role of CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways in long-term exposure to fluoride pollution and block the development of chondrocytes in ducks, and CytC/Bcl-2/P53 can be targeted to prevent fluoride induced chondrocyte injury.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento
12.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130222, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794430

RESUMO

Fluorine (F) and its compounds produced from industrial production and coal combustion can cause air, water and soil contamination, which can accumulate in animals, plants and humans via food chain threatening public health. Fluoride exposure affects liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and reproductive system in humans and animals. Literature regarding fluoride influence on intestinal structure and microbiota composition in ducks is scarce. This study was designed to investigate these effects by using simple and electron microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated an impaired structure with reduced relative distribution of goblet cells in the fluoride exposed group. Moreover, the gut microbiota showed a significant decrease in alpha diversity. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla in both control and fluoride-exposed groups. Specifically, fluoride exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 9 bacterial phyla and 15 bacterial genera. Among them, 4 phyla (Latescibacteria, Dependentiae, Zixibacteria and Fibrobacteres) and 4 genera (Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Reyranella and Arenimonas) weren't even detectable in the gut microbiota of the ducks. In summary, higher fluoride exposure can significantly damage the intestinal structure and gut microbial composition in ducks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Patos , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1463-1468, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718993

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a recently emerged circovirus discovered in 2016 that has drawn the attention of the swine industry worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of PCV3 strains on pig farms. A total of 261 samples from sows, weaning pigs, growing pigs, and stillborn/mummified fetuses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results revealed that at least two main lineages of PCV3 are circulating in Brazil. For the first time, it was possible to detect the presence of two different PCV3 strains in the same host.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Fazendas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Suínos , Carga Viral
14.
Equine Vet J ; 53(4): 845-854, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information is available about experimental inoculation of leptospirosis in horses and the pathogenicity of Leptospira interrogans serovar Bratislava in this host. OBJECTIVES: To determine the serological, clinical, pathological and haematological responses of horses to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain PigK151. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled in vivo experiment. METHODS: Ten seronegative female foals were divided into 2 groups, control (n = 4) and challenged (n = 6). The challenged group received 1 × 109 leptospires divided equally between topical ocular and intraperitoneal injections. Blood and urine samples were analysed. The temperature was recorded daily for the first 9 days, then weekly. Sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Automated complete blood count, differential and chemistry panel were performed. Histopathological analysis was performed on sections of liver, kidney, urinary bladder, uterine body and pineal gland. Sample culturing was performed from blood, urine, liver, kidney, reproductive tract and vitreous humour. RESULTS: No pyrexia was noted. PCR and culture were negative from all samples. Differences between groups were found in CBC, differential counts and serum biochemistry panel (or profile), suggesting that leptospiral challenge triggered an inflammatory response. No evidence of leptospirosis was found from histopathological analysis. All challenged foals developed a humoral response. The MAT allowed the confirmation of the infecting serovar at a later stage, but it also revealed cross-reactive results that were further explained by genomic analysis. MAIN LIMITATIONS: This experimental challenge had two main limitations: (a) the results might have varied if another strain from the same serovar had been used and (b) the use of another route of infection and a higher bacterial dose might have achieved colonisation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, it may suggest that L. interrogans serovar Bratislava is neither pathogenic nor host-adapted serovar for horses, although these results might have varied if another strain from the same serovar had been used instead.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Feminino , Cavalos , Leptospirose/veterinária , Sorogrupo
15.
Virulence ; 12(1): 520-546, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525975

RESUMO

Polyamines are small, polycationic molecules with a hydrocarbon backbone and multiple amino groups required for optimal cell growth. The potD gene, belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system potABCD, encodes the bacterial substrate-binding subunit of the polyamine transport system, playing a pivotal role in bacterial metabolism and growth. The swine pathogen Glaesserella parasuis possesses an intact pot operon, and the studies presented here mainly examined the involvement of PotD in Glaesserella pathogenesis. A potD-deficient mutant was constructed using a virulent G. parasuis strain SC1401 by natural transformation; immuno-electron microscopy was used to identify the subcellular location of native PotD protein; an electron microscope was adopted to inspect biofilm and bacterial morphology; immunofluorescence technique was employed to study cellular adhesion, the levels of inflammation and apoptosis. The TSA++-pre-cultured mutant strain showed a significantly reduced adhesion capacity to PK-15 and MLE-12 cells. Likewise, we also found attenuation in virulence using murine models focusing on the clinical sign, H&E, and IFA for inflammation and apoptosis. However, when the mutant was grown in TSB++, virulence recovered to normal levels, along with a high level of radical oxygen species formation in the host. The expression of PotD could actively stimulate the production of ROS in Raw 264.7. Our data suggested that PotD from G. parasuis has a high binding potential to polyamine, and is essential for the full bacterial virulence within mouse models. However, the virulence of the potD mutant is highly dependent on its TSA++ culture conditions rather than on biofilm-formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haemophilus parasuis/genética , Haemophilus parasuis/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Virulência/genética
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 585-591, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518111

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic agent of systemic wasting disease in birds and atypical pneumonia in mammalians including humans, constituting a public health risk. A rapid diagnostic assay would be beneficial in screening C. psittaci in the field. In this study, we developed a probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the rapid detection of C. psittaci. The specific primer pairs and probe targeting the conserved region of the outer membrane protein A gene were designed and applied to the real-time real-time RPA assay. The test can be performed at 39°C for 20 min using a portable device, with sensitivities approaching 100 copies of DNA molecules per reaction, with no cross-reaction with other pathogens. The clinical performance of the RPA assay was evaluated in an outbreak of C. psittaci and has high accuracy levels in field applications. The epidemic C. psittaci strains were classed into 2 genotypes: A and C. Collectively, this study offers a promising approach in screening for C. psittaci both in a laboratory setting and in field settings, and RPA can be used as an effective clinical test to monitor outbreaks in domestic fowl populations.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Recombinases , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Patos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Psitacose/economia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Theriogenology ; 161: 228-236, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340756

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is responsible for Paratuberculosis mainly affecting domestic ruminants. The interaction between MAP and sperm and/or germ cells has not yet been established, however the adherence between MAP and the host cell surface is associated to the 85 complex proteins that bind to the host cell's fibronectin. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the binding of MAP to bovine sperm and to verify changes in these cells by the presence of MAP before and after sperm cryopreservation. Polyclonal antibodies to MAP 85 complex proteins were produced and utilized in the analyzes. Two Nelore bulls were used for semen collection and MAP dilutions (103-108 CFU/mL) were inoculated in the samples; sperm motility and vigor were evaluated using light microscopy at different times before and after cryopreservation and in the presence and absence of the antibodies 85A and 85B. Interaction of MAP and sperm, interaction of MAP and sperm in the presence of Ab 85A and in the presence of Ab 85B were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The viability of MAP after sperm cryopreservation were evaluated by plating the samples after thawing. It was observed that sperm in the presence of MAP shows a decrease in motility and vigor, and that the higher the MAP concentration, the lower the sperm performance. It was possible to determine the viability of MAP after cryopreservation in samples of higher concentrations, which demonstrates the potential of transmission of this pathogen through artificial insemination. The interaction of MAP with bovine sperm occurs mainly in the midpiece and may be linked to the proteins 85A and 85B present in the MAP membrane.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
18.
Equine Vet J ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current gold standard diagnostic test for leptospirosis is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which has many drawbacks; therefore, the development of a better and easier serological test for leptospirosis is needed. OBJECTIVES: To apply reverse vaccinology (RV) and antigenic selection on the assortment of leptospiral targets and evaluate their potential for use as reagents for the diagnosis of equine leptospirosis. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The antigenic selection parameters were: proteins with antigenicity score ≥0.5 (VaxiJen), at least one B cell epitope and size between 10 and 275 KDa. New leptospiral proteins were cloned, expressed and serologically screened against equine sera (n = 128) on a single analysis and comparative combinations. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp), accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. A BLAST with nucleotide and protein sequences was used to identify the serovar or species specificity. MAIN LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional analysis had three main limitations: (a) The equine sera used in these tests were limited to sera submitted to the Animal Health Diagnosis Center and were only tested against seven serovars; (b) MAT results were considered being 'perfect', and the highest titre presented was considered being the infecting serovar, which may not hold true; (c) The strains used to represent the serovars and the limited number of different serovars and species included in the genetic analysis, which leads to the possibility that these proteins might be present in different species or serovars that perhaps would be seroprevalent in another geographic region. CONCLUSIONS: The new leptospiral antigens described in this research could increase the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for detection of Leptospira exposure and the detection of leptospirosis in horses along with support from other clinical signs. Some of these new antigens might be used to improve the detection of infecting serovar.

19.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6422-6433, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248557

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic tibiotarsal bone disease in rapidly growing birds throughout the world, which is characterized by gait disorders, reduced growth, and in an unrecoverable lameness in many cases. The short production cycle in chickens, long metabolism cycle in most of the drugs with the severe drug residue, and high treatment cost severely restrict the enthusiasm for the treatment of TD. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of avian bone diseases. Previously, a couple of traditional Chinese medicines has been reported being useful in treating TD. This review will discuss the TCM used in TD and the alternative TCM to treat TD. Selecting a TCM approach and its pharmacologic effects on TD chickens mainly focused on the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of chondrocytes, angiogenesis, matrix metabolism, oxidative damage, cytokines, and calcification of cartilage in tibia.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Osteocondrodisplasias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tíbia , Animais , China , Osteocondrodisplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tíbia/patologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 563143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101281

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in various biological processes through regulation of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Although miRNAs are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in mammals, few reports regarding the effects of host miRNAs on macrophage activation and differentiation are available in birds. Here, we reported that gga-miR-200b-3p acts as a positive regulator, enhancing macrophage activation and differentiation using an avian model. We found that ectopic expression of gga-miR-200b-3p in HD11 cells enhances the amount of MHC-II-positive cells and promotes the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and that gga-miR-200b-3p directly targets monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD). The inhibition of MMD by gga-miR-200b-3p enhances the activation and differentiation of HD11 cells and increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these findings highlight a crucial role of gga-miR-200b-3p in macrophage activation and differentiation in birds.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Monócitos/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Galinhas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
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