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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(11): 1523-1525, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741161
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19787, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611289

RESUMO

Breast cancer metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer. Identification of germline variants associated with survival in aggressive types of breast cancer may inform understanding of breast cancer progression and assist treatment. In this analysis, we studied the associations between germline variants and breast cancer survival for patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis. We used data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) including 1062 women of European ancestry with metastatic breast cancer, 606 of whom died of breast cancer. We identified two germline variants on chromosome 1, rs138569520 and rs146023652, significantly associated with breast cancer-specific survival (P = 3.19 × 10-8 and 4.42 × 10-8). In silico analysis suggested a potential regulatory effect of the variants on the nearby target genes SDE2 and H3F3A. However, the variants showed no evidence of association in a smaller replication dataset. The validation dataset was obtained from the SNPs to Risk of Metastasis (StoRM) study and included 293 patients with metastatic primary breast cancer at diagnosis. Ultimately, larger replication studies are needed to confirm the identified associations.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(11): 2096-2104, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subsequent thyroid cancer (STC) is one of the most common malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. We aimed to evaluate the polygenic contributions to STC risk and potential utility in improving risk prediction. METHODS: A polygenic risk score (PRS) was calculated from 12 independent SNPs associated with thyroid cancer risk in the general population. Associations between PRS and STC risk were evaluated among survivors from St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (SJLIFE) and were replicated in survivors from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). A risk prediction model integrating the PRS and clinical factors, initially developed in SJLIFE, and its performance were validated in CCSS. RESULTS: Among 2,370 SJLIFE survivors with a median follow-up of 28.8 [interquartile range (IQR) = 21.9-36.1] years, 65 (2.7%) developed STC. Among them, the standardized PRS was associated with an increased rate of STC [relative rate (RR) = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.98; P < 0.001]. Similar associations were replicated in 6,416 CCSS survivors, among whom 121 (1.9%) developed STC during median follow-up of 28.9 (IQR = 22.6-34.6) years (RR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.25-1.83; P < 0.001). A risk prediction model integrating the PRS with clinical factors showed better performance than the model considering only clinical factors in SJLIFE (P = 0.004, AUC = 83.2% vs. 82.1%, at age 40), which was further validated in CCSS (P = 0.010, AUC = 72.9% vs. 70.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Integration of the PRS with clinical factors provided a statistically significant improvement in risk prediction of STC, although the magnitude of improvement was modest. IMPACT: PRS improves risk stratification and prediction of STC, suggesting its potential utility for optimizing screening strategies in survivorship care.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1852-1865, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559995

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered 20 risk loci in the human genome where germline variants associate with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in populations of European ancestry. Here, we fine-mapped one such locus on chr16q23.1 (rs72802365, p = 2.51 × 10-17, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.31-1.40) and identified colocalization (PP = 0.87) with aberrant exon 5-7 CTRB2 splicing in pancreatic tissues (pGTEx = 1.40 × 10-69, ßGTEx = 1.99; pLTG = 1.02 × 10-30, ßLTG = 1.99). Imputation of a 584 bp structural variant overlapping exon 6 of CTRB2 into the GWAS datasets resulted in a highly significant association with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 2.83 × 10-16, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.31-1.42), indicating that it may underlie this signal. Exon skipping attributable to the deletion (risk) allele introduces a premature stop codon in exon 7 of CTRB2, yielding a truncated chymotrypsinogen B2 protein that lacks chymotrypsin activity, is poorly secreted, and accumulates intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We propose that intracellular accumulation of a nonfunctional chymotrypsinogen B2 protein leads to ER stress and pancreatic inflammation, which may explain the increased pancreatic cancer risk in carriers of CTRB2 exon 6 deletion alleles.


Assuntos
Quimotripsina/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Deleção de Sequência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimotripsina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1590-1610, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390653

RESUMO

Our study investigated the underlying mechanism for the 14q24 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility risk locus identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sentinel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4903064, at 14q24 confers an allele-specific effect on expression of the double PHD fingers 3 (DPF3) of the BAF SWI/SNF complex as assessed by massively parallel reporter assay, confirmatory luciferase assays, and eQTL analyses. Overexpression of DPF3 in renal cell lines increases growth rates and alters chromatin accessibility and gene expression, leading to inhibition of apoptosis and activation of oncogenic pathways. siRNA interference of multiple DPF3-deregulated genes reduces growth. Our results indicate that germline variation in DPF3, a component of the BAF complex, part of the SWI/SNF complexes, can lead to reduced apoptosis and activation of the STAT3 pathway, both critical in RCC carcinogenesis. In addition, we show that altered DPF3 expression in the 14q24 RCC locus could influence the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment for RCC by regulating tumor cytokine secretion and immune cell activation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/imunologia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 86, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15). RESULTS: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 125(8): 1135-1145, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. RESULTS: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10-2), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. CONCLUSION: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.

9.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 143, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) are large chromosomal gains, losses and copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in peripheral leukocytes. While many individuals with detectable mCAs have no notable adverse outcomes, mCA-associated gene dosage alterations as well as clonal expansion of mutated leukocyte clones could increase susceptibility to disease. RESULTS: We performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) using existing data from 482,396 UK Biobank (UKBB) participants to investigate potential associations between mCAs and incident disease. Of the 1290 ICD codes we examined, our adjusted analysis identified a total of 50 incident disease outcomes associated with mCAs at PheWAS significance levels. We observed striking differences in the diseases associated with each type of alteration, with autosomal mCAs most associated with increased hematologic malignancies, incident infections and possibly cancer therapy-related conditions. Alterations of chromosome X were associated with increased lymphoid leukemia risk and, mCAs of chromosome Y were linked to potential reduced metabolic disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a wide range of diseases are potential sequelae of mCAs and highlight the critical importance of careful covariate adjustment in mCA disease association studies.

10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(2): pkab007, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308104

RESUMO

Background: Pediatric cancers are the leading cause of death by disease in children despite improved survival rates overall. The contribution of germline genetic susceptibility to pediatric cancer survivors has not been extensively characterized. We assessed the frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in 5451 long-term pediatric cancer survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: Exome sequencing was conducted on germline DNA from 5451 pediatric cancer survivors (cases who survived ≥5 years from diagnosis; n = 5105 European) and 597 European cancer-free adults (controls). Analyses focused on comparing the frequency of rare P/LP variants in 237 cancer-susceptibility genes and a subset of 60 autosomal dominant high-to-moderate penetrance genes, for both case-case and case-control comparisons. Results: Of European cases, 4.1% harbored a P/LP variant in high-to-moderate penetrance autosomal dominant genes compared with 1.3% in controls (2-sided P = 3 × 10-4). The highest frequency of P/LP variants was in genes typically associated with adult onset rather than pediatric cancers, including BRCA1/2, FH, PALB2, PMS2, and CDKN2A. A statistically significant excess of P/LP variants, after correction for multiple tests, was detected in patients with central nervous system cancers (NF1, SUFU, TSC1, PTCH2), Wilms tumor (WT1, REST), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PMS2), and soft tissue sarcomas (SDHB, DICER1, TP53, ERCC4, FGFR3) compared with other pediatric cancers. Conclusion: In long-term pediatric cancer survivors, we identified P/LP variants in cancer-susceptibility genes not previously associated with pediatric cancer as well as confirmed known associations. Further characterization of variants in these genes in pediatric cancer will be important to provide optimal genetic counseling for patients and their families.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15004, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294836

RESUMO

To improve risk stratification and treatment decisions for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We used SNP-array data from the DISCOVeRY-BMT study to detect chromosomal aberrations in pre-HCT peripheral blood (collected 2-4 weeks before the administration of conditioning regimen) from 1974 AML patients who received HCT between 2000 and 2011. All aberrations detected in ≥ 10 patients were tested for their association with overall survival (OS), separately by remission status, using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Cox regression models were used for multivariable analyses. Follow-up was through January 2019. We identified 701 unique chromosomal aberrations in 285 patients (7% of 1438 in complete remission (CR) and 36% of 536 not in CR). Copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (CNLOH) in chr17p in CR patients (3-year OS = 20% vs. 50%, with and without chr17p CNLOH, p = 0.0002), and chr13q in patients not in CR (3-year OS = 4% vs. 26%, with and without chr13q CNLOH, p < 0.0001) are risk factors for poor survival. Models adjusted for clinical factors showed approximately three-fold excess risk of post-HCT mortality with chr17p CNLOH in CR patients (hazard ratio, HR = 3.39, 95% confidence interval CI 1.74-6.60, p = 0.0003), or chr13q CNLOH in patients not in CR (HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.75-4.09, p < 0.0001). The observed mortality was mostly driven by post-HCT relapse (HR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.01-6.02, p = 0.047 for chr17p CNLOH in CR patients, and HR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.63-4.08, p < 0.0001 for chr13q CNLOH in patients not in CR. Pre-transplant CNLOH in chr13q or chr17p predicts risk of poor outcomes after unrelated donor HCT in AML patients. A large prospective study is warranted to validate the results and evaluate novel strategies to improve survival in those patients.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1408-1417, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244212

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by large intracellular lipid droplets containing free and esterified cholesterol; however, the functional significance of cholesterol accumulation in ccRCC cells is unknown. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes are repressed in ccRCC, suggesting a dependency on exogenous cholesterol. Mendelian randomization analyses based on 31,000 individuals indicate a causal link between elevated circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ccRCC risk. Depriving ccRCC cells of either cholesterol or HDL compromises proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo; in contrast, elevated dietary cholesterol promotes tumor growth. Scavenger Receptor B1 (SCARB1) is uniquely required for cholesterol import, and inhibiting SCARB1 is sufficient to cause ccRCC cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, we reveal a cholesterol dependency in ccRCC and implicate SCARB1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating kidney cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that ccRCC cells are auxotrophic for exogenous cholesterol to maintain PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and ROS homeostasis. Blocking cholesterol import through the HDL transporter SCARB1 compromises ccRCC cell survival and tumor growth, suggesting a novel pharmacologic target for this disease.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chordoma is a rare bone cancer with an unknown etiology. TBXT is the only chordoma susceptibility gene identified to date; germline single nucleotide variants and copy number variants in TBXT have been associated with chordoma susceptibility in familial and sporadic chordoma. However, the genetic susceptibility of chordoma remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated rare germline genetic variants in genes involved in TBXT/chordoma-related signaling pathways and other biological processes in chordoma patients from North America and China. METHODS: We identified variants that were very rare in general population and internal control datasets and showed evidence for pathogenicity in 265 genes in a whole exome sequencing (WES) dataset of 138 chordoma patients of European ancestry and in a whole genome sequencing (WGS) dataset of 80 Chinese patients with skull base chordoma. RESULTS: Rare and likely pathogenic variants were identified in 32 of 138 European ancestry patients (23%), including genes that are part of notochord development, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Sonic Hedgehog, SWI/SNF complex and mesoderm development pathways. Rare pathogenic variants in COL2A1, EXT1, PDK1, LRP2, TBXT and TSC2, among others, were also observed in Chinese patients. CONCLUSION: We identified several rare loss-of-function and predicted deleterious missense variants in germline DNA from patients with chordoma, which may influence chordoma predisposition and reflect a complex susceptibility, warranting further investigation in large studies.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(7): 1190-1203, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146516

RESUMO

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10-31).


Assuntos
Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
16.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(6): 785-793, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037709

RESUMO

Recently, ovarian cancer research has evolved considerably because of the emerging recognition that rather than a single disease, ovarian carcinomas comprise several different histotypes that vary by etiologic origin, risk factors, molecular profiles, therapeutic approaches and clinical outcome. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, as well as important clinical advances, it remains the eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the most fatal gynecologic cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the United States National Cancer Institute jointly convened an expert panel on ovarian carcinoma to develop consensus research priorities based on evolving scientific discoveries. Expertise ranged from etiology, prevention, early detection, pathology, model systems, molecular characterization and treatment/clinical management. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights expert consensus on future directions to continue advancing etiologic, epidemiologic and prognostic research on ovarian carcinoma.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Congressos como Assunto , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estados Unidos
17.
Int J Cancer ; 149(7): 1448-1454, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058014

RESUMO

The ccA and ccB molecular subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have well-characterized prognostic relevance. However, it is not known whether they possess distinct etiologies. We investigated the relationships between these subtypes and RCC risk factors within a case-control study conducted in Eastern Europe. We analyzed risk factor data for ccA (n = 144) and ccB (n = 106) cases and 1476 controls through case-only and case-control comparisons to assess risk factor differences across subtypes using logistic and polytomous regression models. We also performed a meta-analysis summarizing case-only results from our study and three patient cohorts. Patients with ccB tumors had poorer survival than those with ccA tumors and were more likely to be male (case-only odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-5.03). In case-control analyses, body mass index was significantly associated with ccA tumors (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18-5.10 for ≥35 vs <25 kg/m2 ) but not with ccB tumors (1.52, 0.56-4.12), while trichloroethylene was associated with ccB but not ccA (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.11-8.65 and 1.25, 0.36-4.39 respectively for ≥1.58 ppm-years vs unexposed). A polygenic risk score of genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies was associated with both ccA and, in particular, ccB (OR 1.82, 1.11-2.99 and 2.87, 95% CI 1.64-5.01 respectively for 90th vs 10th percentile). In a meta-analysis of case-only results including three patient cohorts, we still observed the ccB excess for male sex and the ccA excess for obesity. In conclusion, our findings suggest the existence of etiologic heterogeneity across ccRCC molecular subtypes for several risk factors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/classificação , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/classificação , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Science ; 372(6543): 725-729, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888597

RESUMO

Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated germline de novo mutations (DNMs) in children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation after the accident. Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987-2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase in the rates, distributions, or types of DNMs relative to the results of previous studies. We find no elevation in total DNMs, regardless of cumulative preconception gonadal paternal [mean = 365 milligrays (mGy), range = 0 to 4080 mGy] or maternal (mean = 19 mGy, range = 0 to 550 mGy) exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, we conclude that, over this exposure range, evidence is lacking for a substantial effect on germline DNMs in humans, suggesting minimal impact from transgenerational genetic effects.

20.
Science ; 372(6543)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888599

RESUMO

The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident increased papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in surrounding regions, particularly for radioactive iodine (131I)-exposed children. We analyzed genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic characteristics of 440 PTCs from Ukraine (from 359 individuals with estimated childhood 131I exposure and 81 unexposed children born after 1986). PTCs displayed radiation dose-dependent enrichment of fusion drivers, nearly all in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and increases in small deletions and simple/balanced structural variants that were clonal and bore hallmarks of nonhomologous end-joining repair. Radiation-related genomic alterations were more pronounced for individuals who were younger at exposure. Transcriptomic and epigenomic features were strongly associated with driver events but not radiation dose. Our results point to DNA double-strand breaks as early carcinogenic events that subsequently enable PTC growth after environmental radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Mutação , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/etiologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epigenoma , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes ras , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , RNA-Seq , Doses de Radiação , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Translocação Genética , Ucrânia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
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