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1.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 239-248, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082445

RESUMO

Pleiotropy, which consists of a single gene or allelic variant affecting multiple unrelated traits, is common across cancers, with evidence for genome-wide significant loci shared across cancer and noncancer traits. This feature is particularly relevant in multiple myeloma (MM) because several susceptibility loci that have been identified to date are pleiotropic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel pleiotropic variants involved in MM risk using 28 684 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from GWAS Catalog that reached a significant association (P < 5 × 10-8 ) with their respective trait. The selected SNPs were analyzed in 2434 MM cases and 3446 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). The 10 SNPs showing the strongest associations with MM risk in InterLymph were selected for replication in an independent set of 1955 MM cases and 1549 controls from the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium and 418 MM cases and 147 282 controls from the FinnGen project. The combined analysis of the three studies identified an association between DNAJB4-rs34517439-A and an increased risk of developing MM (OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.13-1.32, P = 4.81 × 10-7 ). rs34517439-A is associated with a modified expression of the FUBP1 gene, which encodes a multifunctional DNA and RNA-binding protein that it was observed to influence the regulation of various genes involved in cell cycle regulation, among which various oncogenes and oncosuppressors. In conclusion, with a pleiotropic scan approach we identified DNAJB4-rs34517439 as a potentially novel MM risk locus.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Oncogenes , Alelos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
2.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(20): 1157-1170, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are associated with higher breast cancer risk in observational studies, but ascribing causality is difficult. Mendelian randomisation (MR) assesses causality by simulating randomised trial groups using genotype. We assessed whether lifelong physical activity or sedentary time, assessed using genotype, may be causally associated with breast cancer risk overall, pre/post-menopause, and by case-groups defined by tumour characteristics. METHODS: We performed two-sample inverse-variance-weighted MR using individual-level Breast Cancer Association Consortium case-control data from 130 957 European-ancestry women (69 838 invasive cases), and published UK Biobank data (n=91 105-377 234). Genetic instruments were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated in UK Biobank with wrist-worn accelerometer-measured overall physical activity (nsnps=5) or sedentary time (nsnps=6), or accelerometer-measured (nsnps=1) or self-reported (nsnps=5) vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Greater genetically-predicted overall activity was associated with lower breast cancer overall risk (OR=0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 0.83 per-standard deviation (SD;~8 milligravities acceleration)) and for most case-groups. Genetically-predicted vigorous activity was associated with lower risk of pre/perimenopausal breast cancer (OR=0.62; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.87,≥3 vs. 0 self-reported days/week), with consistent estimates for most case-groups. Greater genetically-predicted sedentary time was associated with higher hormone-receptor-negative tumour risk (OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.92 per-SD (~7% time spent sedentary)), with elevated estimates for most case-groups. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses examining pleiotropy (including weighted-median-MR, MR-Egger). CONCLUSION: Our study provides strong evidence that greater overall physical activity, greater vigorous activity, and lower sedentary time are likely to reduce breast cancer risk. More widespread adoption of active lifestyles may reduce the burden from the most common cancer in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
3.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2200145, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409970

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a component of familial melanoma due to germline pathogenic variants (GPVs) in CDKN2A. However, it is unclear what role this gene or other genes play in its etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 189 cancer predisposition genes using parametric rare-variant association (RVA) tests and nonparametric permutation tests to identify gene-level associations in PDAC for patients with (CDKN2A+) and without (CDKN2A-) GPV. Exome sequencing was performed on 84 patients with PDAC, 47 CDKN2A+ and 37 CDKN2A-. After variant filtering, various RVA tests and permutation tests were run separately by CDKN2A status. Genes with the strongest nominal associations were evaluated in patients with PDAC from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the UK Biobank (UKB). A secondary analysis including only GPV from UKB was also performed. RESULTS: In RVA tests, ERCC4 and RET showed the most compelling evidence as plausible PDAC candidate genes for CDKN2A+ patients. In contrast, the findings in CDKN2A- patients provided evidence for HMBS, EPCAM, and MRE11 as potential new candidate genes and confirmed ATM, BRCA2, and PALB2 as PDAC genes, consistent with findings in The Cancer Genome Atlas and the UKB. As expected, CDKN2A- patients were more likely to harbor GPVs from the 189 genes investigated. When including only GPVs from UKB, significant associations with PDAC were seen for ATM, BRCA2, and CDKN2A. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that variants in other genes likely play a role in PDAC in all patients and that PDAC in CDKN2A+ patients has a distinct etiology from PDAC in CDKN2A- patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Células Germinativas/patologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423637

RESUMO

The most recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cutaneous melanoma identified 54 risk-associated loci, but functional variants and their target genes for most have not been established. Here, we performed massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs) by using malignant melanoma and normal melanocyte cells and further integrated multi-layer annotation to systematically prioritize functional variants and susceptibility genes from these GWAS loci. Of 1,992 risk-associated variants tested in MPRAs, we identified 285 from 42 loci (78% of the known loci) displaying significant allelic transcriptional activities in either cell type (FDR < 1%). We further characterized MPRA-significant variants by motif prediction, epigenomic annotation, and statistical/functional fine-mapping to create integrative variant scores, which prioritized one to six plausible candidate variants per locus for the 42 loci and nominated a single variant for 43% of these loci. Overlaying the MPRA-significant variants with genome-wide significant expression or methylation quantitative trait loci (eQTLs or meQTLs, respectively) from melanocytes or melanomas identified candidate susceptibility genes for 60% of variants (172 of 285 variants). CRISPRi of top-scoring variants validated their cis-regulatory effect on the eQTL target genes, MAFF (22q13.1) and GPRC5A (12p13.1). Finally, we identified 36 melanoma-specific and 45 melanocyte-specific MPRA-significant variants, a subset of which are linked to cell-type-specific target genes. Analyses of transcription factor availability in MPRA datasets and variant-transcription-factor interaction in eQTL datasets highlighted the roles of transcription factors in cell-type-specific variant functionality. In conclusion, MPRAs along with variant scoring effectively prioritized plausible candidates for most melanoma GWAS loci and highlighted cellular contexts where the susceptibility variants are functional.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chordoma is a rare bone tumor with a high recurrence rate and limited treatment options. The aim of this study was to identify molecular subtypes of chordoma that may improve clinical management. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted RNA sequencing in 48 tumors from Chinese skull-base chordoma patients and identified two major molecular subtypes. We then replicated the classification using a NanoString panel in 48 chordoma patients from North America. RESULTS: Tumors in one subtype were more likely to have somatic mutations and reduced expression in chromatin remodeling genes, such as PBRM1 and SETD2, while the other subtype was characterized by the upregulation of genes in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. Immunohistochemical staining of top differentially expressed genes between the two subtypes in 312 Chinese chordoma patients with long-term follow-up data showed that the expression of some markers such as PTCH1 was significantly associated with survival outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may improve the understanding of subtype-specific tumorigenesis of chordoma and inform clinical prognostication and targeted options.

6.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130692

RESUMO

US physicians in multiple specialties who order or conduct radiological procedures lack formal radiation science education and thus sometimes order procedures of limited benefit or fail to order what is necessary. To this end, a multidisciplinary expert group proposed an introductory broad-based radiation science educational program for U.S. medical schools. Suggested preclinical elements of the curriculum include foundational education on ionizing and nonionizing radiation (eg, definitions, dose metrics, and risk measures) and short- and long-term radiation-related health effects as well as introduction to radiology, radiation therapy, and radiation protection concepts. Recommended clinical elements of the curriculum would impart knowledge and practical experience in radiology, fluoroscopically guided procedures, nuclear medicine, radiation oncology, and identification of patient subgroups requiring special considerations when selecting specific ionizing or nonionizing diagnostic or therapeutic radiation procedures. Critical components of the clinical program would also include educational material and direct experience with patient-centered communication on benefits of, risks of, and shared decision making about ionizing and nonionizing radiation procedures and on health effects and safety requirements for environmental and occupational exposure to ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Overarching is the introduction to evidence-based guidelines for procedures that maximize clinical benefit while limiting unnecessary risk. The content would be further developed, directed, and integrated within the curriculum by local faculties and would address multiple standard elements of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency of the Association of American Medical Colleges.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5284, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075929

RESUMO

Myelofibrosis is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) with high risk for progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Our integrated genomic analysis of up to 933 myelofibrosis cases identifies 6 germline susceptibility loci, 4 of which overlap with previously identified MPN loci. Virtual karyotyping identifies high frequencies of mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs), with enrichment at myelofibrosis GWAS susceptibility loci and recurrently somatically mutated MPN genes (e.g., JAK2). We replicate prior MPN associations showing germline variation at the 9p24.1 risk haplotype confers elevated risk of acquiring JAK2V617F mutations, demonstrating with long-read sequencing that this relationship occurs in cis. We also describe recurrent 9p24.1 large mCAs that selectively retained JAK2V617F mutations. Germline variation associated with longer telomeres is associated with increased myelofibrosis risk. Myelofibrosis cases with high-frequency JAK2 mCAs have marked reductions in measured telomere length - suggesting a relationship between telomere biology and myelofibrosis clonal expansion. Our results advance understanding of the germline-somatic interaction at JAK2 and implicate mCAs involving JAK2 as strong promoters of clonal expansion of those mutated clones.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Mielofibrose Primária , Células Germinativas , Haplótipos , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Mutação , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/genética
8.
Nat Genet ; 54(8): 1167-1177, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915169

RESUMO

To identify new susceptibility loci to lung cancer among diverse populations, we performed cross-ancestry genome-wide association studies in European, East Asian and African populations and discovered five loci that have not been previously reported. We replicated 26 signals and identified 10 new lead associations from previously reported loci. Rare-variant associations tended to be specific to populations, but even common-variant associations influencing smoking behavior, such as those with CHRNA5 and CYP2A6, showed population specificity. Fine-mapping and expression quantitative trait locus colocalization nominated several candidate variants and susceptibility genes such as IRF4 and FUBP1. DNA damage assays of prioritized genes in lung fibroblasts indicated that a subset of these genes, including the pleiotropic gene IRF4, potentially exert effects by promoting endogenous DNA damage.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
9.
Bioinformatics ; 38(18): 4434-4436, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900159

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have recently generated genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for multiple traits in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Genomic Atlas project. The GWAS included 110 000 participants. The dissemination of the genetic association data through a data portal called GWAS Explorer, in a manner that addresses the modern expectations of FAIR reusability by data scientists and engineers, is the main motivation for the development of the open-source JavaScript software development kit (SDK) reported here. RESULTS: The PLCO GWAS Explorer resource relies on a public stateless HTTP application programming interface (API) deployed as the sole backend service for both the landing page's web application and third-party analytical workflows. The core PLCOjs SDK is mapped to each of the API methods, and also to each of the reference graphic visualizations in the GWAS Explorer. A few additional visualization methods extend it. As is the norm with web SDKs, no download or installation is needed and modularization supports targeted code injection for web applications, reactive notebooks (Observable) and node-based web services. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: code at https://github.com/episphere/plco; project page at https://episphere.github.io/plco.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Próstata , Software , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Pulmão
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1769-1779, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), histologically classified as seminomas and nonseminomas, are believed to arise from primordial gonocytes, with the maturation process blocked when they are subjected to DNA methylation reprogramming. SNPs in DNA methylation machinery and folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism genes have been postulated to influence the proper establishment of DNA methylation. METHODS: In this pathway-focused investigation, we evaluated the association between 273 selected tag SNPs from 28 DNA methylation-related genes and TGCT risk. We carried out association analysis at individual SNP and gene-based level using summary statistics from the Genome Wide Association Study meta-analysis recently conducted by the international Testicular Cancer Consortium on 10,156 TGCT cases and 179,683 controls. RESULTS: In individual SNP analyses, seven SNPs, four mapping within MTHFR, were associated with TGCT risk after correction for multiple testing (q ≤ 0.05). Queries of public databases showed that three of these SNPs were associated with MTHFR changes in enzymatic activity (rs1801133) or expression level in testis tissue (rs12121543, rs1476413). Gene-based analyses revealed MTHFR (q = 8.4 × 10-4), methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2; q = 2 × 10-3), and ZBTB4 (q = 0.03) as the top TGCT-associated genes. Stratifying by tumor histology, four MTHFR SNPs were associated with seminoma. In gene-based analysis MTHFR was associated with risk of seminoma (q = 2.8 × 10-4), but not with nonseminomatous tumors (q = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants within MTHFR, potentially having an impact on the DNA methylation pattern, are associated with TGCT risk. IMPACT: This finding suggests that TGCT pathogenesis could be associated with the folate cycle status, and this relation could be partly due to hereditary factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Metilação de DNA , Ácido Fólico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seminoma/genética , Seminoma/metabolismo , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1863-1866, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple myeloma in populations of European ancestry (EA) identified and confirmed 24 susceptibility loci. For other cancers (e.g., colorectum and melanoma), risk loci have also been associated with patient survival. METHODS: We explored the possible association of all the known risk variants and their polygenic risk score (PRS) with multiple myeloma overall survival (OS) in multiple populations of EA [the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, the International Lymphoma Epidemiology consortium, CoMMpass, and the German GWAS] for a total of 3,748 multiple myeloma cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association between each risk SNP with OS under the allelic and codominant models of inheritance. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country of origin (for IMMEnSE) or principal components (for the others) and disease stage (ISS). SNP associations were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: SNP associations were meta-analyzed. From the meta-analysis, two multiple myeloma risk SNPs were associated with OS (P < 0.05), specifically POT1-AS1-rs2170352 [HR = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.73; P = 0.007] and TNFRSF13B-rs4273077 (HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.01-1.41; P = 0.04). The association between the combined 24 SNP MM-PRS and OS, however, was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results did not support an association between the majority of multiple myeloma risk SNPs and OS. IMPACT: This is the first study to investigate the association between multiple myeloma PRS and OS in multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mieloma Múltiplo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(8): 1593-1601, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk estimates for women carrying germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes are mainly based on studies of European ancestry women. METHODS: We investigated associations between pathogenic variants (PV) in 34 genes with breast cancer risk in 871 cases [307 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 321 ER-negative, and 243 ER-unknown] and 1,563 controls in the Ghana Breast Health Study (GBHS), and estimated lifetime risk for carriers. We compared results with those for European, Asian, and African American ancestry women. RESULTS: The frequency of PV in GBHS for nine breast cancer genes was 8.38% in cases and 1.22% in controls. Relative risk estimates for overall breast cancer were: (OR, 13.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.03-46.51) for BRCA1, (OR, 7.02; 95% CI, 3.17-15.54) for BRCA2, (OR, 17.25; 95% CI, 2.15-138.13) for PALB2, 5 cases and no controls carried TP53 PVs, and 2.10, (0.72-6.14) for moderate-risk genes combined (ATM, BARD1, CHEK2, RAD51C, RAD52D). These estimates were similar to those previously reported in other populations and were modified by ER status. No other genes evaluated had mutations associated at P < 0.05 with overall risk. The estimated lifetime risks for mutation carriers in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 and moderate-risk genes were 18.4%, 9.8%, 22.4%, and 3.1%, respectively, markedly lower than in Western populations with higher baseline risks. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed associations between PV and breast cancer risk in Ghanaian women and provide absolute risk estimates that could inform counseling in Ghana and other West African countries. IMPACT: These findings have direct relevance for breast cancer genetic counseling for women in West Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Risco
13.
Hum Mutat ; 43(10): 1396-1407, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762214

RESUMO

Chordoma is a rare bone tumor with genetic risk factors largely unknown. We conducted a whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis of germline DNA from 19 familial chordoma cases in five pedigrees and 137 sporadic chordoma patients and identified 17 rare germline variants in PALB2 and BRCA2, whose products play essential roles in homologous recombination (HR) and tumor suppression. One PALB2 variant showed disease cosegregation in a family with four affected people or obligate gene carrier. Chordoma cases had a significantly increased burden of rare variants in both genes when compared to population-based controls. Four of the six PALB2 variants identified from chordoma patients modestly affected HR function and three of the 11 BRCA2 variants caused loss of function in experimental assays. These results, together with previous reports of abnormal morphology and Brachyury expression of the notochord in Palb2 knockout mouse embryos and genomic signatures associated with HR defect and HR gene mutations in advanced chordomas, suggest that germline mutations in PALB2 and BRCA2 may increase chordoma susceptibility. Our data shed light on the etiology of chordoma and support the previous finding that PARP-1 inhibitors may be a potential therapy for some chordoma patients.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2 , Neoplasias da Mama , Cordoma , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Animais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cordoma/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Camundongos
14.
Nature ; 606(7916): 999-1006, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676472

RESUMO

Large-scale human genetic data1-3 have shown that cancer mutations display strong tissue-selectivity, but how this selectivity arises remains unclear. Here, using experimental models, functional genomics and analyses of patient samples, we demonstrate that the lineage transcription factor paired box 8 (PAX8) is required for oncogenic signalling by two common genetic alterations that cause clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in humans: the germline variant rs7948643 at 11q13.3 and somatic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL)4-6. VHL loss, which is observed in about 90% of ccRCCs, can lead to hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2A) stabilization6,7. We show that HIF2A is preferentially recruited to PAX8-bound transcriptional enhancers, including a pro-tumorigenic cyclin D1 (CCND1) enhancer that is controlled by PAX8 and HIF2A. The ccRCC-protective allele C at rs7948643 inhibits PAX8 binding at this enhancer and downstream activation of CCND1 expression. Co-option of a PAX8-dependent physiological programme that supports the proliferation of normal renal epithelial cells is also required for MYC expression from the ccRCC metastasis-associated amplicons at 8q21.3-q24.3 (ref. 8). These results demonstrate that transcriptional lineage factors are essential for oncogenic signalling and that they mediate tissue-specific cancer risk associated with somatic and inherited genetic variants.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Neoplasias Renais , Fator de Transcrição PAX8 , Transdução de Sinais , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Ciclina D1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(18): 3133-3143, 2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554533

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) are useful for predicting breast cancer risk, but the prediction accuracy of existing PRSs in women of African ancestry (AA) remains relatively low. We aim to develop optimal PRSs for the prediction of overall and estrogen receptor (ER) subtype-specific breast cancer risk in AA women. The AA dataset comprised 9235 cases and 10 184 controls from four genome-wide association study (GWAS) consortia and a GWAS study in Ghana. We randomly divided samples into training and validation sets. We built PRSs using individual-level AA data by a forward stepwise logistic regression and then developed joint PRSs that combined (1) the PRSs built in the AA training dataset and (2) a 313-variant PRS previously developed in women of European ancestry. PRSs were evaluated in the AA validation set. For overall breast cancer, the odds ratio per standard deviation of the joint PRS in the validation set was 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-1.42] with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.581. Compared with women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of the PRS had a 1.98-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.63-2.39). For PRSs of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer, the AUCs were 0.608 and 0.576, respectively. Compared with existing methods, the proposed joint PRSs can improve prediction of breast cancer risk in AA women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 51, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein truncating variants in ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2 are associated with increased breast cancer risk, but risks associated with missense variants in these genes are uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data on 59,639 breast cancer cases and 53,165 controls from studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium BRIDGES project. We sampled training (80%) and validation (20%) sets to analyze rare missense variants in ATM (1146 training variants), BRCA1 (644), BRCA2 (1425), CHEK2 (325), and PALB2 (472). We evaluated breast cancer risks according to five in silico prediction-of-deleteriousness algorithms, functional protein domain, and frequency, using logistic regression models and also mixture models in which a subset of variants was assumed to be risk-associated. RESULTS: The most predictive in silico algorithms were Helix (BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2) and CADD (ATM). Increased risks appeared restricted to functional protein domains for ATM (FAT and PIK domains) and BRCA1 (RING and BRCT domains). For ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2, data were compatible with small subsets (approximately 7%, 2%, and 0.6%, respectively) of rare missense variants giving similar risk to those of protein truncating variants in the same gene. For CHEK2, data were more consistent with a large fraction (approximately 60%) of rare missense variants giving a lower risk (OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.47-2.08)) than CHEK2 protein truncating variants. There was little evidence for an association with risk for missense variants in PALB2. The best fitting models were well calibrated in the validation set. CONCLUSIONS: These results will inform risk prediction models and the selection of candidate variants for functional assays and could contribute to the clinical reporting of gene panel testing for breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(9): 1296-1300, 2022 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438160

RESUMO

It is unclear if body weight in early life affects cancer risk independently of adult body weight. To investigate this question for 6 obesity-related cancers, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses using 1) Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis and 2) longitudinal analyses in prospective cohorts. Both the MR and longitudinal analyses indicated that larger early life body size was associated with higher risk of endometrial (odds ratioMR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 1.23 to 2.11) and kidney (odds ratioMR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.09 to 1.80) cancer. These associations were attenuated after accounting for adult body size in both the MR and cohort analyses. Early life body mass index (BMI) was not consistently associated with the other investigated cancers. The lack of clear independent risk associations suggests that early life BMI influences endometrial and kidney cancer risk mainly through pathways that are common with adult BMI.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e223461, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315916

RESUMO

Importance: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved survival in patients with advanced melanoma but can be associated with a spectrum of immune-related adverse events (AEs), including both autoimmune-related AEs and other immune-related inflammatory AEs. These associations have primarily been evaluated in clinical trials that include highly selected patients, with older adults often underrepresented. Objective: To evaluate the association between use of ICIs and immune-related AEs (autoimmune and other immune related) among older patients with cutaneous melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015. Data were analyzed from January 31 to May 31, 2021. With use of a linked database of Medicare claims and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program population-based cancer registries, patients of White race diagnosed with stages II-IV or unknown (American Joint Committee on Cancer, AJCC Cancer Staging Manual 6th edition) first primary cutaneous melanoma during 2011-2015, as reported to SEER, and followed up through December 31, 2015, were identified. Exposures: Immune checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of melanoma. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between ICIs and immune-related AEs ascertained from Medicare claims data was estimated using multivariable Cox regression with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs and with cumulative incidence accounting for competing risk of death. Results: The study included 4489 patients of White race with first primary melanoma (3002 men [66.9%]; median age, 74.9 [range, 66.0-84.9] years). During follow-up (median, 1.4 [range, 0-5.0] years), 1576 patients (35.1%) had an immune-related AE on a Medicare claim. Use of ICIs (reported for 418 patients) was associated with autoimmune-related AEs (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-4.0), including primary adrenal insufficiency (HR, 9.9; 95% CI, 4.5-21.5) and ulcerative colitis (HR, 8.6; 95% CI, 2.8-26.3). Immune checkpoint inhibitors also were associated with other immune-related AEs (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.8), including Cushing syndrome (HR, 11.8; 95% CI, 1.4-97.2), hyperthyroidism (HR, 6.3; 95% CI, 2.0-19.5), hypothyroidism (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.4-6.1), hypopituitarism (HR, 19.8; 95% CI, 5.4-72.9), other pituitary gland disorders (HR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.2-30.2), diarrhea (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.5-4.9), and sepsis or septicemia (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3). Most associations were pronounced within 6 months following the first ICI claim and comparable with or without a baseline history of autoimmune disease. The cumulative incidence at 6 months following the first ICI claim was 13.7% (95% CI, 9.7%-18.3%) for autoimmune-related AEs and 46.8% (95% CI, 40.7%-52.7%) for other immune-related AEs. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of older adults with melanoma, ICIs were associated with autoimmune-related AEs and other immune-related AEs. Although some findings were consistent with clinical trials of ICIs, others warrant further investigation. As ICI use continues to expand rapidly, ongoing investigation of the spectrum of immune-related AEs may optimize management of disease in patients.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Medicare , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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