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1.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a keystone of fetal growth regulation by mediating the effects of IGF-I and IGF-II. Recently, a cohort of patients carrying an IGF1R defect was described, from which a clinical score was established for diagnosis. We assessed this score in a large cohort of patients with identified IGF1R defects, as no external validation was available. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a functional test to allow the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS) in vitro. METHODS: DNA was tested for either deletions or single nucleotide variant (SNV) and the phosphorylation of downstream pathways studied after stimulation with IGF-I by western blot analysis of fibroblast of nine patients. RESULTS: We detected 21 IGF1R defects in 35 patients, including 8 deletions and 10 heterozygous, 1 homozygous and 1 compound-heterozygous SNVs. The main clinical characteristics of these patients were being born small for gestational age (90.9%), short stature (88.2%) and microcephaly (74.1%). Feeding difficulties and varying degrees of developmental delay were highly prevalent (54.5%). There were no differences in phenotypes between patients with deletions and SNVs of IGF1R. Functional studies showed that the SNVs tested were associated with decreased AKT phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: We report eight new pathogenic variants of IGF1R and an original case with a homozygous SNV. We found the recently proposed clinical score to be accurate for the diagnosis of IGF1R defects with a sensitivity of 95.2%. We developed an efficient functional test to assess the pathogenicity of SNVs, which is useful, especially for VUS.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103776, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562959

RESUMO

Chromoanagenesis represents an extreme form of genomic rearrangements involving multiple breaks occurring on a single or multiple chromosomes. It has been recently described in both acquired and rare constitutional genetic disorders. Constitutional chromoanagenesis events could lead to abnormal phenotypes including developmental delay and congenital anomalies, and have also been implicated in some specific syndromic disorders. We report the case of a girl presenting with growth retardation, hypotonia, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, coloboma, and hypoplastic corpus callosum. Karyotype showed a de novo structurally abnormal chromosome 14q31qter region. Molecular characterization using SNP-array revealed a complex unbalanced rearrangement in 14q31.1-q32.2, on the paternal chromosome 14, including thirteen interstitial deletions ranging from 33 kb to 1.56 Mb in size, with a total of 4.1 Mb in size, thus suggesting that a single event like chromoanagenesis occurred. To our knowledge, this is one of the first case of 14q distal deletion due to a germline chromoanagenesis. Genome sequencing allowed the characterization of 50 breakpoints, leading to interruption of 10 genes including YY1 which fit with the patient's phenotype. This precise genotyping of breaking junction allowed better definition of genotype-phenotype correlations.

4.
Prenat Diagn ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uniparental disomy (UPD) testing is currently recommended during pregnancy in fetuses carrying a balanced Robertsonian translocation (ROB) involving chromosome 14 or 15, both chromosomes containing imprinted genes. The overall risk that such a fetus presents a UPD has been previously estimated to be around ~0.6-0.8%. However, because UPD are rare events and this estimate has been calculated from a number of studies of limited size, we have reevaluated the risk of UPD in fetuses for whom one of the parents was known to carry a nonhomologous ROB (NHROB). METHOD: We focused our multicentric study on NHROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15. A total of 1747 UPD testing were performed in fetuses during pregnancy for the presence of UPD(14) and/or UPD(15). RESULT: All fetuses were negative except one with a UPD(14) associated with a maternally inherited rob(13;14). CONCLUSION: Considering these data, the risk of UPD following prenatal diagnosis of an inherited ROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15 could be estimated to be around 0.06%, far less than the previous estimation. Importantly, the risk of miscarriage following an invasive prenatal sampling is higher than the risk of UPD. Therefore, we do not recommend prenatal testing for UPD for these pregnancies and parents should be reassured.

5.
Horm Res Paediatr ; : 1-10, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The paradox of normal growth despite a lack of growth hormone (GH) is an unexplained phenomenon described in some pathological (sellar, suprasellar, and hypothalamic disorders) and overgrowth syndromes. It has been suggested that the paradoxical growth is due to other GH variants, GH-like moieties, prolactin, insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and unidentified serum factors or growth mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying this normal growth without GH. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe here growth, hormonal, and genetic analyses for an adolescent boy with panhypopituitarism who achieved an adult height above his genetic potential. RESULTS: Normal growth was observed despite low serum GH, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and acid labile subunit (ALS) concentrations, but the IGF-II/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was slightly high. Panhypopituitarism was associated with a heterozygous missense mutation of HESX1, with variable penetrance in heterozygous relatives. Exome analysis detected heterozygous missense mutations of various genes involved in intracellular signaling pathways. The growth-promoting activity of the patient's serum was unable to induce AKT phosphorylation in the MCF-7 cell line. CONCLUSION: The high IGF-II/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was not the cause of the sustained high growth velocity, due to the low affinity of IGF-II for IGF type 1 receptor. The key finding was the HESX1 mutation, as similar cases have been described before, suggesting a common mechanism for growth without GH. However, the variable penetrance of this variant in heterozygous relatives suggests that modifier genes or mechanisms involving combinations with mutations of other genes involved in intracellular signaling pathways might be responsible.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

7.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the genetic basis of congenital ataxias (CAs), a unique group of cerebellar ataxias with a nonprogressive course, in 20 patients from consanguineous families, and to identify new CA genes. METHODS: Singleton -exome sequencing on these 20 well-clinically characterized CA patients. We first checked for rare homozygous pathogenic variants, then, for variants from a list of genes known to be associated with CA or very early-onset ataxia, regardless of their mode of inheritance. Our replication cohort of 180 CA patients was used to validate the new CA genes. RESULTS: We identified a causal gene in 16/20 families: six known CA genes (7 patients); four genes previously implicated in another neurological phenotype (7 patients); two new candidate genes (2 patients). Despite the consanguinity, 4/20 patients harbored a heterozygous de novo pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: Singleton exome sequencing in 20 consanguineous CA families led to molecular diagnosis in 80% of cases. This study confirms the genetic heterogeneity of CA and identifies two new candidate genes (PIGS and SKOR2). Our work illustrates the diversity of the pathophysiological pathways in CA, and highlights the pathogenic link between some CA and early infantile epileptic encephalopathies related to the same genes (STXBP1, BRAT1, CACNA1A and CACNA2D2).

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2436-2446, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659920

RESUMO

Context: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) (mainly secondary to 11p15 molecular disruption) and Temple syndrome (TS) (secondary to 14q32.2 molecular disruption) are imprinting disorders with phenotypic (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, early feeding difficulties) and molecular overlap. Objective: To describe the clinical overlap between SRS and TS and extensively study the molecular aspects of TS. Patients: We retrospectively collected data on 28 patients with disruption of the 14q32.2 imprinted region, identified in our center, and performed extensive molecular analysis. Results: Seventeen (60.7%) patients showed loss of methylation of the MEG3/DLK1 intergenic differentially methylated region by epimutation. Eight (28.6%) patients had maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and three (10.7%) had a paternal deletion in 14q32.2. Most patients (72.7%) had a Netchine-Harbison SRS clinical scoring system ≥4/6, and consistent with a clinical diagnosis of SRS. The mean age at puberty onset was 7.2 years in girls and 9.6 years in boys; 37.5% had premature pubarche. The body mass index of all patients increased before pubarche and/or the onset of puberty. Multilocus analysis identified multiple methylation defects in 58.8% of patients. We identified four potentially damaging genetic variants in genes encoding proteins involved in the establishment or maintenance of DNA methylation. Conclusions: Most patients with 14q32.2 disruption fulfill the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of SRS. These clinical data suggest similar management of patients with TS and SRS, with special attention to their young age at the onset of puberty and early increase of body mass index.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(7): 1228-1240, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373757

RESUMO

SOX8 is an HMG-box transcription factor closely related to SRY and SOX9. Deletion of the gene encoding Sox8 in mice causes reproductive dysfunction but the role of SOX8 in humans is unknown. Here, we show that SOX8 is expressed in the somatic cells of the early developing gonad in the human and influences human sex determination. We identified two individuals with 46, XY disorders/differences in sex development (DSD) and chromosomal rearrangements encompassing the SOX8 locus and a third individual with 46, XY DSD and a missense mutation in the HMG-box of SOX8. In vitro functional assays indicate that this mutation alters the biological activity of the protein. As an emerging body of evidence suggests that DSDs and infertility can have common etiologies, we also analysed SOX8 in a cohort of infertile men (n = 274) and two independent cohorts of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI; n = 153 and n = 104). SOX8 mutations were found at increased frequency in oligozoospermic men (3.5%; P < 0.05) and POI (5.06%; P = 4.5 × 10-5) as compared with fertile/normospermic control populations (0.74%). The mutant proteins identified altered SOX8 biological activity as compared with the wild-type protein. These data demonstrate that SOX8 plays an important role in human reproduction and SOX8 mutations contribute to a spectrum of phenotypes including 46, XY DSD, male infertility and 46, XX POI.

10.
J Med Genet ; 55(3): 205-213, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 11p15 region contains two clusters of imprinted genes. Opposite genetic and epigenetic anomalies of this region result in two distinct growth disturbance syndromes: Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndromes (SRS). Cytogenetic rearrangements within this region represent less than 3% of SRS and BWS cases. Among these, 11p15 duplications were infrequently reported and interpretation of their pathogenic effects is complex. OBJECTIVES: To report cytogenetic and methylation analyses in a cohort of patients with SRS/BWS carrying 11p15 duplications and establish genotype/phenotype correlations. METHODS: From a cohort of patients with SRS/BWS with an abnormal methylation profile (using ASMM-RTQ-PCR), we used SNP-arrays to identify and map the 11p15 duplications. We report 19 new patients with SRS (n=9) and BWS (n=10) carrying de novo or familial 11p15 duplications, which completely or partially span either both telomeric and centromeric domains or only one domain. RESULTS: Large duplications involving one complete domain or both domains are associated with either SRS or BWS, depending on the parental origin of the duplication. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies of partial duplications within the telomeric domain demonstrate the prominent role of IGF2, rather than H19, in the control of growth. Furthermore, it highlights the role of CDKN1C within the centromeric domain and suggests that the expected overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 from the paternal allele (in partial paternal duplications, excluding CDKN1C) does not affect the expression of CDKN1C. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype associated with 11p15 duplications depends on the size, genetic content, parental inheritance and imprinting status. Identification of these rare duplications is crucial for genetic counselling.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 151-155, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130637

RESUMO

A congenital myasthenia was suspected in two unrelated children with very similar phenotypes including several episodes of severe dyspnea. Both children had a 10q11.2 deletion revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms array or by Next Generation Sequencing analysis. The deletion was inherited from the healthy mother in the first case. These deletions unmasked a recessive mutation at the same locus in both cases, but in two different genes: CHAT and SLC18A3.


Assuntos
Colina O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Genes Recessivos , Mutação , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Acetilcolina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

13.
Mol Cytogenet ; 10: 28, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat) accounts for approximately 10% of patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). For upd(7)mat and trisomy 7, a significant number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the postzygotic formation of these chromosomal compositions, but all have been based on as small number of cases. To obtain the ratio of isodisomy and heterodisomy in UPDs (hUPD, iUPD) and to determine the underlying formation mechanisms, we analysed a large cohort of upd(7)mat patients (n = 73) by SNP array typing. Based on these data, we discuss the UPDs and their underlying trisomy 7 formation mechanisms. RESULTS: A whole chromosome 7 maternal iUPD was confirmed in 28.8%, a mixture or complete maternal hUPD in 71.2% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate that nondisjunction mechanism affecting chromosome 7 are similar to that of the chromosomes more frequently involved in trisomy (and/or UPD), and that mechanisms other than trisomic rescue have a lower significance than previously suspected. Furthermore, we suggest SNP array typing for future parent- and cell-stage-of origin studies in human aneuploidies as they allow the definite classification of trisomies and UPDs, and provide information on recombinational events and their suggested association with aneuploidy formation.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(8): 2268-2274, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599093

RESUMO

We report the clinical and molecular cytogenetic characterization of four unrelated patients from France and Spain, carrying 2p14 microdeletions and presenting with intellectual disability and dysmorphisms. 2p14 microdeletions are very rare. Seven patients have been reported so far harboring deletions including 2p14p15 and encompassing OTX1, whose haploinsufficiency is frequently associated with genitourinary defects. To date, only one patient has been reported carrying a more proximal 2p14 microdeletion which does not include OTX1. Here, we report three further patients carrying proximal 2p14 microdeletions not including OTX1 and one patient carrying a more distal 2p14p15 microdeletion including this gene, providing new insights into the associated phenotypic spectrum. First, our study and a review of the literature showed that 3/4 patients carrying proximal 2p14 microdeletions had sensorineural hearing loss, suggesting the presence of a previously unreported deafness-causing gene in this chromosomal region. Second, one patient developed a progressive cardiomyopathy, suggesting that a cardiac follow-up should be systematically warranted even in the absence of congenital heart disease. We speculate that ACTR2 and MEIS1 might respectively play a role in the pathogenesis of the observed deafness and cardiomyopathy. Third, we observed other previously unreported features such as glaucoma, retinopathy, and mild midline abnormalities including short corpus callosum, hypospadias and anteriorly placed anus. Finally, the patient carrying a 2p14p15 deletion including OTX1 had normal kidneys and genitalia, thus confirming that OTX1 haploinsufficiency is not invariably associated with genitourinary defects. In conclusion, our study contributes significantly to delineate the phenotypic spectrum of 2p14 microdeletions.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 Relacionada a Actina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Meis1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , França , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/complicações , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Espanha
15.
Case Rep Psychiatry ; 2017: 7582780, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626596

RESUMO

We report the case of a young boy with nonverbal autism and intellectual disability, with a rare de novo 1q21.3 microdeletion. The patient had early and extreme self-injurious behaviours that led to blindness, complicated by severe developmental regression. A significant reduction in the self-injurious behaviours and the recovery of developmental dynamics were attained in a multidisciplinary neurodevelopmental inpatient unit. Improvement was obtained after managing all causes of somatic pains, using opiate blockers and stabilizing the patient's mood. We offered both sensorimotor developmental approach with therapeutic body wrap and specific psychoeducation adapted to his blindness condition for improving his communication abilities.

16.
Brain ; 140(5): 1316-1336, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379373

RESUMO

Mutations in SCN2A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p.Arg853Gln: two new and four previously reported children). Other known phenotypes include Ohtahara syndrome, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, and intellectual disability or autism without epilepsy. To assess the response to antiepileptic therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment regimen and the course of the epilepsy in 66 patients for which well-documented medical information was available. We find that the use of sodium channel blockers was often associated with clinically relevant seizure reduction or seizure freedom in children with early infantile epilepsies (<3 months), whereas other antiepileptic drugs were less effective. In contrast, sodium channel blockers were rarely effective in epilepsies with later onset (≥3 months) and sometimes induced seizure worsening. Regarding the genetic findings, truncating mutations were exclusively seen in patients with late onset epilepsies and lack of response to sodium channel blockers. Functional characterization of four selected missense mutations using whole cell patch-clamping in tsA201 cells-together with data from the literature-suggest that mutations associated with early infantile epilepsy result in increased sodium channel activity with gain-of-function, characterized by slowing of fast inactivation, acceleration of its recovery or increased persistent sodium current. Further, a good response to sodium channel blockers clinically was found to be associated with a relatively small gain-of-function. In contrast, mutations in patients with late-onset forms and an insufficient response to sodium channel blockers were associated with loss-of-function effects, including a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent activation or a hyperpolarizing shift of channel availability (steady-state inactivation). Our clinical and experimental data suggest a correlation between age at disease onset, response to sodium channel blockers and the functional properties of mutations in children with SCN2A-related epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/fisiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 463-479, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283832

RESUMO

Subtelomeric 1q43q44 microdeletions cause a syndrome associating intellectual disability, microcephaly, seizures and anomalies of the corpus callosum. Despite several previous studies assessing genotype-phenotype correlations, the contribution of genes located in this region to the specific features of this syndrome remains uncertain. Among those, three genes, AKT3, HNRNPU and ZBTB18 are highly expressed in the brain and point mutations in these genes have been recently identified in children with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In this study, we report the clinical and molecular data from 17 patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions, four with ZBTB18 mutations and seven with HNRNPU mutations, and review additional data from 37 previously published patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions. We compare clinical data of patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions with those of patients with point mutations in HNRNPU and ZBTB18 to assess the contribution of each gene as well as the possibility of epistasis between genes. Our study demonstrates that AKT3 haploinsufficiency is the main driver for microcephaly, whereas HNRNPU alteration mostly drives epilepsy and determines the degree of intellectual disability. ZBTB18 deletions or mutations are associated with variable corpus callosum anomalies with an incomplete penetrance. ZBTB18 may also contribute to microcephaly and HNRNPU to thin corpus callosum, but with a lower penetrance. Co-deletion of contiguous genes has additive effects. Our results confirm and refine the complex genotype-phenotype correlations existing in the 1qter microdeletion syndrome and define more precisely the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with genetic alterations of AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU in humans.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Humanos
18.
J Pediatr ; 185: 160-166.e1, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role that chromosomal micro-rearrangements play in patients with both corpus callosum abnormality and intellectual disability, we analyzed copy number variations (CNVs) in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability STUDY DESIGN: We screened 149 patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability using Illumina SNP arrays. RESULTS: In 20 patients (13%), we have identified at least 1 CNV that likely contributes to corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability phenotype. We confirmed that the most common rearrangement in corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability is inverted duplication with terminal deletion of the 8p chromosome (3.2%). In addition to the identification of known recurrent CNVs, such as deletions 6qter, 18q21 (including TCF4), 1q43q44, 17p13.3, 14q12, 3q13, 3p26, and 3q26 (including SOX2), our analysis allowed us to refine the 2 known critical regions associated with 8q21.1 deletion and 19p13.1 duplication relevant for corpus callosum abnormality; report a novel 10p12 deletion including ZEB1 recently implicated in corpus callosum abnormality with corneal dystrophy; and) report a novel pathogenic 7q36 duplication encompassing SHH. In addition, 66 variants of unknown significance were identified in 57 patients encompassed candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the relevance of using microarray analysis as first line test in patients with corpus callosum abnormality/intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/genética
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(1): 105-111, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701793

RESUMO

The 11p15 region harbors the IGF2/H19 imprinted domain, implicated in fetal and postnatal growth. Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by fetal and postnatal growth failure, and is caused principally by hypomethylation of the 11p15 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1). However, the mechanisms leading to ICR1 hypomethylation remain unknown. Maternally inherited genetic defects affecting the ICR1 domain have been associated with ICR1 hypermethylation and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (an overgrowth syndrome, the clinical and molecular mirror of SRS), and paternal deletions of IGF2 enhancers have been detected in four SRS patients. However, no paternal deletions of ICR1 have ever been associated with hypomethylation of the IGF2/H19 domain in SRS. We screened for new genetic defects within the ICR1 in a cohort of 234 SRS patients with hypomethylated IGF2/H19 domain. We report deletions close to the boundaries of ICR1 on the paternal allele in one familial and two sporadic cases of SRS with ICR1 hypomethylation. These deletions are associated with hypomethylation of the remaining CBS, and decreased IGF2 expression. These results suggest that these regions are most likely required to maintain methylation after fertilization. We estimate these anomalies to occur in about 1% of SRS cases with ICR1 hypomethylation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Metilação de DNA , Impressão Genômica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(12): 1730-1738, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460420

RESUMO

Usher syndrome (USH), the most prevalent cause of hereditary deafness-blindness, is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Three clinical subtypes (USH1-3) are distinguishable based on the severity of the sensorineural hearing impairment, the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction, and the age of onset of the retinitis pigmentosa. A total of 10 causal genes, 6 for USH1, 3 for USH2, and 1 for USH3, and an USH2 modifier gene, have been identified. A robust molecular diagnosis is required not only to improve genetic counseling, but also to advance gene therapy in USH patients. Here, we present an improved diagnostic strategy that is both cost- and time-effective. It relies on the sequential use of three different techniques to analyze selected genomic regions: targeted exome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization, and quantitative exon amplification. We screened a large cohort of 427 patients (139 USH1, 282 USH2, and six of undefined clinical subtype) from various European medical centers for mutations in all USH genes and the modifier gene. We identified a total of 421 different sequence variants predicted to be pathogenic, about half of which had not been previously reported. Remarkably, we detected large genomic rearrangements, most of which were novel and unique, in 9% of the patients. Thus, our strategy led to the identification of biallelic and monoallelic mutations in 92.7% and 5.8% of the USH patients, respectively. With an overall 98.5% mutation characterization rate, the diagnosis efficiency was substantially improved compared with previously reported methods.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação , Síndromes de Usher/genética , Alelos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Exoma , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Genes Modificadores , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Síndromes de Usher/diagnóstico
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