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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 159: 106-114, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314772

RESUMO

Production diseases are often of multi-factorial origin in which environment (housing, nutrition and management) health and reproductive challenges show complex interactions. The aim of this study was to identify specific environment-related factors and to discuss their associations with health, welfare and reproductive performance in sows and piglets, in diverse systems using data from 130 farms from five EU countries. Two sets of data were used: a) a questionnaire was developed for sows and piglets covering farm management, interventions and housing and b) farm production data covering various performance parameters. Eight parameters were further selected, four of which were related to sow reproductive performance (litter index, replacement rate, repeat breeding (i.e. failure to breed after one mating), weaning to first mating interval) and the remaining four to litter / piglet health performance (piglets born alive per litter, piglets born dead per litter, preweaning mortality rate and weaned piglets per litter). Univariable and multivariable linear models were employed to identify risk factors. Associations were considered significant if P ≤ 0.007 (a criterion of p ≤ 0.05 corrected for the number of parameters tested). Various risk and protective factors were identified for each tested outcome variable. Country effects were included in all models as a fixed factor. Adjusted R-squared values for the multivariable models varied between 9.6% (preweaning mortality) and 66% (litter index). Litter index (litters/sow/year) was negatively associated with a higher weaning age of the piglets. Housing recently weaned sows to be inseminated in a separate unit from the gestation unit had a positive association with litter index. Repeat breeding was negatively associated with PRRS-free farms, farms that bred (raised) all gilts on the farm and farms that perform farrowing induction of sows. PRRS-free farms were also associated with a higher replacement rate. Farms that bred gilts on the farm and PRRS-free farms were negatively associated with preweaning mortality. Natural ventilation in the gestation unit was associated with fewer piglets born alive and with fewer weaned piglets. Closed type of farms was associated with less piglets born dead. The use of open box housing system for pregnant sows (provision of individual resting areas) was associated with more weaned piglets. In conclusion, several factors related to applying good farm and health management, and optimal housing conditions showed positive association with various sow and piglet performance parameters. Further studies will help to assess causal links for these factors.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Reprodução , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia , Animais , União Europeia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia
2.
Avian Pathol ; 47(5): 443-454, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874925

RESUMO

The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard®) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2 seeders: 4 sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments, as soon as the chicks were hatched, the birds of two groups were administered Aviguard® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E. coli strain. Five days after hatching, two birds per group were inoculated with either a bacteriologically fit or a bacteriologically non-fit enrofloxacin-resistant commensal E. coli strain. In experiment 2, all groups were orally treated for three consecutive days (days 8-10) with enrofloxacin. Throughout the experiments, faecal excretion of all inoculated E. coli strains was determined on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 18 and 23 by selective plating (via spiral plater). Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of Aviguard® on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance. The use of Aviguard® (P < 0.01) reduced the excretion of enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli when no enrofloxacin treatment was administered. However, this beneficial effect disappeared (P = 0.37) when the birds were treated with enrofloxacin. Similarly, bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli strain used for inoculation had an effect (P < 0.01) on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance when no treatment was administered, whereas this effect was no longer present when enrofloxacin was administered (P = 0.70). Thus, enrofloxacin treatment cancelled the beneficial effects from administrating Aviguard® in one-day-old broiler chicks and resulted in an enrofloxacin-resistant flora. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS The effect of Aviguard® on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance was assessed in vivo. Without enrofloxacin, Aviguard® reduced the selection of enrofloxacin resistance. When enrofloxacin was administered, it cancelled the beneficial effect of Aviguard®.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620436

RESUMO

The cross-contamination of non-medicated feed with residues of anti-microbials (AM) causes a public and animal health concern associated with the potential for selection and dissemination of resistance. To analyse the associated risks, a probabilistic model was built using @Risk® (Palisade Corporation®) to show the potential extent of the effect of cross-contaminated pig feed on resistance selection. The results of the model include estimations of the proportion of pigs per production stage with residues of doxycycline, chlortetracycline, sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in their intestinal contents, as a result of exposure to cross-contaminated feed with different carry-over levels, in Belgium. By using a semi-quantitative approach, these estimations were combined with experimental data on AM concentrations associated with potential for resistance-selection pressure. Based on this model, it is estimated that 7.76% (min = 1.67; max = 36.94) of sows, 4.23% (min = 1.01%; max = 18.78%) of piglets and 2.8% (min = 0.51%; max = 14.9%) of fatteners in Belgium have residues of doxycycline in their intestinal tract due to consumption of feed with at least 1% carry-over. These values were estimated to be almost triple for sulfadiazine, but substantially lower for chlortetracycline and trimethoprim. Doxycycline concentrations as low as 1 mg/L (corresponding to consumed feed with at least 1% carry-over) can select for resistant porcine commensal Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions on this risk could not be drawn for other AM at this stage, due to the lack of data on concentrations associated with resistance development. However, since the possibility of resistance mechanisms (e.g. co-selection) occurring cannot be excluded, the results of this model highlight that the use of AM medicated feed should be minimised where possible. In case of medicated feed production, good practice should be followed thoroughly at all levels of production, distribution, storage and administration, with a special focus on the feed distributed to piglets and sows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Clortetraciclina/análise , Clortetraciclina/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/análise , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Risco , Sulfadiazina/análise , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Trimetoprima/análise , Trimetoprima/farmacologia
4.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594154

RESUMO

Challenges calling for integrated approaches to health, such as the One Health (OH) approach, typically arise from the intertwined spheres of humans, animals, and ecosystems constituting their environment. Initiatives addressing such wicked problems commonly consist of complex structures and dynamics. As a result of the EU COST Action (TD 1404) "Network for Evaluation of One Health" (NEOH), we propose an evaluation framework anchored in systems theory to address the intrinsic complexity of OH initiatives and regard them as subsystems of the context within which they operate. Typically, they intend to influence a system with a view to improve human, animal, and environmental health. The NEOH evaluation framework consists of four overarching elements, namely: (1) the definition of the initiative and its context, (2) the description of the theory of change with an assessment of expected and unexpected outcomes, (3) the process evaluation of operational and supporting infrastructures (the "OH-ness"), and (4) an assessment of the association(s) between the process evaluation and the outcomes produced. It relies on a mixed methods approach by combining a descriptive and qualitative assessment with a semi-quantitative scoring for the evaluation of the degree and structural balance of "OH-ness" (summarised in an OH-index and OH-ratio, respectively) and conventional metrics for different outcomes in a multi-criteria-decision-analysis. Here, we focus on the methodology for Elements (1) and (3) including ready-to-use Microsoft Excel spreadsheets for the assessment of the "OH-ness". We also provide an overview of Element (2), and refer to the NEOH handbook for further details, also regarding Element (4) (http://neoh.onehealthglobal.net). The presented approach helps researchers, practitioners, and evaluators to conceptualise and conduct evaluations of integrated approaches to health and facilitates comparison and learning across different OH activities thereby facilitating decisions on resource allocation. The application of the framework has been described in eight case studies in the same Frontiers research topic and provides first data on OH-index and OH-ratio, which is an important step towards their validation and the creation of a dataset for future benchmarking, and to demonstrate under which circumstances OH initiatives provide added value compared to disciplinary or conventional health initiatives.

5.
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 209-227, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330676

RESUMO

Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Única , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/normas
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(7): 1991-2001, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28419236

RESUMO

Objectives: Factors potentially contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance selection in commensal Escherichia coli strains in poultry were studied through a series of in vivo experiments. The effect of the initial prevalence of enrofloxacin resistance in the E. coli gut microbiota, effect of the bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant strain and effect of treatment with enrofloxacin (effect of dose and effect of route of administration) were assessed. Methods: Four in vivo studies with broiler chickens were performed. Right after hatching, the chicks were inoculated with either a bacteriologically fit or a bacteriologically non-fit fluoroquinolone-resistant strain as either a minority or the majority of the total E. coli population. Six days later, the chicks were treated for three consecutive days either orally or parenterally and using three different doses (under-, correct- and over-dose) of enrofloxacin. The faecal shedding of E. coli strains was quantified by plating on agar plates either supplemented or not supplemented with enrofloxacin. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of the aforementioned variables on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance. Results: The factors that significantly contributed were treatment ( P < 0.001), bacterial fitness of the resistant donor strain ( P < 0.001), administration route ( P = 0.052) and interactions between bacterial fitness and administration route ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: In the currently used models, fluoroquinolone resistance selection was influenced by treatment, bacterial fitness of the inoculation strain and administration route. The use of oral treatment seems to select more for fluoroquinolone resistance, particularly in the model where a non-fit strain was used for inoculation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos/veterinária , Enrofloxacina , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Aptidão Genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simbiose
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 69(3): 827-34, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24216767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate correlations between antimicrobial use and the prevalence of resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from pigs, poultry and cattle, using data from publicly available national or international reports from seven European countries. METHODS: The link between the quantities of different classes of antimicrobials administered to food-producing animals per country (expressed in mg/population correction unit) and the prevalence of resistance to the different antimicrobial classes (interpreted by EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values) in E. coli isolates (4831 isolates in total) was assessed by means of polynomial regression analysis and determination of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: A quadratic regression best fitted the antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance data. The coefficient of determination was, in decreasing order, 0.99 for fluoroquinolones and amphenicols, 0.94 for third-generation cephalosporins and sulphonamides, 0.93 for aminopenicillins, 0.86 for fluoroquinolones, 0.81 for streptomycin and 0.80 for gentamicin and tetracycline. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was 1 for amphenicols, 0.96 for sulphonamides, 0.93 for streptomycin and tetracycline, 0.89 for aminopenicillins, 0.71 for gentamicin and 0.70 for third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSIONS: These remarkably high coefficients indicate that, at a national level, the level of use of specific antimicrobials strongly correlates to the level of resistance towards these agents in commensal E. coli isolates in pigs, poultry and cattle. However, data restraints reveal the need for further detail in collection and harmonization of antimicrobial resistance and use data in Europe.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Europa (Continente) , Aves Domésticas , Prevalência , Suínos
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