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2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 26, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013136

RESUMO

Mammalian innate immune sensor STING (STimulator of INterferon Gene) was recently found to originate from bacteria. During phage infection, bacterial STING sense c-di-GMP generated by the CD-NTase (cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferase) encoded in the same operon and signal suicide commitment as a defense strategy that restricts phage propagation. However, the precise binding mode of c-di-GMP to bacterial STING and the specific recognition mechanism are still elusive. Here, we determine two complex crystal structures of bacterial STING/c-di-GMP, which provide a clear picture of how c-di-GMP is distinguished from other cyclic dinucleotides. The protein-protein interactions further reveal the driving force behind filament formation of bacterial STING. Finally, we group the bacterial STING into two classes based on the conserved motif in ß-strand lid, which dictate their ligand specificity and oligomerization mechanism, and propose an evolution-based model that describes the transition from c-di-GMP-dependent signaling in bacteria to 2'3'-cGAMP-dependent signaling in eukaryotes.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 531-546, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium, causes chronic stomach diseases in humans. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in cell integrity, cell growth, and gastric mucosa colonization by H. pylori. This study aimed to investigate HSP expression levels in H. pylori-infected gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined protein expression levels using iTRAQ proteomics analysis. We analyzed the possible network interactions for H. pylori targets in AGS cells using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. RESULTS: H. pylori-infected AGS cells potentially targeted EIF2 and BAG2 signaling pathways to regulate cell physiology. In addition, after 3, 6, and 12 h of infection, western blotting revealed significantly decreased HSP70 and HSP105 expression. CONCLUSION: H. pylori decreases HSPs in AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, and this is associated with the regulation of EIF2 and BAG2 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/microbiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP110/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Proteômica , Estômago/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 736370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916932

RESUMO

The increasing interest and demand for skin whitening products globally, particularly in Asia, have necessitated rapid advances in research on skin whitening products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Herein, we investigated 74 skin whitening prescriptions sold in TCM pharmacies in Taiwan. Commonly used medicinal materials were defined as those with a relative frequency of citation (RFC) > 0.2 and their characteristics were evaluated. Correlation analysis of commonly used medicinal materials was carried out to identify the core component of the medicinal materials. Of the purchased 74 skin whitening prescriptions, 36 were oral prescriptions, 37 were external prescriptions, and one prescription could be used as an oral or external prescription. After analysis, 90 traditional Chinese medicinal materials were obtained. The Apiaceae (10%; 13%) and Leguminosae (9%; 11%) were the main sources of oral and external medicinal materials, respectively. Oral skin whitening prescriptions were found to be mostly warm (46%) and sweet (53%), while external skin whitening prescriptions included cold (43%) and bitter (29%) medicinal materials. Additionally, mainly tonifying and replenishing effects of the materials were noted. Pharmacological analysis indicated that these medicinal materials may promote wound healing, treat inflammatory skin diseases, or anti-hyperpigmentation. According to the Spearman correlation analysis on interactions among medicinal materials with an RFC > 0.2 in the oral skin whitening prescriptions, Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (white) and Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. showed the highest correlation (confidence score = 0.93), followed by Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (red) and Astragalus propinquus Schischkin (confidence score = 0.91). Seven medicinal materials in external skin whitening prescriptions with an RFC > 0.2, were classified as Taiwan qi bái sàn (an herbal preparation), including Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav., Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns, Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Rchb. f., Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino, Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (white), and Bombyx mori Linnaeus. Skin whitening prescriptions included multiple traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Despite the long history of use, there is a lack of studies concerning skin whitening products, possibly due to the complex composition of traditional Chinese medicine. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of these traditional Chinese medicinal materials for inclusion in effective, safe, and functional pharmacological products.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0091321, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756065

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecium is a clinically important pathogen that can cause significant morbidity and death. In this study, we aimed to develop a machine learning (ML) algorithm-based rapid susceptibility method to distinguish vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) strains. A predictive model was developed and validated to distinguish VREfm and VSEfm strains by analyzing the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) spectra of unique E. faecium isolates from different specimen types. The algorithm used 5,717 mass spectra, including 2,795 VREfm and 2,922 VSEfm mass spectra, and was externally validated with 2,280 mass spectra of isolates (1,222 VREfm and 1,058 VSEfm strains). A random forest-based algorithm demonstrated overall good classification performances for the isolates from the specimens, with mean accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.78, 0.79, and 0.77, respectively, with 10-fold cross-validation, timewise validation, and external validation. Furthermore, the algorithm provided rapid results, which would allow susceptibility prediction prior to the availability of phenotypic susceptibility results. In conclusion, an ML algorithm designed using mass spectra obtained from the routine workflow may be able to rapidly differentiate VREfm strains from VSEfm strains; however, susceptibility results must be confirmed by routine methods, given the demonstrated performance of the assay. IMPORTANCE A modified binning method was incorporated to cluster MS shifting ions into a set of representative peaks based on a large-scale MS data set of clinical VREfm and VSEfm isolates, including 2,795 VREfm and 2,922 VSEfm isolates. Predictions with the algorithm were significantly more accurate than empirical antibiotic use, the accuracy of which was 0.50, based on the local epidemiology. The algorithm improved the accuracy of antibiotic administration, compared to empirical antibiotic prescription. An ML algorithm designed using MALDI-TOF MS spectra obtained from the routine workflow accurately differentiated VREfm strains from VSEfm strains, especially in blood and sterile body fluid samples, and can be applied to facilitate the rapid and accurate clinical testing of pathogens.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685035

RESUMO

The effects of chymosin on the physicochemical and hydrolysis characteristics of casein micelles and individual caseins were investigated. Adding 0.03 units of chymosin/mL led to the casein micelles in skim milk coagulating after a 3 h incubation period at 30 °C. SDS-PAGE investigation showed that ß-CN, κ-CN, αs-CN, and a portion of ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG) in the milk supernatant fraction (MSF) were precipitated into the milk pellet fraction (MPF). The mean particle size of the MSF with chymosin decreased from 254.4 nm to 179.2 nm after a 3 h incubation period. Mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis suggested that chymosin hydrolyzed individual ß-CN, κ-CN, and αs-CN, but not ß-LG. Chymosin hydrolysis led to a decrease in the molecular weights of the hydrolyzed ß-CN, κ-CN, and αs-CN. Particle size analysis indicated that there was no difference in the particle size distribution of hydrolyzed ß-CN and αs-CN. Moreover, our outcomes demonstrated that the hydrolysis of κ-CN by chymosin occurs before that of ß-CN and αs-CN.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 730776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690769

RESUMO

Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a rare but fatal hematologic disease that may occur at any age and especially higher in Asia. We investigated whether Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is beneficial to AA patients as a complementary therapy using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan between 2000-2016. Patient survival was estimated by Kaplan‒Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional-hazard model. CHM-users presented lower risks of overall and anemia-related mortalities when compared to non-users. The risk of overall mortality for CHM-users in AA patients was 0.70-fold [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.74, p < 0.001). The risk of anemia-related mortality was lower in CHM-users when compared to non-users (aHR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.32-0.67, p < 0.001). The association rule analysis revealed that CHM pairs were Ban-Zhi-Lian (BZL; Scutellaria barbata D. Don)→Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao (BHSSC; Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.) Roxb.), followed by Dang-Gui (DG; Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels)→Huang-Qi (HQi; Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge), and Xian-He-Cao (XHC; Agrimonia pilosa f. borealis (Kitag.) Chu)→Gui-Pi-Tang (GPT). Network analysis showed that BZL, BHSSC, DG, HQi, XHC, GPT, and Dan-Shen (DanS; Salvia miltiorrhiza var. charbonnelii (H.Lév.) C.Y.Wu) were commonly used CHMs for AA patients. Therefore, further studies for these commonly prescribed herbs are needed in functional investigations in hematopoiesis-stimulating effect and large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCT) in bone marrow failure related diseases.

8.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641450

RESUMO

Three new tuliposides H-J (1-3) and 11 known compounds were obtained from the methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Amana edulis for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, and IR spectroscopic data, optical rotation, and Mosher's method. The melanogenesis properties of all the isolates were evaluated in B16 melanoma cells. Consequently, tributyl citrate (9) had anti-melanogenesis activity but was cytotoxic toward B16. (+)-Pyroglutamic acid (4), (+)-butyl 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (6), (-)-3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrolactone (10), and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (12) had increased melanin productions and tyrosinase activities. Those active components could be further studied as the candidates against melanoma and vitiligo for skin diseases or whitening/hypopigmentation for hair.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Liliaceae/química , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502950

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) has the advantages of providing materials with lightweight microporous structures and customized features, and being environmentally safe. It is widely used in medical sciences, the aerospace industry, biological research, engineering applications, and other fields. Among the many additive manufacturing methods, fused deposition modeling (FDM) is relatively low-cost, wastes less raw material and has a lower technical threshold. This paper presents a study on 3D printing based on FDM by changing two printing parameters, namely the printing temperature and filling percentage. The produced polylactic acid (PLA) material was analyzed through tensile and Shore D hardness tests and the differences in mechanical properties before and after the UV curing process were analyzed. The results show that increasing the filling percentage or increasing the printing temperature can effectively improve the tensile Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and Shore hardness of the material. The UV curing process could enhance the rigidity and hardness of the material significantly but reduced the strength and toughness of the material. These findings could benefit researchers studying FDM with the goal of achieving sustainable manufactured materials.

10.
Exp Brain Res ; 239(11): 3327-3341, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477919

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of lateral pelvis pulling force toward the non-paretic side during the stance phase of the paretic leg would enhance forced use of the paretic leg and increase weight shift toward the paretic side in stroke survivors. Eleven chronic stroke survivors participated in two experimental sessions, which consisted of (1) treadmill walking with the application of "pelvis resistance" or "pelvis assistance" and (2) overground walking. During the treadmill walking, the laterally pulling force was applied during the stance phase of the paretic leg toward the non-paretic side for the "pelvis resistance" condition or toward the paretic side for the "pelvis assistance" condition during the stance phase of the paretic leg. After force release, the "pelvis resistance" condition exhibited greater enhancement in muscle activation of hip ABD, ADD, and SOL and greater improvement in lateral weight shift toward the paretic side, compared with the effect of the "pelvis assistance" condition (P < 0.03). This improved lateral weight shift was associated with the enhanced muscle activation of hip ABD and ADD (R2 = 0.67, P = 0.01). The pelvis resistance condition also improved overground walking speed and stance phase symmetry when measured 10 min after the treadmill walking (P = 0.004). In conclusion, applying pelvis resistance forces to increase error signals may facilitate motor learning of weight shift toward the paretic side and enhance use of the paretic leg in chronic stroke survivors. Results from this study may be utilized to develop an intervention approach to improve walking in stroke survivors.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Paresia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Caminhada
11.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472101

RESUMO

Targeting protein kinase C (PKC) family was found to repress the migration and resistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, none of the PKC inhibitors has been approved for anticancer therapy yet due to the limited efficacy in clinical trials, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. l-lactic acidosis, a common condition comprising high l-lactate concentration and acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment, has been known to induce tumor metastasis and drug resistance. In this study, l-lactic acid was found to reverse the inhibitory effects of pan-PKC inhibitors GO6983 on PKC activity, cell migration, and EGFR-TKI resistance, but these effects were not affected by the modulators of lactate receptor GPR81. Interestingly, blockade of lactate transporters, monocarboxylate transporter-1 and -4 (MCT1 and MCT4), attenuated the intracellular level of GO6983, and its inhibitory effect on PKC activity, suggesting that lactic acid promotes the resistance to PKC inhibitors by competing for the uptake through these transporters rather than by activating its receptor, GPR81. Our findings explain the underlying mechanisms of the limited response of PKC inhibitors in clinical trials.

12.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objectives are to evaluate the effects of a sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training, compared with exercise or cognitive training alone, on cognitive function, physical function, daily function, quality of life, and social participation in stroke survivors with cognitive impairment. METHODS: This is a single-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial. Stroke patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 56) were randomly assigned to aerobic exercise training (n = 18), computerized cognitive training (n = 18), and the sequential combination of aerobic exercise and computerized cognitive training (n = 20) group. All groups underwent training 60 min/day, 3 days/week, for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcomes included Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition, and the Stroop color-word test. Secondary outcomes were the Timed Up and Go test, 6-Minute Walk Test, Functional Independence Measure, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, and Stroke Impact Scale. RESULTS: 56 participants completed the trial. Compared with a single type of aerobic exercise or cognitive training, the combined training group showed significant improvement in MoCA (P < .05, η2 = 0.13), and two sub-tests in WMS-III (both P's < 0.05) following the intervention. However, no between-group differences were observed for physical functions, daily function, quality of life, and social participation measures. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide evidence for the potential synergistic intervention in stroke survivors. Future studies investigating the transfer effects and the optimal training parameters with a larger sample is needed.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 541405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434937

RESUMO

Background: There are clinical trials using composite measures, indices, or scales as proxy for independent variables or outcomes. Interpretability of derived measures may not be satisfying. Adopting indices of poor interpretability in clinical trials may lead to trial failure. This study aims to understand the impact of using indices of different interpretability in clinical trials. Methods: The interpretability of indices was categorized as: fair-to-poor, good, and unknown. In the literature, frailty indices were considered fair to poor interpretability. Body mass index (BMI) was highly interpretable. The other indices were of unknown interpretability. The trials were searched at clinicaltrials.gov on October 2, 2018. The use of indices as conditions/diseases or other terms was searched. The trials were grouped as completed, terminated, active, and other status. We tabulated the frequencies of frailty, BMI, and other indices. Results: There were 263,928 clinical trials found and 155,606 were completed or terminated. Among 2,115 trials adopting indices or composite measures as condition or disease, 244 adopted frailty and 487 used BMI without frailty indices. Significantly higher proportions of trials of unknown status used indices as conditions/diseases or other terms, compared to completed and terminated trials. The proportions of active trials using frailty indices were significantly higher than those of completed or terminated trials. Discussion: Clinical trial databases can be used to understand why trials may fail. Based on the findings, we suspect that using indices of poor interpretability may be associated with trial failure. Interpretability has not been conceived as an essential criterion for outcomes or proxy measures in trials. We will continue verifying the findings in other databases or data sources and apply this research method to improve clinical trial design. To prevent patients from experiencing trials likely to fail, we suggest further examining the interpretability of the indices in trials.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 720821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421615

RESUMO

Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used in Asian countries. They show multiple pharmacological activities, including antiviral activities. The 5'-long terminal repeat (LTR) region of HIV-1, required for viral transcription, is a potential drug target for HIV-1 reactivation and intrinsic cell death induction of infected or latently infected cells. Modulation of HIV-1 reactivation requires interactions between host cell proteins and viral 5'-LTR elements. By evaluation of two CHMs- Xanthium strumarium and Pueraria montana, we found that 1) X. strumarium reactivated HIV-1 latently infected cells in J-Lat 8.4, J-Lat 9.2, U1, and ACH-2 cells in vitro; 2) 27 nuclear regulatory proteins were associated with HIV-1 5'-LTR using deoxyribonucleic acid affinity pull-down and LC-MS/MS analyses; and 3) among them, silencing of XRCC6 reactivated HIV-1 5'-LTR transcriptional activity. We found that X. strumarium inhibits the 5'-LTR associated XRCC6 nuclear regulatory proteins, increases its viral 5'-LTR promoter transcriptional activity, and reactivates HIV-1 latently infected cells in vitro. These findings may contribute to understanding the 5'-LTR activity and the host cell nuclear regulatory protein machinery for reactivating HIV-1 and for future investigations to eradicate and cure HIV-1 infection.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197556

RESUMO

A reliable, remote, and continuous real-time respiratory sound monitor with automated respiratory sound analysis ability is urgently required in many clinical scenarios-such as in monitoring disease progression of coronavirus disease 2019-to replace conventional auscultation with a handheld stethoscope. However, a robust computerized respiratory sound analysis algorithm for breath phase detection and adventitious sound detection at the recording level has not yet been validated in practical applications. In this study, we developed a lung sound database (HF_Lung_V1) comprising 9,765 audio files of lung sounds (duration of 15 s each), 34,095 inhalation labels, 18,349 exhalation labels, 13,883 continuous adventitious sound (CAS) labels (comprising 8,457 wheeze labels, 686 stridor labels, and 4,740 rhonchus labels), and 15,606 discontinuous adventitious sound labels (all crackles). We conducted benchmark tests using long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU), bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM), bidirectional GRU (BiGRU), convolutional neural network (CNN)-LSTM, CNN-GRU, CNN-BiLSTM, and CNN-BiGRU models for breath phase detection and adventitious sound detection. We also conducted a performance comparison between the LSTM-based and GRU-based models, between unidirectional and bidirectional models, and between models with and without a CNN. The results revealed that these models exhibited adequate performance in lung sound analysis. The GRU-based models outperformed, in terms of F1 scores and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, the LSTM-based models in most of the defined tasks. Furthermore, all bidirectional models outperformed their unidirectional counterparts. Finally, the addition of a CNN improved the accuracy of lung sound analysis, especially in the CAS detection tasks.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benchmarking , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Respiração
16.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278895

RESUMO

Three glycosylated stilbenes (1-3), two anthraquinones (4, 5), one lignan (6), five tannins (7-11), two amino acids (12, 13), and one auronol (14) were isolated from the root of Ampelopsis japonica. All compounds, except for 4, 6, and 11 were obtained from this species for the first time. Compounds 6-9 could notably inhibit ROS generations in HaCaT keratinocyte cells with IC50 values of 5.28, 4.83, 0.87, and 1.66 µM, respectively. Compounds 8-10 showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging effects with IC50 values of 14.37, 16.08, and 12.11 µM, individually. In anti-melanogenesis assay, only 8 and 9 could decrease 7.93% and 11.66% melanin contents induced by α-MSH in B16F10 melanoma cells at 40 µM and moderately inhibit tyrosinase activities. By far, galloylhamameloses 8 and 9 were found to exhibit both antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis properties that could be further developed as cosmeceutical agents for skin disorders.

17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301144

RESUMO

In order to optimize the efficiency of the Fused deposition modeling (FDM) process, this study used polylactic acid (PLA) material under different parameters (the printing angle and the raster angle) to fabricate specimens and to explore its tensile properties. The effect of the ultraviolet (UV) curing process on PLA materials was also investigated. The results showed that the printing and raster angles have a high impact on the tensile properties of PLA materials. The UV curing process enhanced the brittleness and reduced the elongation of PLA material. Different effects were observed on tensile strength and modulus of specimens printed with different parameters after UV curing. The above results will be a great help for researchers who are working to achieve sustainability of PLA materials and FDM technology.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17337-17348, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226296

RESUMO

Adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard care for patients with resected advanced gastric cancer, but its survival benefits remain undetermined in patients undergoing D2 lymph node dissection (D2 dissection). We evaluated safety and efficacy of adjuvant CCRT with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) versus chemotherapy alone in 110 gastric cancer patients with D2 dissection treated in Taiwan between January 2009 and January 2013. All the 71 patients receiving adjuvant CCRT were treated with daily infusional 5-FU and radiotherapy. Adjuvant CCRT was associated with higher risks of major hematologic (56.3% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.002) and gastrointestinal (46.9% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.027) toxicities and death (12.5% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.041) in patients above 70 years old, but this was not the case in those ≤70 years of age. Univariate Cox proportional regressions identified adjuvant CCRT as a factor for better overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.99) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88), but it was not a significant factor for OS or DFS after adjusting for other factors in the multivariate analysis. However, in stratified analyses by age, we found adjuvant CCRT was an independent prognostic factor for better OS (HR=0.07; 95% CI: 0.01-0.38) in patients ≤70 years old, but not in those above 70 years of age. Therefore, it was concluded that age may to be a modifier of the effects of adjuvant CCRT.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072038

RESUMO

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) can be used to manufacture any complex geometry and internal structures, and it has been widely applied in many industries, such as the biomedical, manufacturing, aerospace, automobile, industrial, and building industries. The purpose of this research is to characterize the polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) materials of FDM under four loading conditions (tension, compression, bending, and thermal deformation), in order to obtain data regarding different printing temperatures and speeds. The results indicated that PLA and PETG materials exhibit an obvious tensile and compression asymmetry. It was observed that the mechanical properties (tension, compression, and bending) of PLA and PETG are increased at higher printing temperatures, and that the effect of speed on PLA and PETG shows different results. In addition, the mechanical properties of PLA are greater than those of PETG, but the thermal deformation is the opposite. The above results will be a great help for researchers who are working with polymers and FDM technology to achieve sustainability.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114359, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174374

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Muscular dystrophies are a rare, severe, and genetically inherited group of disorders characterized by progressive loss of muscle fibers, leading to muscle weakness. The current treatment plan for muscular dystrophies includes the use of steroids to slow muscle deterioration by dampening the inflammatory response. AIM OF THE STUDY: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been offered as an adjunctive therapy in Taiwan's medical healthcare plan, making it possible to track CHM usage in patients with muscular dystrophic disease. Therefore, we explored the long-term effects of CHM use on the overall mortality of patients with muscular dystrophies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 581 patients with muscular dystrophies were identified from the database of Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients in Taiwan. Among them, 80 and 201 patients were CHM users and non-CHM users, respectively. Student's t-test, chi-squared test, Cox proportional hazard model, and Kaplan-Meier curve (log-rank test) were used for evaluation. Association rules and network analyses were performed to explore the combination of CHMs used in muscular dystrophies. RESULTS: Compared to non-CHM users, there were more female patients, more comorbidities, including chronic pulmonary disease and peptic ulcer disease in the CHM user group. Patients with prednisolone usage exhibited a lower risk of overall mortality than those who did not, after adjusting for age, sex, use of CHM, and comorbidities. CHM users showed a lower risk of overall mortality after adjusting for age, sex, prednisolone use, and comorbidities. The cumulative incidence of the overall survival was significantly higher in CHM users. Association rule and network analysis showed that one main CHM cluster was commonly used to treat patients with muscular dystrophies in Taiwan. The cluster includes Yin-Qiao-San, Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Zhi-Ke (Citrus aurantium L.), Yu-Xing-Cao (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.), Che-Qian-Zi (Plantago asiatica L.), and Da-Huang (Rheum palmatum L.). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that adjunctive therapy with CHM may help to reduce the overall mortality among patients with muscular dystrophies. The identification of the CHM cluster allows us to narrow down the key active compounds and may enable future therapeutic developments and clinical trial designs to improve overall survival in these patients.

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