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1.
Annu Rev Nutr ; 41: 455-478, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633858

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that binds structurally diverse ligands and senses cues from environmental toxicants and physiologically relevant dietary/microbiota-derived ligands. The AhR is an ancient conserved protein and is widely expressed across different tissues in vertebrates and invertebrates. AhR signaling mediates a wide range of cellular functions in a ligand-, cell type-, species-, and context-specific manner. Dysregulation of AhR signaling is linked to many developmental defects and chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of AhR signaling in mediating bidirectional host-microbiome interactions. We also consider evidence showing the potential for the dietary/microbial enhancement ofhealth-promoting AhR ligands to improve clinical pathway management in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases and colon tumorigenesis.

2.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 374, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities are a pressing global issue among children of all ages, particularly among low-income populations. Rapid weight gain (RWG) in the first 6 months of infancy contributes to childhood obesity. Suboptimal sleep-wake patterns and gut microbiota (GM) have also been associated with childhood obesity, but little is known about their influences on early infant RWG. Sleep may alter the GM and infant metabolism, and ultimately impact obesity; however, data on the interaction between sleep-wake patterns and GM development on infant growth are scarce. In this study, we aim to investigate associations of infant sleep-wake patterns and GM development with RWG at 6 months and weight gain at 12 months. We also aim to evaluate whether temporal interactions exist between infant sleep-wake patterns and GM, and if these relations influence RWG. METHODS: The Snuggle Bug/ Acurrucadito study is an observational, longitudinal study investigating whether 24-h, actigraphy-assessed, sleep-wake patterns and GM development are associated with RWG among infants in their first year. Based on the Ecological Model of Growth, we propose a novel conceptual framework to incorporate sleep-wake patterns and the GM as metabolic contributors for RWG in the context of maternal-infant interactions, and familial and socio-physical environments. In total, 192 mother-infant pairs will be recruited, and sleep-wake patterns and GM development assessed at 3 and 8 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum. Covariates including maternal and child characteristics, family and environmental factors, feeding practices and dietary intake of infants and mothers, and stool-derived metabolome and exfoliome data will be assessed. The study will apply machine learning techniques combined with logistic time-varying effect models to capture infant growth and aid in elucidating the dynamic associations between study variables and RWG. DISCUSSION: Repeated, valid, and objective assessment at clinically and developmentally meaningful intervals will provide robust measures of longitudinal sleep, GM, and growth. Project findings will provide evidence for future interventions to prevent RWG in infancy and subsequent obesity. The work also may spur the development of evidence-based guidelines to address modifiable factors that influence sleep-wake and GM development and prevent childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Ganho de Peso
3.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100539, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406707

RESUMO

SCOPE: This study investigates the mechanism of action and functional effects of coffee extracts in colonic cells, on intestinal stem cell growth, and inhibition of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal barrier damage in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aqueous coffee extracts induced Ah receptor (AhR) -responsive CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 gene expression in colon-derived Caco2 and YAMC cells. Tissue-specific AhR knockout (AhRf/f x Lgr5-GFP-CreERT2 x Villin-Cre), wild-type (Lgr5-CreERT2 x Villin-Cre) mice are sources of stem cell enriched organoids and both coffee extracts and norharman, an AhR-active component of these extracts inhibited stem cell growth. Coffee extracts also inhibit DSS-induced damage to intestinal barrier function and DSS-induced mucosal inflammatory genes such as IL-6 and TGF-ß1 in wild-type (AhR+/+ ) but not AhR-/- mice. In contrast, coffee does not exhibit protective effects in intestinal-specific AhR knockout mice. Coffee extracts also enhanced overall formation of AhR-active microbial metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: In colon-derived cells and in the mouse intestine, coffee induced several AhR-dependent responses including gene expression, inhibition of intestinal stem cell-enriched organoid growth, and inhibition of DSS-induced intestinal barrier damage. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory effects of coffee in the intestine are due, in part, to activation of AhR signaling.

4.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(1): G41-G51, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949197

RESUMO

Assessing intestinal development and host-microbe interactions in healthy human infants requires noninvasive approaches. We have shown that the transcriptome of exfoliated epithelial cells in feces can differentiate breast-fed and formula-fed infants and term and preterm infants. However, it is not fully understood which regions of the intestine that the exfoliated cells represent. Herein, the transcriptional profiles of exfoliated cells with that of the ileal and colonic mucosa were compared. We hypothesized that exfoliated cells in the distal colon would reflect mucosal signatures of more proximal regions of the gut. Two-day-old piglets (n = 8) were fed formulas for 20 days. Luminal contents and mucosa were collected from ileum (IL), ascending colon (AC), and descending (DC) colon, and mRNA was extracted and sequenced. On average, ∼13,000 genes were mapped in mucosal tissues and ∼10,000 in luminal contents. The intersection of detected genes between three mucosa regions and DC exfoliome indicated an approximately 99% overlap. On average, 49% of the genes in IL, AC, and DC mucosa were present in the AC and DC exfoliome. Genes expressed predominantly in specific anatomic sites (stomach, pancreas, small intestine, colon) were detectable in exfoliated cells. In addition, gene markers for all intestinal epithelial cell types were expressed in the exfoliome representing a diverse array of cell types arising from both the small and large intestine. Genes were mapped to nutrient absorption and transport and immune function. Thus, the exfoliome represents a robust reservoir of information in which to assess intestinal development and responses to dietary interventions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The transcriptome of exfoliated epithelial cells in stool contain gene signatures from both small and large intestinal mucosa affording a noninvasive approach to assess gut health and function.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Suínos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2262: 251-258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977481

RESUMO

Phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition influences the biophysical properties of the plasma membrane and plays an important role in cellular signaling. Our previous work has demonstrated that plasma membrane fatty acid composition is an important determinant of oncogenic Ras signaling and that dietary (exogenous) modulation of membrane composition may underlie the chemoprotective benefits of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In this chapter, we describe in vitro methods to modulate membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of cultured cells using fatty acids complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Furthermore, we describe a method to quantify the biophysical properties of plasma membranes in live cells using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ (Di4) and image-based flow cytometry.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fluidez de Membrana , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Citometria de Fluxo
6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(7): 1565-1575, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that increases food intake, adiposity, and insulin resistance through its receptor Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R). We previously showed that ghrelin/GHS-R signaling has important roles in regulation of energy homeostasis, and global deletion of GHS-R reduces obesity and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing thermogenesis. However, it is unknown whether GHS-R regulates thermogenic activation in adipose tissues directly. METHODS: We generated a novel adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion mouse model and characterized the mice under regular diet (RD) and high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Body composition was measured by Echo MRI. Metabolic profiling was determined by indirect calorimetry. Response to environmental stress was assessed using a TH-8 temperature monitoring system. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Tissue histology was analyzed by hematoxylin/eosin and immunofluorescent staining. Expression of genes involved in thermogenesis, angiogenesis and fibrosis in adipose tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Under RD feeding, adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion had little or no impact on metabolic parameters. However, under HFD feeding, adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion attenuated diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, showing elevated physical activity and heat production. In addition, adipose tissue-specific GHS-R deletion increased expression of master adipose transcription regulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ1 and adipokines of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21; and differentially modulated angiogenesis and fibrosis evident in both gene expression and histological analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in adipocytes, and suppression of GHS-R in adipose tissues protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by modulating adipose angiogenesis and fibrosis. These findings suggest adipose GHS-R may constitute a novel therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

7.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(3): 461-477, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681679

RESUMO

The fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), also known as delta-5 desaturase (D5D), is one of the rate-limiting enzymes involved in the desaturation and elongation cascade of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to generate long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs). Reduced function of D5D and decreased hepatic FADS1 expression, as well as low levels of LC-PUFAs, were associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the causal role of D5D in hepatic lipid homeostasis remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that down-regulation of FADS1 increases susceptibility to hepatic lipid accumulation. We used in vitro and in vivo models to test this hypothesis and to delineate the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of reduced FADS1 function. Our study demonstrated that FADS1 knockdown significantly reduced cellular levels of LC-PUFAs and increased lipid accumulation and lipid droplet formation in HepG2 cells. The lipid accumulation was associated with significant alterations in multiple pathways involved in lipid homeostasis, especially fatty acid oxidation. These effects were demonstrated to be mediated by the reduced function of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα)-fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) axis, which can be reversed by treatment with docosahexaenoic acid, PPARα agonist, or FGF21. In vivo, FADS1-knockout mice fed with high-fat diet developed increased hepatic steatosis as compared with their wild-type littermates. Molecular analyses of the mouse liver tissue largely corroborated the observations in vitro, especially along with reduced protein expression of PPARα and FGF21. Conclusion: Collectively, these results suggest that dysregulation in FADS1 alters liver lipid homeostasis in the liver by down-regulating the PPARα-FGF21 signaling axis.

8.
Biostatistics ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634824

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing technology provides unprecedented opportunities to quantitatively explore human gut microbiome and its relation to diseases. Microbiome data are compositional, sparse, noisy, and heterogeneous, which pose serious challenges for statistical modeling. We propose an identifiable Bayesian multinomial matrix factorization model to infer overlapping clusters on both microbes and hosts. The proposed method represents the observed over-dispersed zero-inflated count matrix as Dirichlet-multinomial mixtures on which latent cluster structures are built hierarchically. Under the Bayesian framework, the number of clusters is automatically determined and available information from a taxonomic rank tree of microbes is naturally incorporated, which greatly improves the interpretability of our findings. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach by comparing to alternative methods in simulations. An application to a human gut microbiome data set involving patients with inflammatory bowel disease reveals interesting clusters, which contain bacteria families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Porphyromonadaceae that are known to be related to the inflammatory bowel disease and its subtypes according to biological literature. Our findings can help generate potential hypotheses for future investigation of the heterogeneity of the human gut microbiome.

9.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100026, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515553

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling drives the formation of many types of cancer, including colon cancer. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19), a chemoprotective long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid suppresses EGFR signaling. However, the mechanism underlying this phenotype remains unclear. Therefore, we used super-resolution microscopy techniques to investigate the mechanistic link between EGFR function and DHA-induced alterations to plasma membrane nanodomains. Using isogenic in vitro (YAMC and IMCE mouse colonic cell lines) and in vivo (Drosophila, wild type and Fat-1 mice) models, cellular DHA enrichment via therapeutic nanoparticle delivery, endogenous synthesis, or dietary supplementation reduced EGFR-mediated cell proliferation and downstream Ras/ERK signaling. Phospholipid incorporation of DHA reduced membrane rigidity and the size of EGFR nanoclusters. Similarly, pharmacological reduction of plasma membrane phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) or cholesterol was associated with a decrease in EGFR nanocluster size. Furthermore, in DHA-treated cells only the addition of cholesterol, unlike PA or PIP2, restored EGFR nanoscale clustering. These findings reveal that DHA reduces EGFR signaling in part by reshaping EGFR proteolipid nanodomains, supporting the feasibility of using membrane therapy, i.e., dietary/drug-related strategies to target plasma membrane organization, to reduce EGFR signaling and cancer risk.

10.
Mol Cancer Res ; 19(5): 771-783, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495399

RESUMO

The mutational genetic landscape of colorectal cancer has been extensively characterized; however, the ability of "cooperation response genes" to modulate the function of cancer "driver" genes remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, in modulating oncogenic cues in the colon. We show that intestinal epithelial cell-targeted AhR knockout (KO) promotes the expansion and clonogenic capacity of colonic stem/progenitor cells harboring ApcS580/+; KrasG12D/+ mutations by upregulating Wnt signaling. The loss of AhR in the gut epithelium increased cell proliferation, reduced mouse survival rate, and promoted cecum and colon tumorigenesis in mice. Mechanistically, the antagonism of Wnt signaling induced by Lgr5 haploinsufficiency attenuated the effects of AhR KO on cecum and colon tumorigenesis. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings reveal that AhR signaling plays a protective role in genetically induced colon tumorigenesis at least by suppressing Wnt signaling and provides rationale for the AhR as a therapeutic target for cancer prevention and treatment.

11.
Eye Contact Lens ; 47(1): 2-7, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation is used to treat systemic inflammatory diseases, but the role of n-3 in the pathophysiology and therapy of dry eye disease (DED) is not definitive. We evaluated the relationship of systemic n-3 levels with signs and symptoms at baseline in the Dry Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM) Study. METHODS: Blood samples from participants at baseline were analyzed for n-3 and n-6, measured as relative percentage by weight among all fatty acids in erythrocytes. Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Signs including conjunctival staining, corneal staining, tear breakup time (TBUT), and Schirmer's test with anesthesia were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the systemic n-3 levels and DED symptoms. When the associations with signs of DED were assessed, lower DHA levels were associated with higher conjunctival staining, with mean scores of 3.31, 2.96, and 2.82 for low, medium, and high levels of DHA, respectively (linear trend P=0.007). None of the other signs were associated with DHA or the other measures of n-3. CONCLUSION: Previous studies have found varying results on the role of n-3 supplementation with the signs and symptoms of DED. Among patients with DED enrolled in the DREAM Study, lower systemic n-3 levels were not associated with worse symptoms and most signs of DED.

12.
Toxicol Sci ; 180(1): 148-159, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263770

RESUMO

Hydroxylated chalcones are phytochemicals which are biosynthetic precursors of flavonoids and their 1,3-diaryl-prop-2-en-1-one structure is used as a scaffold for drug development. In this study, the structure-dependent activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-responsive CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 genes was investigated in Caco2 colon cancer cells and in non-transformed young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC) cells. The effects of a series of di- and trihydroxychalcones as AhR agonists was structure dependent with maximal induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 in Caco2 cells observed for compounds containing 2,2'-dihydroxy substituents and this included 2,2'-dihydroxy-, 2,2',4'-trihydroxy-, and 2,2',5'-trihydroxychalcones. In contrast, 2',4,5'-, 2'3',4'-, 2',4,4'-trihydroxy, and 2',3-, 2',4-, 2',4'-, and 2',5-dihydroxychalcones exhibited low to non-detectable AhR activity in Caco2 cells. In addition, all of the hydroxychalcones exhibited minimal to non-detectable activity in YAMC cells, whereas 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 in Caco2 and YAMC cells. The activity of AhR-active chalcones was confirmed by determining their effects in AhR-deficient Caco2 cells. In addition, 2,2'-dihydroxychalcone induced CYP1A1 protein and formation of an AhR-DNA complex in an in vitro assay. Simulation and modeling studies of hydroxylated chalcones confirmed their interactions with the AhR ligand-binding domain and were consistent with their structure-dependent activity as AhR ligands. Thus, this study identifies hydroxylated chalcones as AhR agonists with potential for these phytochemicals to impact AhR-mediated colonic pathways.

13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 219, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet, loss of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression and their modification of the gut microbiota community composition and its metabolites affect the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the concordance between fecal microbiota composition and the fecal metabolome is poorly understood. Mice with specific AhR deletion (AhRKO) in intestinal epithelial cell and their wild-type littermates were fed a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet. Shifts in the fecal microbiome and metabolome associated with diet and loss of AhR expression were assessed. Microbiome and metabolome data were integrated to identify specific microbial taxa that contributed to the observed metabolite shifts. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that diet has a more pronounced effect on mouse fecal microbiota composition than the impact of the loss of AhR. In contrast, metabolomic analysis showed that the loss of AhR in intestinal epithelial cells had a more pronounced effect on metabolite profile compared to diet. Integration analysis of microbiome and metabolome identified unclassified Clostridiales, unclassified Desulfovibrionaceae, and Akkermansia as key contributors to the synthesis and/or utilization of tryptophan metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Akkermansia are likely to contribute to the synthesis and/or degradation of tryptophan metabolites. Our study highlights the use of multi-omic analysis to investigate the relationship between the microbiome and metabolome and identifies possible taxa that can be targeted to manipulate the microbiome for CRC treatment.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932962

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was first identified as the intracellular protein that bound and mediated the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Subsequent studies show that the AhR plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in pathophysiology, and there is increasing evidence that the AhR is an important drug target. The AhR binds structurally diverse compounds, including pharmaceuticals, phytochemicals and endogenous biochemicals, some of which may serve as endogenous ligands. Classification of DLCs and non-DLCs based on their persistence (metabolism), toxicities, binding to wild-type/mutant AhR and structural similarities have been reported. This review provides data suggesting that ligands for the AhR are selective AhR modulators (SAhRMs) that exhibit tissue/cell-specific AhR agonist and antagonist activities, and that their functional diversity is similar to selective receptor modulators that target steroid hormone and other nuclear receptors.


Assuntos
Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo
15.
Biochem J ; 477(19): 3899-3910, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905582

RESUMO

Tryptophan metabolites exhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity and recent studies show that the phenylalanine metabolites serotonin and carbidopa, a drug used in treating Parkinson's disease, activated the AhR. In this study, we identified the neuroactive hormone dopamine as an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 in colon and glioblastoma cells and similar results were observed for carbidopa. In contrast, carbidopa but not dopamine exhibited AhR activity in BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells whereas minimal activity was observed for both compounds in Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells. In contrast with a previous report, the induction responses and cytotoxicity of carbidopa was observed only at high concentrations (100 µM) in BxPC3 cells. Our results show that similar to serotonin and several tryptophan metabolites, dopamine is also an AhR-active compound.


Assuntos
Carbidopa/farmacologia , Indutores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Dopamina/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Células CACO-2 , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferase , Humanos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
16.
EMBO J ; 39(19): e104319, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915464

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that senses xenobiotics, diet, and gut microbial-derived metabolites, is increasingly recognized as a key regulator of intestinal biology. However, its effects on the function of colonic stem and progenitor cells remain largely unexplored. Here, we observed that inducible deletion of AhR in Lgr5+ stem cells increases the percentage of colonic stem cells and enhances organoid initiating capacity and growth of sorted stem and progenitor cells, while AhR activation has the opposite effect. Moreover, intestinal-specific AhR knockout increases basal stem cell and crypt injury-induced cell proliferation and promotes colon tumorigenesis in a preclinical colitis-associated tumor model by upregulating FoxM1 signaling. Mechanistically, AhR transcriptionally suppresses FoxM1 expression. Activation of AhR in human organoids recapitulates phenotypes observed in mice, such as reduction in the percentage of colonic stem cells, promotion of stem cell differentiation, and attenuation of FoxM1 signaling. These findings indicate that the AhR-FoxM1 axis, at least in part, mediates colonic stem/progenitor cell behavior.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575611

RESUMO

Plant lignans and their microbial metabolites, e.g., enterolactone (ENL), may affect bile acid (BA) metabolism through interaction with hepatic receptors. We evaluated the effects of a flaxseed lignan extract (50 mg/day secoisolariciresinol diglucoside) compared to a placebo for 60 days each on plasma BA concentrations in 46 healthy men and women (20-45 years) using samples from a completed randomized, crossover intervention. Twenty BA species were measured in fasting plasma using LC-MS. ENL was measured in 24-h urines by GC-MS. We tested for (a) effects of the intervention on BA concentrations overall and stratified by ENL excretion; and (b) cross-sectional associations between plasma BA and ENL. We also explored the overlap in bacterial metabolism at the genus level and conducted in vitro anaerobic incubations of stool with lignan substrate to identify genes that are enriched in response to lignan metabolism. There were no intervention effects, overall or stratified by ENL at FDR < 0.05. In the cross-sectional analysis, irrespective of treatment, five secondary BAs were associated with ENL excretion (FDR < 0.05). In vitro analyses showed positive associations between ENL production and bacterial gene expression of the bile acid-inducible gene cluster and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. These data suggest overlap in community bacterial metabolism of secondary BA and ENL.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Linho/metabolismo , Lignanas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos Transversais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lignanas/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 50(6): 463-473, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597352

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) and structurally related halogenated aromatics modulate gene expression and induce biochemical and toxic responses that are mediated by initial binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The AhR also binds structurally diverse compound including pharmaceuticals, endogenous biochemicals, health-promoting phytochemicals, and microbial metabolites. Many of these AhR ligands do not induce TCDD-like toxic responses and some AhR ligands such as microbial metabolites of tryptophan play a role in maintaining gut health and protecting against intestinal inflammation and cancer. Many AhR ligands exhibit tissue- and response-specific AhR agonist or antagonist activities, and act as selective AhR modulators (SAhRMs) and this SAhRM-like activity has also been observed in AhR-ligand-mediated effects in the intestine. This review summarizes studies showing that several AhR ligands including phytochemicals and TCDD protect against dextran sodium sulfate-induced intestinal inflammation. In contrast, AhR ligands such as oxazole compounds enhance intestinal inflammation suggesting that AhR-mediated gut health can be enhanced or decreased by selective AhR modulators and this needs to be considered in development of AhR ligands for therapeutic applications in treating intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Humanos , Ligantes , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176710

RESUMO

Evaluating the health and function of the gastrointestinal tract can be challenging in all species, but is especially difficult in horses due to their size and length of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Isolation of mRNA of cells exfoliated from the GI mucosa into feces (i.e., the exfoliome) offers a novel means of non-invasively examining the gene expression profile of the GI mucosa. This approach has been utilized in people with colorectal cancer. Moreover, we have utilized this approach in a murine model of GI inflammation and demonstrated that the exfoliome reflects the tissue transcriptome. The ability of the equine exfoliome to provide non-invasive information regarding the health and function of the GI tract is not known. The objective of this study was to characterize the gene expression profile found in exfoliated intestinal epithelial cells from normal horses and compare the exfoliome data with the tissue mucosal transcriptome. Mucosal samples were collected from standardized locations along the GI tract (i.e. ileum, cecum, right dorsal colon, and rectum) from four healthy horses immediately following euthanasia. Voided feces were also collected. RNA isolation, library preparation, and RNA sequencing was performed on fecal and intestinal mucosal samples. Comparison of gene expression profiles from the tissue and exfoliome revealed correlation of gene expression. Moreover, the exfoliome contained reads representing the diverse array of cell types found in the GI mucosa suggesting the equine exfoliome serves as a non-invasive means of examining the global gene expression pattern of the equine GI tract.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Fezes/citologia , Intestino Grosso/citologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1339, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165635

RESUMO

Proper membrane physiology requires maintenance of biophysical properties, which must be buffered from external perturbations. While homeostatic adaptation of membrane fluidity to temperature variation is a ubiquitous feature of ectothermic organisms, such responsive membrane adaptation to external inputs has not been directly observed in mammals. Here, we report that challenging mammalian membranes by dietary lipids leads to robust lipidomic remodeling to preserve membrane physical properties. Specifically, exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids are rapidly incorporated into membrane lipids, inducing a reduction in membrane packing. These effects are rapidly compensated both in culture and in vivo by lipidome-wide remodeling, most notably upregulation of saturated lipids and cholesterol, resulting in recovery of membrane packing and permeability. Abrogation of this response results in cytotoxicity when membrane homeostasis is challenged by dietary lipids. These results reveal an essential mammalian mechanism for membrane homeostasis wherein lipidome remodeling in response to dietary lipid inputs preserves functional membrane phenotypes.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Biofísica , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipidômica , Fluidez de Membrana , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos
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