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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(47): 52886-52893, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395424

RESUMO

To increase catalytic efficiency, mesoporous supports have been widely applied to immobilize well-defined metal oxide clusters due to their ability to stabilize highly dispersed clusters. Herein, a redox-active heterometallic Ce12V6-oxo cluster (CeV) was first presynthesized and then incorporated into mesoporous silica, SBA-15, via a straightforward impregnation method. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), in concert with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), verified the successful introduction of the CeV cluster inside the pore of SBA-15. The 51V magic angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (51V MAS NMR) spectroscopy and differential pair distribution function (dPDF) analysis confirmed the structural integrity of the CeV cluster inside the SBA-15. The composite was then benchmarked for liquid-phase oxidation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) under mild conditions and gas-phase oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane under high temperatures (up to 550 °C). The catalytic reactivity results demonstrated 8- and 14-fold increase in turnover frequency (TOF) values of the composite (CeV@10SBA-2) than the bulk CeV cluster under the same conditions for CEES oxidation and ODH, respectively. These results highlight the improved reactivity of the catalytically active CeV cluster as attributed to the higher dispersion of the discrete cluster upon immobilization within the SBA-15 support.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416496

RESUMO

Although sulfide perovskites usually require high-temperature syntheses, we demonstrate that organosulfides can be used in the milder syntheses of halide perovskites. The zwitterionic organosulfide, cysteamine (CYS; +NH3(CH2)2S-), serves as both the X- site and A+ site in the ABX3 halide perovskites, yielding the first examples of 3D organosulfide-halide perovskites: (CYS)PbX2 (X- = Cl- or Br-). Notably, the band structures of (CYS)PbX2 capture the direct bandgaps and dispersive bands of APbX3 perovskites. The sulfur orbitals compose the top of the valence band in (CYS)PbX2, affording unusually small direct bandgaps of 2.31 and 2.16 eV for X- = Cl- and Br-, respectively, falling in the ideal range for the top absorber in a perovskite-based tandem solar cell. Measurements of the carrier dynamics in (CYS)PbCl2 suggest carrier trapping due to defects or lattice distortions. The highly desirable bandgaps, band dispersion, and improved stability of the organosulfide perovskites demonstrated here motivate the continued expansion and exploration of this new family of materials, particularly with respect to extracting photocurrent. Our strategy of combining the A+ and X- sites with zwitterions may offer more members in this family of mixed-anion 3D hybrid perovskites.

3.
Nature ; 611(7936): 479-484, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289346

RESUMO

Conducting organic materials, such as doped organic polymers1, molecular conductors2,3 and emerging coordination polymers4, underpin technologies ranging from displays to flexible electronics5. Realizing high electrical conductivity in traditionally insulating organic materials necessitates tuning their electronic structure through chemical doping6. Furthermore, even organic materials that are intrinsically conductive, such as single-component molecular conductors7,8, require crystallinity for metallic behaviour. However, conducting polymers are often amorphous to aid durability and processability9. Using molecular design to produce high conductivity in undoped amorphous materials would enable tunable and robust conductivity in many applications10, but there are no intrinsically conducting organic materials that maintain high conductivity when disordered. Here we report an amorphous coordination polymer, Ni tetrathiafulvalene tetrathiolate, which displays markedly high electronic conductivity (up to 1,200 S cm-1) and intrinsic glassy-metallic behaviour. Theory shows that these properties are enabled by molecular overlap that is robust to structural perturbations. This unusual set of features results in high conductivity that is stable to humid air for weeks, pH 0-14 and temperatures up to 140 °C. These findings demonstrate that molecular design can enable metallic conductivity even in heavily disordered materials, raising fundamental questions about how metallic transport can exist without periodic structure and indicating exciting new applications for these materials.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(37): 16883-16897, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089745

RESUMO

Understanding heterogeneous catalysts is a challenging pursuit due to surface site nonuniformity and aperiodicity in traditionally used materials. One example is sulfated metal oxides, which function as highly active catalysts and as supports for organometallic complexes. These applications are due to traits such as acidity, ability to act as a weakly coordinating ligand, and aptitude for promoting transformations via radical cation intermediates. Research is ongoing about the structural features of sulfated metal oxides that imbue the aforementioned properties, such as sulfate geometry and coordination. To better understand these materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been targeted as structurally defined analogues. Composed of inorganic nodes and organic linkers, MOFs possess features such as high porosity and crystallinity, which make them attractive for mechanistic studies of heterogeneous catalysts. In this work, Zr6-based MOF NU-1000 is sulfated and characterized using techniques such as single crystal X-ray diffraction in addition to diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The dynamic nature of the sulfate binding motif is found to transition from monodentate, to bidentate, to tridentate depending on the degree of hydration, as supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Heightened Brønsted acidity compared to the parent MOF was observed upon sulfation and probed through trimethylphosphine oxide physisorption, ammonia sorption, in situ ammonia DRIFTS, and DFT studies. With the support structure benchmarked, an organoiridium complex was chemisorbed onto the sulfated MOF node, and the efficacy of this supported catalyst was demonstrated for stoichiometric and catalytic activation of benzene-d6 and toluene with structure-activity relationships derived.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Amônia , Benzeno , Catálise , Ligantes , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Óxidos/química , Sulfatos , Óxidos de Enxofre , Tolueno , Zircônio/química
5.
RSC Adv ; 12(33): 21153-21159, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975062

RESUMO

This work reports a method of producing flexible cobalt nanowires (NWs) directly from the chemical conversion of bulk precursors at room temperature. Chemical reduction of Li6CoCl8 produces a nanocomposite of Co and LiCl, of which the salt is subsequently removed. The dilute concentration of Co in the precursor combined with the anisotropic crystal structure of the hcp phase leads to 1D growth in the absence of any templates or additives. The Co NWs are shown to have high saturation magnetization (130.6 emu g-1). Our understanding of the NW formation mechanism points to new directions of scalable nanostructure generation.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(30): 13729-13739, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876689

RESUMO

We are currently witnessing the dawn of hydrogen (H2) economy, where H2 will soon become a primary fuel for heating, transportation, and long-distance and long-term energy storage. Among diverse possibilities, H2 can be stored as a pressurized gas, a cryogenic liquid, or a solid fuel via adsorption onto porous materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as adsorbent materials with the highest theoretical H2 storage densities on both a volumetric and gravimetric basis. However, a critical bottleneck for the use of H2 as a transportation fuel has been the lack of densification methods capable of shaping MOFs into practical formulations while maintaining their adsorptive performance. Here, we report a high-throughput screening and deep analysis of a database of MOFs to find optimal materials, followed by the synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of an optimal monolithic MOF (monoMOF) for H2 storage. After densification, this monoMOF stores 46 g L-1 H2 at 50 bar and 77 K and delivers 41 and 42 g L-1 H2 at operating pressures of 25 and 50 bar, respectively, when deployed in a combined temperature-pressure (25-50 bar/77 K → 5 bar/160 K) swing gas delivery system. This performance represents up to an 80% reduction in the operating pressure requirements for delivering H2 gas when compared with benchmark materials and an 83% reduction compared to compressed H2 gas. Our findings represent a substantial step forward in the application of high-density materials for volumetric H2 storage applications.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(27): 11975-11979, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763716

RESUMO

Countless inorganic materials are prepared via high temperature solid-state reaction of mixtures of reagents powders. Understanding and controlling the phenomena that limit these solid-state reactions is crucial to designing reactions for new materials synthesis. Here, focusing on topotactic ion-exchange between NaFeO2 and LiBr as a model reaction, we manipulate the mesoscale reaction architecture and transport pathways by changing the packing and interfacial contact between reagent particles. Through analysis of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction data, we identify multiple kinetic regimes that reflect transport limitations on different length scales: a fast kinetic regime in the first minutes of the reaction and a slow kinetic regime that follows. The fast kinetic regime dominates the observed reaction progress and depends on the reagent packing; this challenges the view that solid-state reactions are necessarily slow. Using a phase-field model, we simulated the reaction process and showed that particles without direct contact to the other reactant phases experience large reduction in the reaction rate, even when transport hindrance at particle-particle contacts is not considered.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(48): 20090-20094, 2021 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826220

RESUMO

How molecules approach, bind at, and release from catalytic sites is key to heterogeneous catalysis, including for emerging metal-organic framework (MOF)-based catalysts. We use in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering analysis to evaluate the dominant binding sites for reagent and product molecules in the vicinity of catalytic Ni-oxo clusters in NU-1000 with different surface functionalization under conditions approaching those used in catalysis. The locations of the reagent and product molecules within the pores can be linked to the activity for ethylene hydrogenation. For the most active catalyst, ethylene reagent molecules bind close to the catalytic clusters, but only at temperatures approaching experimentally observed onset of catalysis. The ethane product molecules favor a different binding location suggesting that the product is readily released from the active site. An unusual guest-dependence of the framework negative thermal expansion is documented. We hypothesize that reagent and product binding sites reflect the pathway through the MOF to the active site and can be used to identify key factors that impact the catalytic activity.

9.
Chem Sci ; 12(41): 13836-13847, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760169

RESUMO

Unraveling the complex, competing pathways that can govern reactions in multicomponent systems is an experimental and technical challenge. We outline and apply a novel analytical toolkit that fully leverages the synchronicity of multimodal experiments to deconvolute causal from correlative relationships and resolve structural and chemical changes in complex materials. Here, simultaneous multimodal measurements combined diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and angular dispersive X-ray scattering suitable for pair distribution function (PDF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses. The multimodal experimental data was interpreted via multi-level analysis; conventional analyses of each data series were integrated through meta-analysis involving non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a dimensional reduction algorithm and correlation analysis. We apply this toolkit to build a cohesive mechanistic picture of the pathways governing silver nanoparticle formation in zeolite A (LTA), which is key to designing catalytic and separations-based applications. For this Ag-LTA system, the mechanisms of zeolite dehydration, framework flexing, ion reduction, and cluster and nanoparticle formation and transport through the zeolite are elucidated. We note that the advanced analytical approach outline here can be applied generally to multimodal experiments, to take full advantage of the efficiencies and self-consistencies in understanding complex materials and go beyond what can be achieved by conventional approaches to data analysis.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(30): 36232-36239, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308623

RESUMO

We describe and experimentally illustrate a strategy for synthesizing reactant-accessible, supported arrays of well-confined, sub-nanometer to 2 nm, metal(0) clusters and particles-here, copper, palladium, and platinum. The synthesis entails (a) solution-phase binding of metal ions by a generation-2 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer, (b) electrostatic uptake of metalated, solution-dissolved, and positively charged dendrimers by the negatively charged pores of a zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, and (c) chemical reduction of the incorporated metal ions. The pH of the unbuffered solution is known to control the overall charges of both the dendrimer guests and the hierarchically porous MOF. The combined results of electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and other measurements indicate the formation and microscopically uniform spatial distributions of zero-valent, monometallic Cu, Pd, and Pt species, with sizes depending strongly on the conditions and methods used for reduction of incorporated metal ions. Access to sub-nanometer clusters is ascribed to the stabilization effects imposed by the two templates (i.e., NU-1000 and dendrimer), which significantly limit the extent to which the metal atoms aggregate; as the thermal input increases, the dendrimer template gradually decomposes, allowing a further aggregation of metal clusters inside the hexagonal mesoporous channel of the MOF template, which ultimately self-limits at 3 nm (i.e., the mesopore width of NU-1000). Using CO oxidation and n-hexene hydrogenation as model reactions in the gas and condensed phases, we show that the dual-templated metal species can act as stable, efficient heterogeneous catalysts.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(24): 8976-8980, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115476

RESUMO

Understanding and controlling nanomaterial structure, chemistry, and defects represents a synthetic and characterization challenge. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been explored as unconventional precursors from which to prepare nanomaterials. Here we use in situ X-ray pair distribution function analysis to probe the mechanism through which MOFs transform into nanomaterials during pyrolysis. By comparing a series of bimetallic MOFs with trimeric node different compositions (Fe3, Fe2Co, and Fe2Ni) linked by carboxylate ligands in a PCN-250 lattice, we demonstrate that the resulting nanoparticle structure, chemistry, and defect concentration depend on the node chemistry of the original MOF. These results suggest that the preorganized structure and chemistry of the MOF offer new potential control over the nanomaterial synthesis under mild reaction conditions. In the case of Fe2Ni-PCN-250, selective extraction of one Ni ion from each node without collapsing the framework (i.e., node-ligand connectivity) leaves a metal-deficient MOF state that may provide a new route to post-synthetically tune the chemistry the MOF and subsequent nanomaterials.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(15): 5763-5770, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825477

RESUMO

Lithium-rich nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LRNMC) is being explored as an alternative to stoichiometric nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathode materials due to its higher, initially accessible, energy-storage capacity. This higher capacity has been associated with reversible O oxidation; however, the mechanism through which the change in O chemistry is accommodated by the surrounding cathode structure remains incomplete, making it challenging to design strategies to mitigate poor electrode performance resulting from extended cycling. Focusing on LRNMC cathodes, we identify nanoscale domains of lower electron density within the cathode as a structural consequence of O oxidation using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and operando X-ray diffraction (XRD). A feature observed in the small angle scattering region suggests the formation of nanopores, which first appears during O oxidation, and is partially reversible. This feature is not present in traditional cathode materials, including stoichiometric NMC and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) but appears to be common to other Li-rich systems tested here, Li2RuO3 and Li1.3Nb0.3Mn0.4O2.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1256, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623048

RESUMO

Rechargeable solid-state sodium-ion batteries (SSSBs) hold great promise for safer and more energy-dense energy storage. However, the poor electrochemical stability between current sulfide-based solid electrolytes and high-voltage oxide cathodes has limited their long-term cycling performance and practicality. Here, we report the discovery of the ion conductor Na3-xY1-xZrxCl6 (NYZC) that is both electrochemically stable (up to 3.8 V vs. Na/Na+) and chemically compatible with oxide cathodes. Its high ionic conductivity of 6.6 × 10-5 S cm-1 at ambient temperature, several orders of magnitude higher than oxide coatings, is attributed to abundant Na vacancies and cooperative MCl6 rotation, resulting in an extremely low interfacial impedance. A SSSB comprising a NaCrO2 + NYZC composite cathode, Na3PS4 electrolyte, and Na-Sn anode exhibits an exceptional first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of 97.1% at room temperature and can cycle over 1000 cycles with 89.3% capacity retention at 40 °C. These findings highlight the immense potential of halides for SSSB applications.

14.
Nat Mater ; 20(6): 841-850, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479526

RESUMO

Metal fluorides, promising lithium-ion battery cathode materials, have been classified as conversion materials due to the reconstructive phase transitions widely presumed to occur upon lithiation. We challenge this view by studying FeF3 using X-ray total scattering and electron diffraction techniques that measure structure over multiple length scales coupled with density functional theory calculations, and by revisiting prior experimental studies of FeF2 and CuF2. Metal fluoride lithiation is instead dominated by diffusion-controlled displacement mechanisms, and a clear topological relationship between the metal fluoride F- sublattices and that of LiF is established. Initial lithiation of FeF3 forms FeF2 on the particle's surface, along with a cation-ordered and stacking-disordered phase, A-LixFeyF3, which is structurally related to α-/ß-LiMn2+Fe3+F6 and which topotactically transforms to B- and then C-LixFeyF3, before forming LiF and Fe. Lithiation of FeF2 and CuF2 results in a buffer phase between FeF2/CuF2 and LiF. The resulting principles will aid future developments of a wider range of isomorphic metal fluorides.

15.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(7): 1232-1241, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284001

RESUMO

The radioactive isotopes scandium-44/47 and lutetium-177 are gaining relevance for radioimaging and radiotherapy, resulting in a surge of studies on their coordination chemistry and subsequent applications. Although the trivalent ions of these elements are considered close homologues, dissimilar chemical behavior is observed when they are complexed by large ligand architectures due to discrepancies between Lu(III) and Sc(III) ions with respect to size, chemical hardness, and Lewis acidity. Here, we demonstrate that Lu and Sc complexes of 1,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-7-[(6-carboxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (H3mpatcn) and its corresponding bioconjugate picaga-DUPA can be employed to promote analogous structural features and, subsequently, biological properties for coordination complexes of these ions. The close homology was evidenced using potentiometric methods, computational modeling, variable temperature mass spectrometry, and pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering data. Radiochemical labeling, in vitro stability, and biodistribution studies with Sc-47 and Lu-177 indicate that the 7-coordinate ligand environment of the bifunctional picaga ligand is compatible with biological applications and the future investigation of ß-emitting, picaga-chelated Sc and Lu isotopes for radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Quelantes/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Lutécio/química , Medicina de Precisão , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Escândio/química , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular
16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(1): 532-536, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377386

RESUMO

The halide double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 has emerged as a promising nontoxic alternative to the lead halide perovskites APbX3 (A = organic cation or Cs; X = I or Br). Here, we perform high-pressure synchrotron X-ray total scattering on Cs2AgBiBr6 and discover local disorder that is hidden from conventional Bragg analysis. While our powder diffraction data show that the average structure remains cubic up to 2.1 GPa, analysis of the X-ray pair distribution function reveals that the local structure is better described by a monoclinic space group, with significant distortion within the Ag-Br and Bi-Br octahedra and off-centering of the Cs atoms. By tracking the distribution of interatomic Cs-Br distances, we find that the local disorder is enhanced upon compression, and we corroborate these results with molecular dynamics simulations. The observed local disorder affords new understanding of this promising material and potentially offers a new parameter to tune in halide perovskite lattices.

17.
Mater Adv ; 2(24): 7949-7955, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005625

RESUMO

The assembly-disassembly-organisation-reassembly (ADOR) process is an important tool to access zeolite structures that are otherwise unfeasible via hydrothermal methods. In situ flow pair distribution function (PDF) analysis has been used to probe the mechanism of the disassembly and organisation steps, with the disassembly a rapid step that is often difficult to capture. Zeolite UTL was hydrolysed by 6 M hydrochloric acid, with PDF measurements used to monitor framework alterations as the reaction proceeded. The resulting disassembly mechanism shows an initial rapid removal of germanium from the germanium-rich double 4 rings (d4r), followed by silicon rearrangement and gradual silanol condensation to form IPC-2P.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201702

RESUMO

Various metal oxide clusters upward of 8 atoms (Cu, Cd, Co, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, W, Zn, In, and Al) were incorporated into the pores of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 via atomic layer deposition (ALD) and tested via high-throughput screening for catalytic isomerization and selective hydrogenation of propyne. Cu and Co were found to be the most active for propyne hydrogenation to propylene, and synergistic bimetallic combinations of Co and Zn, along with standalone Zn and Cd, were established as the most active for conversion to the isomerized product, propadiene. The combination of Co and Zn in NU-1000 diminished the propensity for full hydrogenation to propane as well as coking compared to its individual components. This study highlights the potential for high-throughput screening to survey monometallic and bimetallic cluster combinations that best affect the efficient transformation of small molecules, while discerning mechanistic differences in isomerization and hydrogenation by different metals.

19.
ACS Omega ; 5(46): 30299-30305, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251464

RESUMO

Solvent-assisted ligand incorporation is an excellent method for the post-synthetic functionalization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as carboxylate-derivative functionalities readily coordinate to the Zr6 nodes by displacing node-based aqua and terminal hydroxo ligands. In this study, a photocatalytically active ruthenium complex RuII(bpy)2(dcbpy), that is, bis-(2,2'-bipyridine)-(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium, was installed in the mono-protonated (carboxylic acid) form within NU-1000 via SALI. Crystallographic information regarding the siting of the ruthenium complex within the MOF pores is obtained by difference envelope density analysis. The ruthenium-functionalized MOF, termed Ru-NU-1000, shows excellent heterogeneous photocatalytic activity for an oxidative amine coupling reaction.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(44): 18758-18762, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090780

RESUMO

We achieve a target material state by using a recursive algorithm to control the material reaction based on real-time feedback on the system chemistry from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Without human intervention, the algorithm controlled O2:H2 gas partial pressures to approach a target average Cu oxidation state of 1+ for γ-Al2O3-supported Cu. This approach represents a new paradigm in autonomation for materials discovery and synthesis optimization; instead of iterating the parameters following the conclusion of each of a series of reactions, the iteration cycle has been scaled down to time points during an individual reaction. Application of the proof-of-concept illustrated here, using a feedback loop to couple in situ material characterization and the reaction conditions via a decision-making algorithm, can be readily envisaged in optimizing and understanding a broad range of systems including catalysis.

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