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J Trop Med ; 2020: 4761051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518566


Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged <15 years) is a neglected component of national TB programmes in high TB burden countries. Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa, is a high burden country for TB, TB-HIV, and drug-resistant TB. In this study, we assessed trends in annual childhood TB notifications in Harare (the capital of Zimbabwe) from 2009 to 2018 and the demographic, clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes of childhood TB patients notified from 2015-2017 by reviewing the national TB programme records and reports. Overall, there was a decline in the total number of TB patients (all ages) from 5,943 in 2009 to 2,831 in 2018. However, the number of childhood TB patients had declined exponentially 6-fold from 583 patients (117 per 100,000 children) in 2009 to 107 patients (18 per 100,000 children) in 2018. Of the 615 childhood TB patients notified between 2015 and 2017, 556 (89%) patient records were available. There were 53% males, 61% were aged <5 years, 92% were new TB patients, 85% had pulmonary TB, and 89% were treated for-drug sensitive TB, 3% for drug-resistant TB, and 40% were HIV positive (of whom 59% were on ART). Although 58% had successful treatment outcomes, the treatment outcomes of 40% were unknown (not recorded or not evaluated), indicating severe gaps in TB care. The disproportionate decline in childhood TB notifications could be due to the reduction in the TB burden among HIV positive individuals from the scale up of antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy. However, the country is experiencing economic challenges which could also contribute to the disproportionate decline in childhood TB notification and gaps in quality of care. There is an urgent need to understand the reasons for the declining trends and the gaps in care.

PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353043


BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is one of the thirty countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). Since 2010, patients diagnosed with MDR/RR-TB are being treated with 20-24 months of standardized second-line drugs (SLDs). The profile, management and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes of MDR/RR TB have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis Programme in all the district hospitals and urban healthcare facilities in Zimbabwe between January 2010 and December 2015. METHODS: A cohort study using routinely collected programme data. The 'death', 'loss to follow-up' (LTFU), 'failure' and 'not evaluated' were considered as "unfavourable outcome". A generalized linear model with a log-link and binomial distribution or a Poisson distribution with robust error variances were used to assess factors associated with "unfavourable outcome". The unadjusted and adjusted relative risks were calculated as a measure of association. A 𝑝value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients in the study, the median age was 34 years [interquartile range, 29-42] and 230 (49%) were males. There were 352 (74%) patients co-infected with HIV, of whom 321 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Severe adverse events (SAEs) were recorded in 118 (25%) patients; mostly hearing impairments (70%) and psychosis (11%). Overall, 184 (39%) patients had 'unfavourable' treatment outcomes [125 (26%) were deaths, 39 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 4 (<1%) were failures and 16 (3%) not evaluated]. Being co-infected with HIV but not on ART [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.33-5.09] was independently associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The high unfavourable treatment outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients on standardized SLDs were coupled with a high occurrence of SAEs in this predominantly HIV co-infected cohort. Switching to individualized all oral shorter treatment regimens should be considered to limit SAEs and improve treatment outcomes. Improving the ART uptake and timeliness of ART initiation can reduce unfavourable outcomes.

Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 119-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357057


OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of resistance to rifampicin alone; rifampicin and isoniazid, and second-line anti-TB drugs among sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A health facility-based cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: In total, 1114 (87.6%) new and 158 (12.4%) retreatment TB patients were enrolled. MTB was confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF among 1184 (93%) smear-positive sputum samples. There were 64 samples with Xpert MTB/RIF-determined rifampicin resistance. However, two were rifampicin susceptible on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The prevalence of RR-TB was [4.0% (95% CI, 2.9, 5.4%), n=42/1043) and 14.2% (95% CI, 8.9, 21.1%; n=20/141) among new and retreatment patients, respectively. The prevalence of MDR-TB was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3, 3.1%) and 6.4% (95% CI, 2.4, 10.3%) among new and retreatment TB patients, respectively. Risk factors for RR-TB included prior TB treatment, self-reported HIV infection, travel outside Zimbabwe for ≥one month (univariate), and age <15 years. Having at least a secondary education was protective against RR-TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDR-TB in Zimbabwe has remained stable since the 1994 subnational survey. However, the prevalence of rifampicin mono-resistance was double that of MDR-TB.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia