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1.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2267-2281, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860605

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive, metastatic and recurrent breast cancer (BC) subtype, currently suffers from a lack of adequately described spontaneously metastatic preclinical models that faithfully reproduce the clinical scenario. We describe two preclinical spontaneously metastatic TNBC orthotopic murine models for the development of advanced therapeutics: an immunodeficient human MDA-MB-231-Luc model and an immunocompetent mouse 4T1 model. Furthermore, we provide a broad range of multifactorial analysis for both models that could provide relevant information for the development of new therapies and diagnostic tools. Our comparisons uncovered differential growth rates, stromal arrangements and metabolic profiles in primary tumors, and the presence of cancer-associated adipocyte infiltration in the MDA-MB-231-Luc model. Histopathological studies highlighted the more rapid metastatic spread to the lungs in the 4T1 model following a lymphatic route, while we observed both homogeneous (MDA-MB-231-Luc) and heterogeneous (4T1) metastatic spread to axillary lymph nodes. We encountered unique metabolomic signatures in each model, including crucial amino acids and cell membrane components. Hematological analysis demonstrated severe leukemoid and lymphoid reactions in the 4T1 model with the partial reestablishment of immune responses in the immunocompromised MDA-MB-231-Luc model. Additionally, we discovered ß-immunoglobulinemia and increased basal levels of G-CSF correlating with a metastatic switch, with G-CSF also promoting extramedullary hematopoiesis (both models) and causing hepatosplenomegaly (4T1 model). Overall, we believe that the characterization of these preclinical models will foster the development of advanced therapeutic strategies for TNBC treatment, especially for the treatment of patients presenting both, primary tumors and metastatic spread.

2.
Biomaterials ; 186: 8-21, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278346

RESUMO

The intrinsic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment (TME), including acidic pH and overexpression of hydrolytic enzymes, offer an exciting opportunity for the rational design of TME-drug delivery systems (DDS). We developed and characterized a pH-responsive biodegradable poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA)-based combination conjugate family with the aim of optimizing anticancer effects. We obtained combination conjugates bearing Doxorubicin (Dox) and aminoglutethimide (AGM) with two Dox loadings and two different hydrazone pH-sensitive linkers that promote the specific release of Dox from the polymeric backbone within the TME. Low Dox loading coupled with a short hydrazone linker yielded optimal effects on primary tumor growth, lung metastasis (∼90% reduction), and toxicological profile in a preclinical metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. The use of transcriptomic analysis helped us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for such results including a differential immunomodulation and cell death pathways among the conjugates. This data highlights the advantages of targeting the TME, the therapeutic value of polymer-based combination approaches, and the utility of -omics-based analysis to accelerate anticancer DDS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ácido Poliglutâmico/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral , Aminoglutetimida/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
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