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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
2.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(9): 1024-1034, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193462

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are MR1-restricted innate-like T cells that recognize non-peptide antigens including riboflavin derivates. Although in vitro-activated MAIT cells show antitumor activity, the in vivo role of MAIT cells in cancer is still unclear. Here, we have shown that MAIT cells have antitumor function in vivo when activated by a combination of the synthetic riboflavin synthesis pathway-derived antigen 5-OP-RU [5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil] and the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist CpG. Coadministration of 5-OP-RU and CpG induced strong systemic in vivo expansion and activation of MAIT cells with high CD69 expression, pronounced effector memory phenotype, and upregulated levels of effector molecules including IFNγ, granzyme B, and perforin. Activated and expanded MAITs induced a potent and broad antitumor immune response in murine models of liver metastasis and hepatocellular carcinoma, lung metastasis, and subcutaneous tumors in two different mouse strains. Such tumor inhibition was absent in MAIT-deficient Mr1 -/- mice. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MR1 knockout in tumor cells did not affect efficacy of this MAIT-directed immunotherapy, pointing toward an indirect mechanism of action. Our findings suggest that MAIT cells are an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy.See related Spotlight by Lantz, p. 996.

3.
Cancer Res ; 81(12): 3374-3386, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837043

RESUMO

Screening for sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified a natural product of the 17ß-hydroxywithanolide (17-BHW) class, physachenolide C (PCC), as a promising hit. In this study, we show that PCC was also able to sensitize melanoma and renal carcinoma cells to apoptosis in response not only to TRAIL, but also to the synthetic polynucleotide poly I:C, a viral mimetic and immune activator, by reducing levels of antiapoptotic proteins cFLIP and Livin. Both death receptor and TLR3 signaling elicited subsequent increased assembly of a proapoptotic ripoptosome signaling complex. Administration of a combination of PCC and poly I:C in human M14 melanoma xenograft and a syngeneic B16 melanoma model provided significant therapeutic benefit as compared with individual agents. In addition, PCC enhanced melanoma cell death in response to activated human T cells in vitro and in vivo in a death ligand-dependent manner. Biochemical mechanism-of-action studies established bromo and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins as major cellular targets of PCC. Thus, by targeting of BET proteins to reduce antiapoptotic proteins and enhance caspase-8-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells, PCC represents a unique agent that can potentially be used in combination with various immunotherapeutic approaches to promote tumor regression and improve outcome. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that PCC selectively sensitizes cancer cells to immune-mediated cell death, potentially improving the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/81/12/3374/F1.large.jpg.

4.
Mol Cell ; 81(12): 2611-2624.e10, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857404

RESUMO

The Shieldin complex shields double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) from nucleolytic resection. Curiously, the penultimate Shieldin component, SHLD1, is one of the least abundant mammalian proteins. Here, we report that the transcription factors THAP1, YY1, and HCF1 bind directly to the SHLD1 promoter, where they cooperatively maintain the low basal expression of SHLD1, thereby ensuring a proper balance between end protection and resection during DSB repair. The loss of THAP1-dependent SHLD1 expression confers cross-resistance to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor and cisplatin in BRCA1-deficient cells and shorter progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients. Moreover, the embryonic lethality and PARPi sensitivity of BRCA1-deficient mice is rescued by ablation of SHLD1. Our study uncovers a transcriptional network that directly controls DSB repair choice and suggests a potential link between DNA damage and pathogenic THAP1 mutations, found in patients with the neurodevelopmental movement disorder adult-onset torsion dystonia type 6.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Distonia/genética , Feminino , Fator C1 de Célula Hospedeira/metabolismo , Proteínas Mad2/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D871-D876, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051688

RESUMO

With the technology's accessibility and ease of use, CRISPR has been employed widely in many different organisms and experimental settings. As a result, thousands of publications have used CRISPR to make specific genetic perturbations, establishing in itself a resource of validated guide RNA sequences. While numerous computational tools to assist in the design and identification of candidate guide RNAs exist, these are still just at best predictions and generally, researchers inevitably will test multiple sequences for functional activity. Here, we present dbGuide (https://sgrnascorer.cancer.gov/dbguide), a database of functionally validated guide RNA sequences for CRISPR/Cas9-based knockout in human and mouse. Our database not only contains computationally determined candidate guide RNA sequences, but of even greater value, over 4000 sequences which have been functionally validated either through direct amplicon sequencing or manual curation of literature from over 1000 publications. Finally, our established framework will allow for continual addition of newly published and experimentally validated guide RNA sequences for CRISPR/Cas9-based knockout as well as incorporation of sequences from different gene editing systems, additional species and other types of site-specific functionalities such as base editing, gene activation, repression and epigenetic modification.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Edição de Genes , Genoma Humano , RNA Guia/genética , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
Cancer Metab ; 8: 23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101674

RESUMO

Background: Targeting glutamine metabolism in cancer has become an increasingly vibrant area of research. Mutant IDH1 (IDH1 mut ) gliomas are considered good candidates for targeting this pathway because of the contribution of glutamine to their newly acquired function: synthesis of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Methods: We have employed a combination of 13C tracers including glutamine and glucose for investigating the metabolism of patient-derived IDH1 mut glioma cell lines through NMR and LC/MS. Additionally, genetic loss-of-function (in vitro and in vivo) approaches were performed to unravel the adaptability of these cell lines to the inhibition of glutaminase activity. Results: We report the adaptability of IDH1 mut cells' metabolism to the inhibition of glutamine/glutamate pathway. The glutaminase inhibitor CB839 generated a decrease in the production of the downstream metabolites of glutamate, including those involved in the TCA cycle and 2HG. However, this effect on metabolism was not extended to viability; rather, our patient-derived IDH1 mut cell lines display a metabolic plasticity that allows them to overcome glutaminase inhibition. Conclusions: Major metabolic adaptations involved pathways that can generate glutamate by using alternative substrates from glutamine, such as alanine or aspartate. Indeed, asparagine synthetase was upregulated both in vivo and in vitro revealing a new potential therapeutic target for a combinatory approach with CB839 against IDH1 mut gliomas.

7.
Elife ; 92020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112233

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often associated with polysomes, indicating coding potential. However, only a handful of endogenous proteins encoded by putative lncRNAs have been identified and assigned a function. Here, we report the discovery of a putative gastrointestinal-tract-specific lncRNA (LINC00675) that is regulated by the pioneer transcription factor FOXA1 and encodes a conserved small protein of 79 amino acids which we termed FORCP (FOXA1-Regulated Conserved Small Protein). FORCP transcript is undetectable in most cell types but is abundant in well-differentiated colorectal cancer (CRC) cells where it functions to inhibit proliferation, clonogenicity, and tumorigenesis. The epitope-tagged and endogenous FORCP protein predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to ER stress, FORCP depletion results in decreased apoptosis. Our findings on the initial characterization of FORCP demonstrate that FORCP is a novel, conserved small protein encoded by a mis-annotated lncRNA that regulates apoptosis and tumorigenicity in well-differentiated CRC cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
8.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(18)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631902

RESUMO

hRpn13/ADRM1 links substrate recruitment with deubiquitination at the proteasome through its proteasome- and ubiquitin-binding Pru domain and DEUBAD domain, which binds and activates deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) UCHL5/Uch37. Here, we edit the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line to delete part of the hRpn13 Pru, producing cells that express truncated hRpn13 (trRpn13), which is competent for UCHL5 binding but defective for proteasome interaction. trRpn13 cells demonstrate reduced levels of proteasome-bound ubiquitinated proteins, indicating that the loss of hRpn13 function at proteasomes cannot be fully compensated for by the two other dedicated substrate receptors (hRpn1 and hRpn10). Previous studies indicated that the loss of full-length hRpn13 causes a corresponding reduction of UCHL5. We find UCHL5 levels unaltered in trRpn13 cells, but hRpn11 is elevated in ΔhRpn13 and trRpn13 cells, perhaps from cell stress. Despite the ∼90 DUBs in human cells, including two others in addition to UCHL5 at the proteasome, we found deletion of UCHL5 from HCT116 cells to cause increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins in whole-cell extract and at proteasomes, suggesting that UCHL5 activity cannot be fully assumed by other DUBs. We also report anticancer molecule RA190, which binds covalently to hRpn13 and UCHL5, to require hRpn13 Pru and not UCHL5 for cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2718, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483191

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~20 melanoma susceptibility loci, most of which are not functionally characterized. Here we report an approach integrating massively-parallel reporter assays (MPRA) with cell-type-specific epigenome and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) to identify susceptibility genes/variants from multiple GWAS loci. From 832 high-LD variants, we identify 39 candidate functional variants from 14 loci displaying allelic transcriptional activity, a subset of which corroborates four colocalizing melanocyte cis-eQTL genes. Among these, we further characterize the locus encompassing the HIV-1 restriction gene, MX2 (Chr21q22.3), and validate a functional intronic variant, rs398206. rs398206 mediates the binding of the transcription factor, YY1, to increase MX2 levels, consistent with the cis-eQTL of MX2 in primary human melanocytes. Melanocyte-specific expression of human MX2 in a zebrafish model demonstrates accelerated melanoma formation in a BRAFV600E background. Our integrative approach streamlines GWAS follow-up studies and highlights a pleiotropic function of MX2 in melanoma susceptibility.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Melanoma/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1291, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157086

RESUMO

Regulated proteolysis by proteasomes involves ~800 enzymes for substrate modification with ubiquitin, including ~600 E3 ligases. We report here that E6AP/UBE3A is distinguished from other E3 ligases by having a 12 nM binding site at the proteasome contributed by substrate receptor hRpn10/PSMD4/S5a. Intrinsically disordered by itself, and previously uncharacterized, the E6AP-binding domain in hRpn10 locks into a well-defined helical structure to form an intermolecular 4-helix bundle with the E6AP AZUL, which is unique to this E3. We thus name the hRpn10 AZUL-binding domain RAZUL. We further find in human cells that loss of RAZUL by CRISPR-based gene editing leads to loss of E6AP at proteasomes. Moreover, proteasome-associated ubiquitin is reduced following E6AP knockdown or displacement from proteasomes, suggesting that E6AP ubiquitinates substrates at or for the proteasome. Altogether, our findings indicate E6AP to be a privileged E3 for the proteasome, with a dedicated, high affinity binding site contributed by hRpn10.


Assuntos
Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Especificidade por Substrato , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química
11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(5): 843-859, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004714

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), a nuclear deubiquitinase thought to be involved in DNA double-strand break repair, is frequently mutated in mesothelioma. Because poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPIs) induce synthetic lethality in BRCA1/2 mutant cancers, we evaluated whether BAP1 inactivating mutations confer sensitivity to PARPIs in mesothelioma and if combination therapy with temozolomide (TMZ) would be beneficial. METHODS: A total of 10 patient-derived mesothelioma cell lines were generated and characterized for BAP1 mutation status, protein expression, nuclear localization, and sensitivity to the PARPIs, olaparib, and talazoparib, alone or in combination with TMZ. BAP1 deubiquitinase (DUB) activity was evaluated by ubiquitin with 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin assay. BAP1 knockout mesothelioma cell lines were generated by CRISPR-Cas9. Because Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase also drive response to TMZ and PARPIs, we tested their expression and relationship with drug response. RESULTS: BAP1 mutations or copy-number alterations, or both were present in all 10 cell lines. Nonetheless, four cell lines exhibited intact DUB activity and two had nuclear BAP1 localization. Half maximal-inhibitory concentrations of olaparib and talazoparib ranged from 4.8 µM to greater than 50 µM and 0.039 µM to greater than 5 µM, respectively, classifying them into sensitive (two) or resistant (seven) cells, independent of their BAP1 status. Cell lines with BAP1 knockout resulted in the loss of BAP1 DUB activity but did not increase sensitivity to talazoparib. Response to PARPI tended to be associated with high SLFN11 expression, and combination with temozolomide increased sensitivity of cells with low or no MGMT expression. CONCLUSIONS: BAP1 status does not determine sensitivity to PARPIs in patient-derived mesothelioma cell lines. Combination of PARPI with TMZ may be beneficial for patients whose tumors have high SLFN11 and low or no MGMT expression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/genética , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5438, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780666

RESUMO

Gene function in cancer is often cell type-specific. The epithelial cell-specific transcription factor ELF3 is a documented tumor suppressor in many epithelial tumors yet displays oncogenic properties in others. Here, we show that ELF3 is an oncogene in the adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer (LUAD), providing genetic, functional, and clinical evidence of subtype specificity. We discover a region of focal amplification at chromosome 1q32.1 encompassing the ELF3 locus in LUAD which is absent in the squamous subtype. Gene dosage and promoter hypomethylation affect the locus in up to 80% of LUAD analyzed. ELF3 expression was required for tumor growth and a pan-cancer expression network analysis supports its subtype and tissue specificity. We further show that ELF3 displays strong prognostic value in LUAD but not LUSC. We conclude that, contrary to many other tumors of epithelial origin, ELF3 is an oncogene and putative therapeutic target in LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Carcinoma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Amplificação de Genes/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transplante Heterólogo
13.
Nat Rev Genet ; 18(12): 749-760, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852223

RESUMO

Recent exponential advances in genome sequencing and engineering technologies have enabled an unprecedented level of interrogation into the impact of DNA variation (genotype) on cellular function (phenotype). Furthermore, these advances have also prompted realistic discussion of writing and radically re-writing complex genomes. In this Perspective, we detail the motivation for large-scale engineering, discuss the progress made from such projects in bacteria and yeast and describe how various genome-engineering technologies will contribute to this effort. Finally, we describe the features of an ideal platform and provide a roadmap to facilitate the efficient writing of large genomes.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Plantas/genética , Leveduras
14.
ACS Synth Biol ; 6(5): 902-904, 2017 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28146356

RESUMO

It has been possible to create tools to predict single guide RNA (sgRNA) activity in the CRISPR/Cas9 system derived from Streptococcus pyogenes due to the large amount of data that has been generated in sgRNA library screens. However, with the discovery of additional CRISPR systems from different bacteria, which show potent activity in eukaryotic cells, the approach of generating large data sets for each of these systems to predict their activity is not tractable. Here, we present a new guide RNA tool that can predict sgRNA activity across multiple CRISPR systems. In addition to predicting activity for Cas9 from S. pyogenes and Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR1, we experimentally demonstrate that our algorithm can predict activity for Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus and S. thermophilus CRISPR3. We also have made available a new version of our software, sgRNA Scorer 2.0, which will allow users to identify sgRNA sites for any PAM sequence of interest.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/fisiologia , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Algoritmos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , RNA Guia/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo
15.
Nat Methods ; 13(7): 563-567, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27214048

RESUMO

Several programmable transcription factors exist based on the versatile Cas9 protein, yet their relative potency and effectiveness across various cell types and species remain unexplored. Here, we compare Cas9 activator systems and examine their ability to induce robust gene expression in several human, mouse, and fly cell lines. We also explore the potential for improved activation through the combination of the most potent activator systems, and we assess the role of cooperativity in maximizing gene expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genes vpr , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Elife ; 42015 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26714111

RESUMO

Biosensors for small molecules can be used in applications that range from metabolic engineering to orthogonal control of transcription. Here, we produce biosensors based on a ligand-binding domain (LBD) by using a method that, in principle, can be applied to any target molecule. The LBD is fused to either a fluorescent protein or a transcriptional activator and is destabilized by mutation such that the fusion accumulates only in cells containing the target ligand. We illustrate the power of this method by developing biosensors for digoxin and progesterone. Addition of ligand to yeast, mammalian, or plant cells expressing a biosensor activates transcription with a dynamic range of up to ~100-fold. We use the biosensors to improve the biotransformation of pregnenolone to progesterone in yeast and to regulate CRISPR activity in mammalian cells. This work provides a general methodology to develop biosensors for a broad range of molecules in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Eucariotos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Digoxina/análise , Progesterona/análise , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética
17.
Integr Biol (Camb) ; 7(12): 1587-97, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481611

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that can lead to severe neurological illness and currently has no available treatment or vaccine. Using microengraving, an integrated single-cell analysis method, we analyzed a cohort of subjects infected with WNV - recently infected and post-convalescent subjects - and efficiently identified four novel WNV neutralizing antibodies. We also assessed the humoral response to WNV on a single-cell and repertoire level by integrating next generation sequencing (NGS) into our analysis. The results from single-cell analysis indicate persistence of WNV-specific memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells in post-convalescent subjects. These cells exhibited class-switched antibody isotypes. Furthermore, the results suggest that the antibody response itself does not predict the clinical severity of the disease (asymptomatic or symptomatic). Using the nucleotide coding sequences for WNV-specific antibodies derived from single cells, we revealed the ontogeny of expanded WNV-specific clones in the repertoires of recently infected subjects through NGS and bioinformatic analysis. This analysis also indicated that the humoral response to WNV did not depend on an anamnestic response, due to an unlikely previous exposure to the virus. The innovative and integrative approach presented here to analyze the evolution of neutralizing antibodies from natural infection on a single-cell and repertoire level can also be applied to vaccine studies, and could potentially aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and our basic understanding of other infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Célula Única , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Methods ; 12(11): 1051-4, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26344044

RESUMO

We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA (gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , RNA Guia/análise , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Deleção de Genes , Genes Reporter , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Genoma , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mutagênese , Mutação , Edição de RNA , Transcrição Genética
19.
Nat Methods ; 12(9): 823-6, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26167643

RESUMO

We developed an in vivo library-on-library methodology to simultaneously assess single guide RNA (sgRNA) activity across ∼1,400 genomic loci. Assaying across multiple human cell types and end-processing enzymes as well as two Cas9 orthologs, we unraveled underlying nucleotide sequence and epigenetic parameters. Our results and software (http://crispr.med.harvard.edu/sgRNAScorer) enable improved design of reagents, shed light on mechanisms of genome targeting, and provide a generalizable framework to study nucleic acid-nucleic acid interactions and biochemistry in high throughput.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Biblioteca Genômica , RNA/genética , Humanos , Software
20.
Nat Commun ; 5: 5507, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25425480

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9 has demonstrated a high-efficiency in site-specific gene targeting. However, potential off-target effects of the Cas9 nuclease represent a major safety concern for any therapeutic application. Here, we knock out the Tafazzin gene by CRISPR/Cas9 in human-induced pluripotent stem cells with 54% efficiency. We combine whole-genome sequencing and deep-targeted sequencing to characterise the off-target effects of Cas9 editing. Whole-genome sequencing of Cas9-modified hiPSC clones detects neither gross genomic alterations nor elevated mutation rates. Deep sequencing of in silico predicted off-target sites in a population of Cas9-treated cells further confirms high specificity of Cas9. However, we identify a single high-efficiency off-target site that is generated by a common germline single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in our experiment. Based on in silico analysis, we estimate a likelihood of SNVs creating off-target sites in a human genome to be ~1.5-8.5%, depending on the genome and site-selection method, but also note that mutations might be generated at these sites only at low rates and may not have functional consequences. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of highly specific clonal ex vivo gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 and highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing before personalised CRISPR design.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Marcação de Genes , Genoma Humano , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Streptococcus pyogenes/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sequência de Bases , Endonucleases/química , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade por Substrato , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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