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1.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002871, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight-control interventions in pregnant women with overweight or obesity have limited effectiveness for fetal growth and birth outcomes. Interventions or prevention programs aiming at the pre-pregnancy period should be considered. However, how the woman's weight change before pregnancy affects fetal growth is not known. We investigated the association between weight change over the year before pregnancy and birth weight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the inclusion data of 16,395 women from the ELFE French national birth cohort, a nationally representative cohort in which infants were enrolled at birth with their families in 2011. Maternal weight change was self-reported and classified into 3 groups: moderate weight variation or stable weight, weight loss > 5 kg, and weight gain > 5 kg or both weight loss and gain > 5 kg. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy weight change and a birth weight z-score calculated according to the French Audipog reference, adjusted for a large set of maternal characteristics. The analyses were stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI) at conception (<25 versus ≥25 kg/m2) and adjusted for BMI within these categories. We used the MacKinnon method to test the mediating effect of gestational weight gain (GWG) on these associations. Mother's mean age was 30.5 years, 87% were born in France, and 26% had overweight or obesity. For women in either BMI category at conception, GWG was more than 2 kg higher, on average, for women with weight loss before pregnancy than for women with stable weight or moderate weight variation. For women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 at conception, birth weight was significantly higher with weight loss than stable weight before pregnancy (ß = 0.08 [95% CI 0.02; 0.14], p = 0.01), and this total effect was explained by a significant mediating effect through GWG. For women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 at conception, birth weight was not associated with pre-pregnancy weight loss during the year before pregnancy. Mediation analysis revealed that in these women, the direct effect of pre-pregnancy weight loss that would have resulted in a smaller birth weight z-score (ß = -0.11 [95% CI -0.19; -0.03], p = 0.01) was cancelled out by the GWG. The mediating effect of GWG was even higher when weight loss resulted from a restrictive diet in the year before pregnancy. Weight gain before pregnancy was not associated with birth weight. Although we included a large number of women and had extensive data, the only potential cause of pre-pregnancy weight loss that was investigated was dieting for intentional weight loss. We have no information on other potential causes but did however exclude women with a history of pre-pregnancy chronic disease. Another limitation is declaration bias due to self-reported data. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals should be aware that GWG may offset the expected effect of weight loss before conception on fetal growth in overweight and obese women. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to develop weight-control interventions and improve maternal periconceptional health and developmental conditions for the fetus.

2.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 672-679, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prenatal occupational exposure to pesticides has been associated with male reproductive tract abnormalities. Little is known about the possible impact of non-occupational pesticide exposure on fetal and child development in the general population. Using data from a nationwide birth cohort, we aimed to assess the association between residential sources of prenatal pesticide exposure and the risks of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. METHODS: Of the 9281 boys in ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children), the national French birth cohort, 53 were diagnosed with hypospadias and 137 with cryptorchidism. We assessed residential exposure sources from self-reported domestic use of eight types of pesticide products and French spatial land use data with acreage within a 1000 m radius around each family's home for 21 crop types. We used logistic regression modelling, adjusted for possible confounders that included estimated dietary pesticide intake. Multiple imputations were used to handle missing data. RESULTS: An increased risk of hypospadias was associated with domestic pesticide use against fleas and ticks (OR=2.28, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.75); no associations were found between cryptorchidism and any domestic pesticide use. Slightly increased risks of cryptorchidism were observed in association with all crop acreages near homes during pregnancy, especially for orchards, and no association was observed for hypospadias. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a possible increased risk of hypospadias associated with prenatal use of some domestic pesticide products, likely to contain insecticides, and of cryptorchidism with nearby orchard acreage (crops repeatedly sprayed with pesticides). This work is limited by its modest number of cases.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311192

RESUMO

In low- and middle-income countries, the protective effect of breastfeeding against infections is well established, but in high-income countries, the effect could be weakened by higher hygienic conditions. We aimed to examine the association between breastfeeding and infections in the first 2 years of life, in a high-income country with relatively short breastfeeding duration. Among 10,349 young children from the nationwide Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE) birth cohort, breastfeeding and parent-reported hospitalizations, bronchiolitis and otitis events, and antibiotic use were prospectively collected up to 2 years. Never-breastfed infants were used as reference group. Any breastfeeding for <3 months was associated with higher risks of hospitalizations from gastrointestinal infections or fever. Predominant breastfeeding for <1 month was associated with higher risk of a single hospital admission while predominant breastfeeding for ≥3 months was associated with a lower risk of long duration (≥4 nights) of hospitalization. Ever breastfeeding was associated with lower risk of antibiotic use. This study confirmed the well-known associations between breastfeeding and hospitalizations but also highlighted a strong inverse association between breastfeeding and antibiotic use. Although we cannot infer causality from this observational study, this finding is worth highlighting in a context of rising concern regarding antibiotic resistance.

4.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12878, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343839

RESUMO

Although several studies have shown a positive association between socio-economic position and size at birth, not enough is known about the modifiable factors that may be involved. We aimed to investigate whether maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), smoking, diet, and depression during pregnancy mediate the positive association between maternal education and birth size. Weight and length z-scores specific for gestational age and sex were calculated for 1,500 children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. A mediation analysis of the associations between maternal education and birth size was conducted with a counterfactual method, adjusted for recruitment centre, parity, maternal height, and age. In the comparison of children of mothers with low versus intermediate education levels, maternal smoking during pregnancy explained 52% of the total effect of education on birth weight. Similar findings were observed with birth length z-score (37%). The comparison of children of mothers with high versus intermediate education levels yielded a non-significant total effect, which masked opposite mediating effects by maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy on both birth weight and length. Prepregnancy BMI and maternal smoking during pregnancy mediate the positive association between maternal education and birth weight and length z-scores. These mediators, however, act in opposite directions, thereby masking the extent to which healthy prenatal growth is socially differentiated.

5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(8): 1059-1067, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327570

RESUMO

A number of prospective cohort studies are ongoing worldwide to investigate the impact of foetal and neonatal exposures to chemical substances on child health. To assess multiple exposure (mixture) effects and low prevalence health outcomes it is useful to pool data from several studies and conduct mega-data-analysis. To discuss a path towards data harmonization, representatives from several large-scale birth cohort studies and a biomonitoring programme formed a collaborative group, the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group (ECHIBCG). In this study, an intra-laboratory trial was performed to harmonize existing blood lead measurements within the groups' studies. Then, decentralized analyses were conducted in individual countries' laboratories to evaluate blood lead levels (BLL) in each study. The measurements of pooled BLL samples in French, German and three Japanese laboratories resulted in an overall mean blood lead concentration of 8.66 µg l-1 (95% confidence interval: 8.59-8.72 µg l-1) with 3.0% relative standard deviation. Except for China's samples, BLL from each study were comparable with mean concentrations below or close to 10 µg l-1. The decentralized multivariate analyses revealed that all models had coefficients of determination below 0.1. Determinants of BLL were current smoking, age >35 years and overweight or obese status. The three variables were associated with an increase in BLL in each of the five studies, most strongly in France by almost 80% and the weakest effect being in Norway with only 15%; for Japan, with the far largest sample (~18,000), the difference was 36%. This study successfully demonstrated that the laboratory analytical methods were sufficiently similar to allow direct comparison of data and showed that it is possible to harmonize the epidemiological data for joint analysis. This exercise showed the challenges in decentralized data analyses and reinforces the need for data harmonization among studies.

6.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12872, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284324

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown a high level of noncompliance with recommendations on breastfeeding duration, especially in France. The objective was to describe the association between breastfeeding initiation and duration and the statutory duration of postnatal maternity leave, the gap between the end of legal maternity leave and the mother's return to work, and maternal working time during the first year post-partum. Analyses were based on 8,009 infants from the French nationwide ELFE cohort. We assessed the association with breastfeeding initiation by using logistic regression and, among breastfeeding women, with categories of breastfeeding duration by using multinomial logistic regression. Among primiparous women, both postponing return to work for at least 3 weeks after statutory postnatal maternity leave (as compared with returning to work at the end of the statutory period) and working less than full-time at 1 year post-partum (as compared with full-time) were related to higher prevalence of breastfeeding initiation. Among women giving birth to their first or second child, postponing the return to work until at least 15 weeks was related to a higher prevalence of long breastfeeding duration (at least 6 months) as compared with intermediate duration (3 to <6 months). Working part-time was also positively related to breastfeeding duration. Among women giving birth to their third child or more, working characteristics were less strongly related to breastfeeding duration. These results support extending maternity leave or working time arrangements to encourage initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding.

7.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(6): 614-623, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) are recommended in non-breastfed infants with familial history of allergy to prevent allergy development. However, recent meta-analysis does not provide strong support for their protective effect. The present work assesses the links between 2-month infant formula use and the incidence of eczema, respiratory symptoms, or food allergies (FA) up to 2 years of age. METHODS: The nationwide ELFE birth cohort is a population-based study from mainland France. Infant feeding (breast milk only, partially hydrolyzed formula with [pHF-HA] or without a hypoallergenic label [pHF-non-HA], and non-hydrolyzed formula [Nhf]) was reported at 2 months. Eczema, FA, and respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and asthma were reported at 2 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Infants with prior FA at 2 months were excluded from analyses. RESULTS: Among 11 720 infants, those who received only breast milk at 2 months were at lower risk of eczema at 1 year than those who received nHF (OR[95% CI] = 0.78[0.65-0.94] in non-at-risk infants; 0.86[0.75-0.98] in at-risk infants). The use of pHF-HA, compared with nHF, at 2 months was related to higher risk of wheezing at 1 year in at-risk infants (1.68[1.24-2.28]) and higher risk of FA at 2 years both in non-at-risk infants (3.78[1.52-9.41]) and in at-risk infants (2.31[1.36-3.94]). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, pHF-HA use was not associated with a lower risk of any of the studied outcomes. Quite the reverse, it was associated with a higher risk of wheezing and FA. This should be confirmed in further studies.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109064

RESUMO

Most professional and international organizations recommend folic acid supplementation for women planning pregnancy. Various studies have shown high levels of non-compliance with this recommendation. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic characteristics related to this compliance. The analyses were based on 16,809 women from the French nationwide ELFE cohort (Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance). Folic acid supplementation was assessed at delivery, and sociodemographic characteristics were collected at two months postpartum. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and compliance with recommendations on folic acid supplementation (no supplementation, periconceptional supplementation, and supplementation only after the periconceptional period) was examined using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Only 26% of French women received folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period, 10% of women received supplementation after the periconceptional period, and 64% received no supplementation. Young maternal age, low education level, low family income, multiparity, single parenthood, maternal unemployment, maternal overweight, and smoking during pregnancy were related to lower likelihood of folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period compared to no supplementation. These associations were not explained by unplanned pregnancy. Immigrant and underweight women were more likely to receive folic acid supplementation after the periconceptional period. Our study confirms great social disparities in France regarding the compliance with the recommendations on folic acid supplementation.

9.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
10.
J Sleep Res ; : e12859, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989747

RESUMO

Sleep problems affect 20%-30% of toddlers and preschoolers. Few longitudinal studies focused on the impact of infant feeding practices on sleep. We aimed to study the associations between feeding practices up to 8 months and trajectories of sleep quantity or quality from 2 to 5-6 years. Analyses included 1,028 children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Associations between feeding practices (breastfeeding, complementary feeding, use of thickened infant formula, night feeding) and sleep trajectories (sleep-onset difficulties, night waking, nighttime in bed) were analysed by multiple logistic regressions. Predominant breastfeeding for more than 4 months was associated with lower risk for belonging to the persistent sleep-onset difficulties trajectory. Night feeding at 4 months or at 2 years old was associated with higher risk for belonging to the persistent sleep-onset difficulties trajectory, and night feeding at 8 months was associated with higher risk for night waking and higher risk for short nighttime in bed. Early introduction (< 4 months) to complementary foods (excluding baby cereals) was related to lower risk for short nighttime in bed. Use of baby cereals or thickened infant formula was related neither to sleep quality nor to sleep quantity. In conclusion, infant feeding practices are associated with sleep trajectories in preschoolers, with notably a potential protective role of breastfeeding. Further researches are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these relationships.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934918

RESUMO

The consumption of sugar, salt, and fat in infancy may influence later health. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of use of added sugar, salt, and fat during the complementary feeding period and the associated infant caregiving practices. Data were obtained from a monthly questionnaire filled by parents for 10,907 infants from the French Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE) cohort. A score of frequency of use (SU) for added sugar, salt, and fat (oil, margarine, butter, and/or cream) was calculated from the age at complementary feeding introduction (CFI) to the 10th month. Associations between the SU of each added ingredient with infant feeding and caregiving practices were studied with multivariable linear regressions adjusted for familial characteristics. Only 28% of the parents followed the recommendation of adding fat and simultaneously not adding sugar or salt. Breastfeeding mothers were more prone to add sugar, salt, and fat than non-breastfeeding mothers. CFI before four months was positively associated with the SU of added sugar and salt and negatively associated with the SU of added fat. The use of commercial baby food was negatively related to the SU of added salt and fat. The use of these added ingredients was mainly related to breastfeeding, age at CFI, and use of commercial food, and it was independent of the household socioeconomic characteristics.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Coortes , Coleta de Dados , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
12.
Prev Med ; 121: 33-39, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763624

RESUMO

The potential beneficial effects of physical activity during pregnancy on postpartum depressive symptoms (PPD) remain inconclusive. Using data from two prospective French birth cohorts, we aimed to examine the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (including leisure-time sedentary behavior) in pregnancy and the occurrence of PPD. Participants of the ELFE cohort (n = 15,538) completed the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), which assesses the following physical activity/sedentary behavior domains: household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, transportation and leisure-time sedentary behavior during the third pregnancy trimester. In the EDEN cohort (n = 1745) women completed the Baecke Questionnaire (BQ) measuring occupational, sports/exercise, and leisure-time activity during the first trimester of pregnancy. Depressive symptoms in the first postpartum year were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in both cohorts. Associations of physical activity/sedentary behavior with PPD symptoms were determined by logistic regression analysis, with adjustment on potential confounding factors. In the adjusted models, higher levels of household/caregiving activities (OR = 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.19)) and leisure-time sedentary behavior (OR = 1.16 (95% CI 1.06-1.23)), in the third pregnancy trimester were associated with an increased odds of PPD. No significant associations were found for physical activity domains during the first pregnancy trimester. Higher levels of household and caregiving activities and leisure-time sedentary behavior in the last trimester of pregnancy appear to increase the likelihood of postpartum depression. Purpose and context should be taken into account when encouraging physical activity as a strategy to help prevent postpartum mental health problems from pregnancy onwards. Reducing sedentary behavior could be a complementary strategy.

13.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(5): e12496, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many genetic polymorphisms identified by genome-wide association studies for adult body mass index (BMI) have been suggested to regulate food intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the associations between a genetic obesity risk score, appetitive traits, and growth of children up to age 5 years, with a longitudinal design. METHODS: In 1142 children from the Etude des Déterminants pre et post natals de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) birth cohort, a combined obesity risk-allele score (BMI genetic risk score [GRS]) was related to appetitive traits (energy intake up to 12 mo, a single item on appetite from 4 mo to 3 y, a validated appetite score at 5 y) using Poisson regressions with robust standard errors. The potential mediation of appetitive traits on the association between BMI-GRS and growth was assessed by the Sobel test. RESULTS: Children with a high BMI-GRS were more likely to have high energy intake at 1 year and high appetite at 2 and 5 years. High energy intake in infancy and high appetite from 1 year were related to higher subsequent BMI. High 2-year appetite seemed to partially mediate the associations between BMI-GRS and BMI from 2 to 5 years (all P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic susceptibility to childhood obesity seems to be partially explained by appetitive traits in infancy, followed by an early childhood rise in BMI.


Assuntos
Apetite/genética , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Apetite/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.

15.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(7): 1285-1294, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536768

RESUMO

AIM: To study the rate of iron-fortified infant formula (IFF) use in young children in France and its association with socioeconomic factors. METHODS: The ELFE national birth cohort included, in 2011, 18 329 living births in 349 hospitals randomly selected. The present analyses were restricted to children with follow-up at age two years. Milk consumption was evaluated by parental telephone interview, and its association with socioeconomic factors was studied. RESULTS: The 12 341 analysed children had a mean age of 26 months; 50% were girls. Rate of IFF use before two years old and at two years old was 65% and 43%, respectively. At age two years, use of IFF was lower with young age of the mother (adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5), low educational level (aOR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), high parity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), and mother smoking (aOR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9) as well as low household income (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4-0.7), and parents' unemployment (aOR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9). CONCLUSION: In this national population-based study, the rate of implementation of the ID prevention strategy was much lower at two years old than before two years old, and significantly lower in disadvantaged populations.

16.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

17.
Midwifery ; 69: 67-75, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of the mother's mother and mothers' previous personal experiences with breastfeeding and childcare in breastfeeding practices. DESIGN AND SETTING: The analysis included 13,774 mother-infant dyads from the French national birth cohort ELFE. Feeding practices were assessed by face-to-face interview in maternity wards in 2011, by phone interviews at months 2 and 12 post-partum and by Internet/paper questionnaires monthly from months 3-10. Sociodemographic, maternal and newborn-related factors were collected in the maternity unit and by postnatal phone interview at month 2. Multivariable logistic and linear regression was used to assess the association of mother's mother and mothers' previous personal experiences with breastfeeding initiation and duration. FINDINGS: Previous breastfeeding experience (i.e., whether mothers had breastfed their previous children) was positively associated with both breastfeeding initiation and duration. Mothers who had been breastfed themselves as infants were more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding than non-breastfed mothers. Conversely, non-breastfed mothers who had received care advice from their own mother were less likely to start and maintain breastfeeding. The effect of having been breastfed in infancy was especially important for primiparous mothers and to a lesser extent, multiparous mothers with no previous breastfeeding experience. Also, formal experience in childcare, in a professional context, was associated with breastfeeding initiation but not duration. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Mother's mother and mother's previous breastfeeding experience have a strong influence on breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding interventions should be tailored to the mother's level of experience and should provide extra support for multiparous mothers with no previous breastfeeding experience.

18.
Sleep Med ; 53: 70-74, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Deficiency in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been associated with sleep disorders in adults. Only three cross-sectional studies were performed in children; which showed an association between 25OHD deficiency and both obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and primary snoring. No longitudinal study has been performed in children from the general population. We analyzed the association between cord-blood vitamin D levels at birth and night-sleep duration trajectories for children between 2 and 5-6 years old in a non-clinical cohort. METHOD: We included 264 children from the French EDEN mother-child birth-cohort with cord-blood 25OHD level determined by radio-immunoassay at birth, and night-sleep trajectories for children between 2 and 5-6 years old obtained by the group-based trajectory modeling method. Associations between 25OHD and sleep trajectories were assessed by multinomial logistic regression adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. RESULTS: The trajectories short sleep (<10h30/night), medium-low sleep (10h30-11h00/night), medium-high sleep (≈11h30/night), long sleep (≥11h30/night) and changing sleep (decreased from ≥11h30 to 10h30-11h00/night) represented 5%, 46%, 37%, 4% and 8% of the children, respectively. The mean 25OHD level was 19 ng/ml (SD = 11, range 3-63). It was 12 (SD = 7), 20 (SD = 11), 19 (SD = 10), 14 (SD = 7) and 16 (SD = 8) ng/ml for children with short, medium-low, medium-high, long and changing sleep trajectories, respectively. On adjusted analysis, for each 1-ng/ml decrease in 25OHD level, the odds of belonging to the short sleep versus medium-high sleep trajectory was increased (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [1.01-1.25]). We found no other significant association between 25OHD level and other trajectories. CONCLUSION: A low 25OHD level at birth may be associated with an increased probability of being a persistent short sleeper in preschool years. These results need confirmation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Intergrowth-21st (IG) project proposed prescriptive fetal growth standards for global use based on ultrasound measurements from a multicounty study of low-risk pregnancies selected using strict criteria. We examined whether the IG standards are appropriate for fetal growth monitoring in France and whether potential differences could be due to IG criteria for "healthy" pregnancies. METHOD: We analysed data on femur length and abdominal circumference at the second and/or the third recommended ultrasound examination from 14 607 singleton pregnancies from the Elfe national birth cohort. We compared concordance of centile thresholds using the IG standards and current French references and used restricted cubic splines to plot z-scores by gestational age. A "healthy pregnancy" sub-sample was created based on maternal and pregnancy selection criteria, as specified by IG. RESULTS: Mean gestational age-specific z-scores for femur length and abdominal circumference using French references fluctuated around 0 (-0.2 to 0.1), while those based on IG standards were higher (0.3-0.8). Using IG standards, 2.5% and 5.2% of fetuses at the third ultrasound were <10th centile for femur length and abdominal circumference, respectively, and 31.5% and 16.7% were >90th. Only 34% of pregnancies fulfilled IG low-risk criteria, but sub-analyses yielded very similar results. CONCLUSION: Intergrowth standards differed from fetal biometric measures in France, including among low-risk pregnancies selected to replicate IG's healthy pregnancy sample. These results challenge the project's assumption that careful constitution of a low-risk population makes it possible to describe normative fetal growth across populations.

20.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

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