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2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(4)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036734

RESUMO

We report a 36-year-old man who developed a large epidural and paraspinal abscess as a complication of infliximab therapy being used for underlying Crohn's disease. Cultures of the collection grew methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, and treatment consisted of abscess drainage, prolonged intravenous and oral flucloxacillin and temporary withholding of his infliximab. While infection-related complications are well described with infliximab therapy, this is the first description of a large paraspinal abscess with epidural extension.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Espaço Epidural/microbiologia , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Abscesso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/cirurgia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Drenagem/métodos , Espaço Epidural/diagnóstico por imagem , Floxacilina/administração & dosagem , Floxacilina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Med J Aust ; 204(7): 273, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature, prevalence and description accuracy of recorded antibiotic allergy labels (AALs) in a cohort of general medical inpatients, and to assess the feasibility of an oral antibiotic re-challenge study. DESIGN: Multicentre cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to the general medical units of Austin Health and Alfred Health, 18 May - 5 June 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline demographics, medical and allergy history, infection diagnoses and antibiotic prescribing data for general medical inpatients were collected. A questionnaire was administered to clarify AAL history, followed by correlation of responses with electronic and admissions record descriptions. A hypothetical oral re-challenge in a supervised setting was offered to patients with low risk allergy phenotypes (non-immediate reaction, non-severe cutaneous adverse reaction, or unknown reaction more than 10 years ago). RESULTS: Of the 453 inpatients, 107 (24%) had an AAL (median age, 82 years; interquartile range, 74-87 years); 160 individual AALs were recorded, and there was a mismatch in AAL description between recording platforms in 25% of cases. Most patients with an AAL were women (64%; P < 0.001), and more presented with concurrent immunosuppression than those without an AAL (23% v 8%; P < 0.001). ß-Lactam penicillins were employed less frequently in patients with an AAL (16% v 35%; P = 0.02), while ceftriaxone (32% v 20%; P = 0.02) and fluoroquinolones (6% v 2%; P = 0.04) were used more often. Fifty-four per cent of patients with AALs were willing to undergo oral re-challenge, of whom 48% had a low risk allergy phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: AAL prevalence in general medical inpatients was 24%, and was associated with excessive use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Allergies in a large proportion of patients with AALs were incorrectly documented, and were non-immune-mediated and potentially amenable to oral re-challenge. A direct oral re-challenge study in carefully selected patients with low risk allergy phenotypes appears feasible.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
Endosc Int Open ; 4(2): E198-201, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The indication for endoscopy to investigate anemia of causes other than iron deficiency is not clear. Increasing numbers of endoscopic procedures for anemia raises concerns about costs to the health system, waiting times, and patient safety. The primary aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield of endoscopy in patients referred to undergo investigation for anemia. Secondary aims were to identify additional factors enabling the risk stratification of those likely to benefit from endoscopic investigation, and to undertake a cost analysis of performing endoscopy in this group of patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of endoscopy referrals for the investigation of anemia over a 12-month period at a single center. The patients were divided into three groups: those who had true iron deficiency anemia (IDA), tissue iron deficiency without anemia (TIDWA), or anemia of other cause (AOC). Outcome measures included finding a lesion responsible for the anemia and a significant change of management as a result of endoscopy. A costing analysis was performed with an activity-based costing method. RESULTS: We identified 283 patients who underwent endoscopy to investigate anemia. A likely cause of anemia was found in 31 of 150 patients with IDA (21 %) and 0 patients in the other categories (P < 0.001). A change of management was observed in 35 patients with IDA (23 %), 1 of 14 patients with TIDWA (7.14 %), and 8 of 119 patients with AOC (6.7 %) (P < 0.001). The cost of a single colonoscopy or gastroscopy was approximated to be $ 2209. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic investigation for non-IDA comes at a significant cost to our institution, equating to a minimum of $ 293 797 per annum in extra costs, and does not result in a change of management in the majority of patients. No additional factors could be established to identify patients who might be more likely to benefit from endoscopic investigation. The endoscopic investigation of non-IDA should be minimized.

5.
Anaerobe ; 34: 8-13, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25841893

RESUMO

Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are a common cause of morbidity and, on occasion, even mortality. Infection can be either mono- or polymicrobial, with a wide variety of potential pathogens. Anaerobes may be involved, particularly in wounds that are deeper or more chronic, and are more frequently identified when using modern molecular techniques, such as 16s PCR and pyrosequencing. It remains unclear whether the presence of anaerobes in DFI leads to more severe manifestations, or if these organisms are largely colonizers associated with the presence of greater degrees of tissue ischemia and necrosis. Commonly used empiric antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections is generally broad-spectrum and usually has activity against the most frequently identified anaerobes, such as Peptostreptococcus and Bacteroides species. Adequate surgical debridement and, when needed, foot revascularization may be at least as important as the choice of antibiotic to achieve a successful treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pé Diabético/complicações , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Anaeróbias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/cirurgia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Desbridamento , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/cirurgia
6.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60273, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23565216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal pneumonia causes significant morbidity and mortality among adults. Given limitations of diagnostic tests for non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, most studies report the incidence of bacteremic or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and thus, grossly underestimate the pneumococcal pneumonia burden. We aimed to develop a conceptual and quantitative strategy to estimate the non-bacteremic disease burden among adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using systematic study methods and the availability of a urine antigen assay. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic literature review of studies providing information on the relative yield of various diagnostic assays (BinaxNOW® S. pneumoniae urine antigen test (UAT) with blood and/or sputum culture) in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia. We estimated the proportion of pneumococcal pneumonia that is bacteremic, the proportion of CAP attributable to pneumococcus, and the additional contribution of the Binax UAT beyond conventional diagnostic techniques, using random effects meta-analytic methods and bootstrapping. We included 35 studies in the analysis, predominantly from developed countries. The estimated proportion of pneumococcal pneumonia that is bacteremic was 24.8% (95% CI: 21.3%, 28.9%). The estimated proportion of CAP attributable to pneumococcus was 27.3% (95% CI: 23.9%, 31.1%). The Binax UAT diagnosed an additional 11.4% (95% CI: 9.6, 13.6%) of CAP beyond conventional techniques. We were limited by the fact that not all patients underwent all diagnostic tests and by the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests themselves. We address these resulting biases and provide a range of plausible values in order to estimate the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the adult burden of pneumococcal disease from bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia data alone significantly underestimates the true burden of disease in adults. For every case of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, we estimate that there are at least 3 additional cases of non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adulto , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Humanos , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
8.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 25(2): 255-7, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23117471

RESUMO

We describe a case of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) used for severe binary toxin-positive Clostridium difficile infection in an intensive care setting. The patient was admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital and failed traditional maximal pharmacological management. Adjunctive therapy with FMT given through gastroscopy resulted in resolution of the C. difficile-related symptoms. Although there is a growing experience with FMT for recurrent C. difficile infection, published evidence in severe disease is very limited. In a landscape of increasingly severe C. difficile infection, adjunctive FMT may be considered a useful early treatment option.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/terapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Metagenoma
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 50(11): 3717-21, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22875890

RESUMO

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of skin and soft tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In Australia, most cases of BU are linked to temperate, coastal Victoria and tropical, northern Queensland, and strains from these regions are distinguishable by variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. We present an epidemiological investigation of five patients found to have been infected during interstate travel and describe two nucleotide polymorphisms that differentiate M. ulcerans strains from northern Australia.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Mycobacterium ulcerans/classificação , Mycobacterium ulcerans/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
10.
Curr Infect Dis Rep ; 14(3): 330-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22430229

RESUMO

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rare, but significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A number of virulence determinants have been implicated in the development of severe community MRSA pneumonia, characterized by multilobar cavitating necrosis in patients without usual risk-factors for pneumonia. Optimal management is uncertain, and is extrapolated from anecdotal experiences with small case series, randomized studies of hospital-acquired pneumonia, and laboratory investigations using in vitro experiments and animal models of MRSA pneumonia. Adequate clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and administration of appropriate antibiotics are necessary for best patient outcomes, although some patients will still do badly even with early anti-MRSA therapy. Vancomycin or linezolid have been recommended as first-line therapy, possibly in combination with other antibiotics. Newer antibiotics such as ceftaroline are still being evaluated.

11.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 19(3): 446-8, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22237894

RESUMO

We compared immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in patients with severe noninfluenza community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to those in patients with severe pandemic 2009 influenza (H1N1) virus infection. Low IgG1 and IgG2 levels occurred often in the CAP group; however, H1N1 patients had lower IgG1 and IgG2 levels (5.4 versus 3.3 g/liter [P = 0.008] and 2.5 versus 1.2 g/liter [P < 0.001], respectively). Low IgG2 levels may be specifically linked to severe H1N1; however, it is not clear whether this association is related to H1N1 or to other features of severity.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/classificação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soro/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med J Aust ; 195(7): 380-1, 2011 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21978335

RESUMO

Aspiration pneumonia occurs most commonly in patients with a predisposition to aspiration (eg, those with neurological bulbar dysfunction). There is limited evidence regarding the involvement of anaerobes in most cases of aspiration pneumonia. Most patients respond to treatment for aspiration pneumonia without specific anti-anaerobic therapy such as metronidazole. Metronidazole has adverse side effects, and widespread use where not indicated can promote carriage of multiresistant intestinal flora such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Use of metronidazole may be appropriate in patients with aspiration pneumonia and evidence of a lung abscess, necrotising pneumonia, putrid sputum or severe periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Aspirativa/terapia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Aspirativa/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Aspirativa/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
16.
Med J Aust ; 192(3): 133-6, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20121679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the performance in tropical northern Australia of SMART-COP, a simple scoring system developed in temperate Australia to predict the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support (IRVS) in pneumonia patients. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: A prospective observational study of patients admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital in the Northern Territory with sepsis between August 2007 and May 2008. Chest x-rays were reviewed to confirm pneumonia, and each patient's SMART-COP score was assessed against the need for IRVS. RESULTS: Of 206 patients presenting with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, 184 were eligible for inclusion. The mean age of patients was 50.1 years, 65% were Indigenous and 56% were men. Overall, 38 patients (21%) required IRVS, and 18 patients (10%) died by Day 30. A SMART-COP score of >or= 3 had a sensitivity of only 71% for predicting the need for IRVS and 67% for 30-day mortality. As the variables most strongly associated with IRVS were serum albumin level < 35 g/L (odds ratio, 6.8) and Indigenous status (odds ratio, 2.3), we tested a modified scoring system (SMART-COP) that used a higher weighting for albumin and included Indigenous status. A SMART-COP score of >or= 3 had a sensitivity of 97% for IRVS and 100% for 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The SMART-COP score underestimates the severity of pneumonia in tropical northern Australia, but can be improved by using locally relevant additions.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Clima Tropical , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Medição de Risco , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
18.
J Proteome Res ; 8(12): 5550-8, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19817432

RESUMO

Pneumonia, an infection of the lower respiratory tract, is caused by any of a number of different microbial organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes a significant number of deaths worldwide, and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. However, the pathogen(s) responsible for CAP can be difficult to identify, often leading to delays in appropriate antimicrobial therapies. In the present study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantitatively measure the profile of metabolites excreted in the urine of patients with pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and other microbes. We found that the urinary metabolomic profile for pneumococcal pneumonia was significantly different from the profiles for viral and other bacterial forms of pneumonia. These data demonstrate that urinary metabolomic profiles may be useful for the effective diagnosis of CAP.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Metaboloma , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Urina/química , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/urina , Especificidade da Espécie , Streptococcus pneumoniae
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 47(3): 375-84, 2008 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18558884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing severity assessment tools, such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 (tool based on confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age >or=65 years), predict 30-day mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and have limited ability to predict which patients will require intensive respiratory or vasopressor support (IRVS). METHODS: The Australian CAP Study (ACAPS) was a prospective study of 882 episodes in which each patient had a detailed assessment of severity features, etiology, and treatment outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify features at initial assessment that were associated with receipt of IRVS. These results were converted into a simple points-based severity tool that was validated in 5 external databases, totaling 7464 patients. RESULTS: In ACAPS, 10.3% of patients received IRVS, and the 30-day mortality rate was 5.7%. The features statistically significantly associated with receipt of IRVS were low systolic blood pressure (2 points), multilobar chest radiography involvement (1 point), low albumin level (1 point), high respiratory rate (1 point), tachycardia (1 point), confusion (1 point), poor oxygenation (2 points), and low arterial pH (2 points): SMART-COP. A SMART-COP score of >or=3 points identified 92% of patients who received IRVS, including 84% of patients who did not need immediate admission to the intensive care unit. Accuracy was also high in the 5 validation databases. Sensitivities of PSI and CURB-65 for identifying the need for IRVS were 74% and 39%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SMART-COP is a simple, practical clinical tool for accurately predicting the need for IRVS that is likely to assist clinicians in determining CAP severity.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
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