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J Environ Sci (China) ; 40: 60-74, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969546


Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment.

Biodegradação Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , França , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Lasers Semicondutores , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
Int J Cancer ; 131(5): E769-80, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22223329


The aim of this work is to study the risk of childhood acute leukemia (AL) around French nuclear power plants (NPPs). The nationwide Geocap case-control study included the 2,753 cases diagnosed in mainland France over 2002-2007 and 30,000 contemporaneous population controls. The last addresses were geocoded and located around the 19 NPPs. The study used distance to NPPs and a dose-based geographic zoning (DBGZ), based on the estimated dose to bone marrow related to NPP gaseous discharges. An odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 [1.0-3.3], based on 14 cases, was evidenced for children living within 5 km of NPPs compared to those living 20 km or further away, and a very similar association was observed in the concomitant incidence study (standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.9 [1.0-3.2]). These results were similar for all the 5-year-age groups. They persisted after stratification for several contextual characteristics of the municipalities of residence. Conversely, using the DBGZ resulted in OR and SIR close to one in all of the dose categories. There was no increase in AL incidence over 1990-2001 and over the entire 1990-2007 period. The results suggest a possible excess risk of AL in the close vicinity of French NPPs in 2002-2007. The absence of any association with the DBGZ may indicate that the association is not explained by NPP gaseous discharges. Overall, the findings call for investigation for potential risk factors related to the vicinity of NPP and collaborative analysis of multisite studies conducted in various countries.

Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/etiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Centrais Nucleares , Prognóstico , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
Appl Opt ; 44(28): 5972-89, 2005 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16231805


The balloonborne SPIRALE (a French acronym for infrared absorption spectroscopy by tunable diode lasers) instrument has been developed for in situ measurements of several tracer and chemically active species in the stratosphere. Laser absorption takes place in an open Herriott multipass cell located under the balloon gondola, with six lead salt diode lasers as light sources. One mirror is located at the extremity of a deployable mast 3.5 m below the gondola, enabling the measurement of very low abundance species throughout a very long absorption path (up to 544 m). Three successful flights have produced concentration measurements of O3, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, NO, HNO3, HCl, HOCl, COF2, and H2O2. Fast measurements (every 1.1 s) allow one to obtain a vertical resolution of 5 m for the profiles. A detection limit of a few tens of parts per trillion in volume has been demonstrated. Uncertainties of 3%-5% are estimated for the most abundant species rising to about 30% for the less abundant ones, mainly depending on the laser linewidth and the signal-to-noise ratio.

Appl Opt ; 44(19): 4086-95, 2005 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16004056


The aerosol extinction measurements in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths by the balloonborne spectrometer Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON) show that aerosols are present in the middle stratosphere, above 25-km altitude. These observations are confirmed by the extinction measurements performed by a solar occultation radiometer. The balloonborne Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) counter instrument also confirms the presence of aerosol around 30-km altitude, with an unrealistic excess of micronic particles assuming that only liquid sulfate aerosols are present. An unexpected spectral structure around 640-nm observed by SALOMON is also detectable in extinction measurements by the satellite instrument Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment III. This set of measurements could indicate that solid aerosols were detected at these altitude ranges. The amount of soot detected up to now in the lower stratosphere is too low to explain these measurements. Thus, the presence of interplanetary dust grains and micrometeorites may need to be invoked. Moreover, it seems that these grains fill the stratosphere in stratified layers.

Appl Opt ; 41(36): 7522-39, 2002 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12510916


Aerosol extinction coefficients have been derived in the 375-700-nm spectral domain from measurement in the stratosphere since 1992, at night, at mid- and high latitudes from 15 to 40 km, by two balloonborne spectrometers, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NO(chi) (AMON) and Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NO(chi) (SALOMON). Log-normal size distributions associated with the Mie-computed extinction spectra that best fit the measurements permit calculation of integrated properties of the distributions. Although measured extinction spectra that correspond to background aerosols can be reproduced by the Mie scattering model by use of monomodal log-normal size distributions, each flight reveals some large discrepancies between measurement and theory at several altitudes. The agreement between measured and Mie-calculated extinction spectra is significantly improved by use of bimodal log-normal distributions. Nevertheless, neither monomodal nor bimodal distributions permit correct reproduction of some of the measured extinction shapes, especially for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, which exhibited spectral behavior attributed to particles from a polar stratospheric cloud event.

Appl Opt ; 41(36): 7540-9, 2002 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12510917


The physical properties of stratospheric aerosols can be retrieved from optical measurements involving extinction, radiance, polarization, and counting. We present here the results of measurements from the balloonborne instruments AMON, SALOMON, and RADIBAL, and from the French Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique and the University of Wyoming balloonborne particle counters. A cross comparison of the measurements was made for observations of background aerosols conducted during the polar winters of February 1997 and January-February 2000 for various altitudes from 13 to 19 km. On the one band, the effective radius and the total amount of background aerosols derived from the various sets of data are similar and are in agreement with pre-Pinatubo values. On the other hand, strong discrepancies occur in the shapes of the bimodal size distributions obtained from analysis of the raw measurement of the various instruments. It seems then that the log-normal assumption cannot fully reproduce the size distribution of background aerosols. The effect ofthe presence of particular aerosols on the measurements is discussed, and a new strategy for observations is proposed.