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1.
Circulation ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554616

RESUMO

Background: People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a high burden of hypertension but the magnitude and consistency of blood pressure (BP) lowering with canagliflozin in this population is uncertain. Whether the effects of canagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes vary by baseline BP or BP lowering therapy is also unknown. Methods: The CREDENCE trial randomized people with T2DM and CKD to canagliflozin or placebo. Post-hoc, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin on systolic BP across subgroups defined by baseline systolic BP, number of BP lowering drug classes, and history of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (BP ≥130/80 mmHg while receiving ≥3 classes of BP lowering drugs, including a diuretic). We also assessed whether effects on clinical outcomes differed across these subgroups. Results: The trial included 4,401 participants of whom 3,361 (76.4%) had baseline systolic BP ≥130 mmHg, and 1371 (31.2%) had resistant hypertension. By week 3, canagliflozin reduced systolic BP by 3.50mmHg (95% CI, -4.27 to -2.72), an effect maintained over the duration of the trial, with similar reductions across BP and BP lowering therapy subgroups (all P-interaction ≥0.05). Canagliflozin also reduced the need for initiation of additional BP lowering agents during the trial (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.75). The effect of canagliflozin on kidney failure, doubling of serum creatinine, or death due to kidney or cardiovascular disease (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.82) was consistent across BP and BP lowering therapy subgroups (all P-interaction ≥0.35), as were effects on other key kidney, cardiovascular and safety outcomes. Conclusions: In people with T2DM and CKD, canagliflozin lowers systolic BP across all BP defined subgroups and reduces the need for additional BP lowering agents. These findings support use of canagliflozin for end-organ protection and as an adjunct BP lowering therapy in people with CKD. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT02065791.

2.
Kidney Int Rep ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558853

RESUMO

Introduction: Reports from the United States suggest that acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently complicates COVID-19, but understanding of AKI risks and outcomes is incomplete. Additionally, whether kidney outcomes have evolved during the course of the pandemic is unknown. Methods: We used electronic records to identify COVID-19 patients with and without AKI admitted to 3 New York Hospitals between March 2 and August 25, 2020. Outcomes included AKI overall and according to admission week, AKI stage, the requirement for new renal replacement therapy (RRT), mortality and recovery of kidney function. Logistic regression was utilized to assess associations of patient characteristics and outcomes. Results: Out of 4732 admissions 1386 (29.3%) patients had AKI. Among those with AKI, 717 (51.7%) had Stage 1, 132 (9.5%) Stage 2, 537 (38.7%) stage 3, and 237 (17.1%) required RRT initiation. In March 536/1648 (32.5%) of patients developed AKI compared with 15/87 (17.2%) in August (P<0.001 for monthly trend) whereas RRT initiation was required in 6.9% and 0% of admission, in March and August respectively. Mortality was higher with than without AKI (51.6% vs 8.6%) and was 71.9% in individuals requiring RRT. However, most patients with AKI who survived hospitalization (77%) recovered to within 0.3 mg/dL of baseline creatinine. Among those surviving to discharge, 62% discontinued RRT. Conclusions: AKI impacts a high proportion of admitted COVID-19 patients and is associated with high mortality, particularly when RRT is required. AKI incidence appears to be decreasing over time and kidney function frequently recovers in those who survive.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 208-221, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited data are available on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We examined the clinical features and outcomes of 190 patients treated with ECMO within 14 days of ICU admission, using data from a multicenter cohort study of 5122 critically ill adults with COVID-19 admitted to 68 hospitals across the United States. To estimate the effect of ECMO on mortality, we emulated a target trial of ECMO receipt versus no ECMO receipt within 7 days of ICU admission among mechanically ventilated patients with severe hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100). Patients were followed until hospital discharge, death, or a minimum of 60 days. We adjusted for confounding using a multivariable Cox model. RESULTS: Among the 190 patients treated with ECMO, the median age was 49 years (IQR 41-58), 137 (72.1%) were men, and the median PaO2/FiO2 prior to ECMO initiation was 72 (IQR 61-90). At 60 days, 63 patients (33.2%) had died, 94 (49.5%) were discharged, and 33 (17.4%) remained hospitalized. Among the 1297 patients eligible for the target trial emulation, 45 of the 130 (34.6%) who received ECMO died, and 553 of the 1167 (47.4%) who did not receive ECMO died. In the primary analysis, patients who received ECMO had lower mortality than those who did not (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.41-0.74). Results were similar in a secondary analysis limited to patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 80 (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.40-0.77). CONCLUSION: In select patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19, ECMO may reduce mortality.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The kidney protective effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors are greater in people with higher levels of albuminuria at treatment initiation. Whether this applies to sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is uncertain, particularly in patients with a very high urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR; ≥3000 mg/g). We examined the association between baseline UACR and the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, on efficacy and safety outcomes in the Canagliflozin and Renal Endpoints in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) randomized controlled trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The study enrolled 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes, an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and UACR of >300 to 5000 mg/g. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the relative and absolute effects of canagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and safety outcomes according to a baseline UACR of ≤1000 mg/g (n=2348), >1000 to <3000 mg/g (n=1547), and ≥3000 mg/g (n=506). In addition, we examined the effects of canagliflozin on UACR itself, eGFR slope, and the intermediate outcomes of glycated hemoglobin, body weight, and systolic BP. RESULTS: Overall, higher UACR was associated with higher rates of kidney and cardiovascular events. Canagliflozin reduced efficacy outcomes for all UACR levels, with no evidence that relative benefits varied between levels. For example, canagliflozin reduced the primary composite outcome by 24% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.56 to 1.04) in the lowest UACR subgroup, 28% (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.93) in the UACR subgroup >1000 to <3000 mg/g, and 37% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.84) in the highest subgroup (P heterogeneity=0.55). Absolute risk reductions for kidney outcomes were greater in participants with higher baseline albuminuria; the number of primary composite events prevented across ascending UACR categories were 17 (95% CI, 3 to 38), 45 (95% CI, 9 to 81), and 119 (95% CI, 35 to 202) per 1000 treated participants over 2.6 years (P heterogeneity=0.02). Rates of kidney-related adverse events were lower with canagliflozin, with a greater relative reduction in higher UACR categories. CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin safely reduces kidney and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes and severely increased albuminuria. In this population, the relative kidney benefits were consistent over a range of albuminuria levels, with greatest absolute kidney benefit in those with an UACR ≥3000 mg/g. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: CREDENCE, NCT02065791. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2021_02_22_CJN15260920_final.mp3.

5.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 1049909120986121, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ideal clinical model to deliver palliative care to patients with advanced kidney disease is currently unknown. Internationally, ambulatory kidney palliative care clinics have emerged with positive outcomes, yet there is limited data from the United States (US). In this exploratory study we report perceptions of a US-based ambulatory kidney palliative care clinic from the perspective of patient and caregiver attendees. The objective of this study was to inform further improvement of our clinical program. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the patient and caregiver experience. Eleven interviews (8 patients with chronic kidney disease stage IV or V and 3 caregivers) were analyzed using qualitative description design. RESULTS: We identified 2 themes: "Communication addressing the emotional and physical aspects of disease" and "Filling gaps in care"; Subthemes include perceived value in symptom management, assistance with coping with disease, engagement in advance care planning, program satisfaction and patient activation. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Qualitative analysis showed that attendees of an ambulatory kidney palliative care clinic found the clinic enhanced the management of their kidney disease and provided services that filled current gaps in their care. Shared experiences highlight the significant challenges of life with kidney disease and the possible benefits of palliative care for this population. Further study to determine the optimal model of care for kidney palliative care is needed. Inclusion of the patient and caregiver perspective will be essential in this development.

6.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(2): 198-207, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395034

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several nontraditional risk factors have been the focus of research in an attempt to understand the disproportionately high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) populations. One such category of risk factors is cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Its true prevalence in the CKD/ESKD population is unknown but existing evidence suggests it is common. Due to lack of standardized diagnostic and treatment options, this condition remains undiagnosed and untreated in many patients. In this review, we discuss current evidence pointing toward the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in CKD, building off of crucial historical evidence and thereby highlighting the areas in need for future research interest. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several key mediators and pathways leading to cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in CKD and ESKD. We review studies exploring the mechanisms involved and discuss the current measurement tools and indices to evaluate the ANS and their pitfalls. There is a strong line of evidence establishing the temporal sequence of worsening autonomic function and kidney function and vice versa. Evidence linking ANS dysfunction and arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, intradialytic hypotension, heart failure and hypertension are discussed. SUMMARY: There is a need for early recognition and referral of CKD and ESKD patients suspected of cardiovascular ANS dysfunction to prevent the downstream effects described in this review.There are many unknowns in this area and a clear need for further research.

7.
Am Heart J ; 233: 141-148, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358942

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy according to prior history of heart failure in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial. We found that participants with a prior history of heart failure at baseline (15%) were more likely to be older, female, white, have a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and use diuretics and beta blockers (all P < .001), and that, compared with placebo, canagliflozin safely reduced renal and cardiovascular events with consistent effects in patients with and without a prior history of heart failure (all efficacy P interaction >.150). These results support the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy regardless of prior history of heart failure.

8.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316282

RESUMO

Canagliflozin slows the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and induces a reversible acute drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial drop and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown. To assess this, we performed a post-hoc analysis of 4289 participants in the CREDENCE trial with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease equally split into treatment and placebo groups who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week three. The eGFR was categorized at week three as greater than a 10% decline; between 0 and 10% decline; and no decline. Long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes were estimated in each category of acute eGFR change by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for baseline characteristics and medications use. Significantly more participants in the canagliflozin (45%) compared to the placebo (21%) group experienced an acute drop in eGFR over 10%. An over 30% drop occurred infrequently (4% of participants with canagliflozin and 2% with placebo). The odds ratio for a drop in eGFR over 10% with canagliflozin compared to placebo was significant at 3.03 (95% confidence interval 2.65, 3.47). Following the initial drop in eGFR, multivariable adjusted long-term eGFR trajectories, as well as overall and kidney safety profiles, in those treated with canagliflozin were similar across eGFR decline categories. Thus, although acute drops in eGFR over 10% occurred in nearly half of all participants following initiation of canagliflozin, the clinical benefit of canagliflozin was observed regardless. Additionally, safety outcomes were similar among subgroups of acute eGFR drop.

9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(12): 1705-1714, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial demonstrated that the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CKD. Little is known about the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The participants in the CREDENCE study had type 2 diabetes mellitus, a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300-5000 mg/g, and an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at screening. This post hoc analysis evaluated participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at randomization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Effects of eGFR slope through week 130 were analyzed using a piecewise, linear, mixed-effects model. Efficacy was analyzed in the intention-to-treat population, on the basis of Cox proportional hazard models, and safety was analyzed in the on-treatment population. At randomization (an average of 29 days after screening), 174 of 4401 (4%) participants had an eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (mean [SD] eGFR, 26 [3] ml/min per 1.73 m2). RESULTS: From weeks 3 to 130, there was a 66% difference in the mean rate of eGFR decline with canagliflozin versus placebo (mean slopes, -1.30 versus -3.83 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; difference, -2.54 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 4.17). Effects of canagliflozin on kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes were consistent for those with eGFR <30 and ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (all P interaction >0.20). The estimate for kidney failure in participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.27) was similar to those with eGFR ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.91; P interaction=0.80). There was no imbalance in the rate of kidney-related adverse events or AKI associated with canagliflozin between participants with eGFR <30 and ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (all P interaction >0.12). CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis suggests canagliflozin slowed progression of kidney disease, without increasing AKI, even in participants with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080002

RESUMO

Importance: Therapies that improve survival in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are needed. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the interleukin 6 receptor, may counteract the inflammatory cytokine release syndrome in patients with severe COVID-19 illness. Objective: To test whether tocilizumab decreases mortality in this population. Design, Setting, and Participants: The data for this study were derived from a multicenter cohort study of 4485 adults with COVID-19 admitted to participating intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the US from March 4 to May 10, 2020. Critically ill adults with COVID-19 were categorized according to whether they received or did not receive tocilizumab in the first 2 days of admission to the ICU. Data were collected retrospectively until June 12, 2020. A Cox regression model with inverse probability weighting was used to adjust for confounding. Exposures: Treatment with tocilizumab in the first 2 days of ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to death, compared via hazard ratios (HRs), and 30-day mortality, compared via risk differences. Results: Among the 3924 patients included in the analysis (2464 male [62.8%]; median age, 62 [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-71] years), 433 (11.0%) received tocilizumab in the first 2 days of ICU admission. Patients treated with tocilizumab were younger (median age, 58 [IQR, 48-65] vs 63 [IQR, 52-72] years) and had a higher prevalence of hypoxemia on ICU admission (205 of 433 [47.3%] vs 1322 of 3491 [37.9%] with mechanical ventilation and a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of <200 mm Hg) than patients not treated with tocilizumab. After applying inverse probability weighting, baseline and severity-of-illness characteristics were well balanced between groups. A total of 1544 patients (39.3%) died, including 125 (28.9%) treated with tocilizumab and 1419 (40.6%) not treated with tocilizumab. In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 (IQR, 14-37) days, patients treated with tocilizumab had a lower risk of death compared with those not treated with tocilizumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.92). The estimated 30-day mortality was 27.5% (95% CI, 21.2%-33.8%) in the tocilizumab-treated patients and 37.1% (95% CI, 35.5%-38.7%) in the non-tocilizumab-treated patients (risk difference, 9.6%; 95% CI, 3.1%-16.0%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19 in this cohort study, the risk of in-hospital mortality in this study was lower in patients treated with tocilizumab in the first 2 days of ICU admission compared with patients whose treatment did not include early use of tocilizumab. However, the findings may be susceptible to unmeasured confounding, and further research from randomized clinical trials is needed.

11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AKI is a common sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have focused on AKI treated with RRT (AKI-RRT). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cohort study of 3099 critically ill adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 67 hospitals across the United States. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient-and hospital-level risk factors for AKI-RRT and to examine risk factors for 28-day mortality among such patients. RESULTS: A total of 637 of 3099 patients (20.6%) developed AKI-RRT within 14 days of ICU admission, 350 of whom (54.9%) died within 28 days of ICU admission. Patient-level risk factors for AKI-RRT included CKD, men, non-White race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, higher d-dimer, and greater severity of hypoxemia on ICU admission. Predictors of 28-day mortality in patients with AKI-RRT were older age, severe oliguria, and admission to a hospital with fewer ICU beds or one with greater regional density of COVID-19. At the end of a median follow-up of 17 days (range, 1-123 days), 403 of the 637 patients (63.3%) with AKI-RRT had died, 216 (33.9%) were discharged, and 18 (2.8%) remained hospitalized. Of the 216 patients discharged, 73 (33.8%) remained RRT dependent at discharge, and 39 (18.1%) remained RRT dependent 60 days after ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: AKI-RRT is common among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with a hospital mortality rate of >60%. Among those who survive to discharge, one in three still depends on RRT at discharge, and one in six remains RRT dependent 60 days after ICU admission.

12.
BMJ ; 371: m3513, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with in-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Intensive care units at 68 geographically diverse hospitals across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill adults (age ≥18 years) with laboratory confirmed covid-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital cardiac arrest within 14 days of admission to an intensive care unit and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 5019 critically ill patients with covid-19, 14.0% (701/5019) had in-hospital cardiac arrest, 57.1% (400/701) of whom received cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients who had in-hospital cardiac arrest were older (mean age 63 (standard deviation 14) v 60 (15) years), had more comorbidities, and were more likely to be admitted to a hospital with a smaller number of intensive care unit beds compared with those who did not have in-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation were younger than those who did not (mean age 61 (standard deviation 14) v 67 (14) years). The most common rhythms at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were pulseless electrical activity (49.8%, 199/400) and asystole (23.8%, 95/400). 48 of the 400 patients (12.0%) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation survived to hospital discharge, and only 7.0% (28/400) survived to hospital discharge with normal or mildly impaired neurological status. Survival to hospital discharge differed by age, with 21.2% (11/52) of patients younger than 45 years surviving compared with 2.9% (1/34) of those aged 80 or older. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is common in critically ill patients with covid-19 and is associated with poor survival, particularly among older patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/virologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(12): 2925-2936, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between early changes in albuminuria and kidney and cardiovascular events is primarily based on trials of renin-angiotensin system blockade. It is unclear whether this association occurs with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. METHODS: The Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial enrolled 4401 patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [UACR] >300 mg/g). This post hoc analysis assessed canagliflozin's effect on albuminuria and how early change in albuminuria (baseline to week 26) is associated with the primary kidney outcome (ESKD, doubling of serum creatinine, or kidney death), major adverse cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Complete data for early change in albuminuria and other covariates were available for 3836 (87.2%) participants in the CREDENCE trial. Compared with placebo, canagliflozin lowered UACR by 31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 27% to 36%) at week 26, and significantly increased the likelihood of achieving a 30% reduction in UACR (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.35 to 3.07). Each 30% decrease in UACR over the first 26 weeks was independently associated with a lower hazard for the primary kidney outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.76; P<0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96; P<0.001), and hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001). Residual albuminuria levels at week 26 remained a strong independent risk factor for kidney and cardiovascular events, overall and in each treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes and CKD, use of canagliflozin results in early, sustained reductions in albuminuria, which were independently associated with long-term kidney and cardiovascular outcomes.

16.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 29(5): 489-496, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740218

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are variably eliminated by the kidneys rendering their use potentially problematic in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or necessitating appropriate dose adjustment. RECENT FINDINGS: Both observational and limited randomized trial data for DOACs compared with no treatment or with warfarin for patients with atrial fibrillation on maintenance dialysis were recently published. In a randomized trial in patients on hemodialysis, there was no significant difference in vascular calcification between patients who received rivaroxaban with or without vitamin K2 or vitamin K antagonists. A randomized trial of apixaban versus warfarin was terminated owing to poor enrollment and preliminary results identified no difference in clinical outcomes between groups. However, valuable pharmacodynamic data will be forthcoming from that trial. In observational research, among patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation, there were opposing trends in the associations of apixaban initiation versus no oral anticoagulation with ischemic versus hemorrhagic stroke and no association was present with the overall risk of stroke or embolism. In another study comparing apixaban with warfarin initiation, apixaban was associated with less bleeding. Regular-dose apixaban (5 mg twice daily) associated with reduced rates of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, whereas no such association was present for those prescribed the reduced dose (2.5 mg twice daily). SUMMARY: DOACs may be used after appropriate dose adjustment for an established clinical indication in patients with advanced CKD. Quality evidence for oral anticoagulation, with any specific agent or dose, for stroke prevention in hemodialysis continues to be lacking.

17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 24: 100434, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766543

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing recognition of a prothrombotic state in COVID-19. Post-mortem examination can provide important mechanistic insights. Methods: We present a COVID-19 autopsy series including findings in lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and bone, from a New York academic medical center. Findings: In seven patients (four female), regardless of anticoagulation status, all autopsies demonstrated platelet-rich thrombi in the pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and cardiac microvasculature. Megakaryocytes were seen in higher than usual numbers in the lungs and heart. Two cases had thrombi in the large pulmonary arteries, where casts conformed to the anatomic location. Thrombi in the IVC were not found, but the deep leg veins were not dissected. Two cases had cardiac venous thrombosis with one case exhibiting septal myocardial infarction associated with intramyocardial venous thrombosis, without atherosclerosis. One case had focal acute lymphocyte-predominant inflammation in the myocardium with no virions found in cardiomyocytes. Otherwise, cardiac histopathological changes were limited to minimal epicardial inflammation (n = 1), early ischemic injury (n = 3), and mural fibrin thrombi (n = 2). Platelet-rich peri­tubular fibrin microthrombi were a prominent renal feature. Acute tubular necrosis, and red blood cell and granular casts were seen in multiple cases. Significant glomerular pathology was notably absent. Numerous platelet-fibrin microthrombi were identified in hepatic sinusoids. All lungs exhibited diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with a spectrum of exudative and proliferative phases including hyaline membranes, and pneumocyte hyperplasia, with viral inclusions in epithelial cells and macrophages. Three cases had superimposed acute bronchopneumonia, focally necrotizing. Interpretation: In this series of seven COVID-19 autopsies, thrombosis was a prominent feature in multiple organs, in some cases despite full anticoagulation and regardless of timing of the disease course, suggesting that thrombosis plays a role very early in the disease process. The finding of megakaryocytes and platelet-rich thrombi in the lungs, heart and kidneys suggests a role in thrombosis. Funding: None.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(5): 1128-1139, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduced renal and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes in the CREDENCE trial. We assessed efficacy and safety of canagliflozin by initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: CREDENCE randomly assigned 4401 participants with an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and substantial albuminuria to canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze effects on renal and cardiovascular efficacy and safety outcomes within screening eGFR subgroups (30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and linear mixed effects models to analyze the effects on eGFR slope. RESULTS: At screening, 1313 (30%), 1279 (29%), and 1809 (41%) participants had an eGFR of 30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. The relative benefits of canagliflozin for renal and cardiovascular outcomes appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups (all P interaction >0.11). Subgroups with lower eGFRs, who were at greater risk, exhibited larger absolute benefits for renal outcomes. Canagliflozin's lack of effect on serious adverse events, amputations, and fractures appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups. In all subgroups, canagliflozin use led to an acute eGFR drop followed by relative stabilization of eGFR loss. Among those with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2, canagliflozin led to an initial drop of 2.03 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Thereafter, decline in eGFR was slower in the canagliflozin versus placebo group (-1.72 versus -4.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2; between-group difference 2.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin safely reduced the risk of renal and cardiovascular events, with consistent results across eGFR subgroups, including the subgroup initiating treatment with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Absolute benefits for renal outcomes were greatest in subgroups with lower eGFR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Evaluation of the Effects of Canagliflozin on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Participants With Diabetic Nephropathy (CREDENCE), NCT02065791.

20.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(6): 805-812, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) have a high incidence of cardiac events, including arrhythmia and sudden death. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication of HD and is associated with development of reduced myocardial perfusion, a potential risk factor for arrhythmia. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed data from the Monitoring in Dialysis study, which used implantable loop recorders to detect and continuously monitor electrocardiographic data from patients on maintenance HD (n=66 from the United States and India) over a 6-month period (n=4720 sessions). Negative binomial mixed effects regression was used to test the association of IDH20 (decline in systolic BP >20 mm Hg from predialysis systolic BP) and IDH0-20 (decline in systolic BP 0-20 mm Hg from predialysis systolic BP) with clinically significant arrhythmia (bradycardia≤40 bpm for ≥6 seconds, asystole≥3 seconds, ventricular tachycardia ≥130 bpm for ≥30 seconds, or patient-marked events) during HD. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 58 (25th-75th percentile, 49-66) years; 70% were male; and 65% were from the United States. IDH occurred in 2251 (48%) of the 4720 HD sessions analyzed, whereas IDH0-20 occurred during 1773 sessions (38%). The number of sessions complicated by least one intradialytic clinically significant arrhythmia was 27 (1.2%) where IDH20 occurred and 15 (0.8%) where IDH0-20 occurred. Participants who experienced IDH20 (versus not) had a nine-fold greater rate of developing an intradialytic clinically significant arrhythmia (incidence rate ratio, 9.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 29.4), whereas IDH0-20 was associated with a seven-fold higher rate (incidence rate ratio, 7.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 25.4). CONCLUSIONS: IDH is common in patients on maintenance HD and is associated with a greater risk of developing intradialytic clinically significant arrhythmia.

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