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2.
Blood ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30,234 VTE cases and 172,122 controls and assessed the association between 12,923,718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new, independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for both novel and previously known regions co-localized with eQTL signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228190

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficacy of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be influenced by a common allele in guanylate cyclase GUCY1A3, which has been shown to modify platelet function and increase CVD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated whether homozygotes of the GUCY1A3 rs7692387 risk (G) allele benefited from aspirin in two long-term, randomized placebo-controlled trials of aspirin in primary CVD prevention: the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294) and a myocardial infarction (MI, N = 550) and stroke (N = 382) case-control set from the Physician's Health Study (PHS, N = 22 071). Bleeding risk was evaluated in the WGHS. In the placebo group of the WGHS, the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele was confirmed to increase CVD risk [hazard ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.78; P = 0.01]. Random-effects meta-analysis of the WGHS and PHS revealed that aspirin reduced CVD events among risk allele homozygotes [G/G: odds ratio (OR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03] but increased CVD events among non-risk allele carriers (e.g. G/A: OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.87; P = 0.03) thus implying an interaction between genotype stratum and aspirin intake (Pinteraction = 0.01). Bleeding associated with aspirin increased in all genotype groups, with higher risks in heterozygotes. CONCLUSION: In two randomized placebo-controlled trials in the setting of primary prevention, aspirin reduced the incidence of CVD events in individuals homozygous for the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele, whereas heterozygote individuals had more events when taking aspirin.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(6): 1182-1190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070471

RESUMO

Objective- Inflammation is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). sPLA2-IIA (group IIA secretory phospholipase A2) plays an integral role in regulating vascular inflammation. Although studies investigated sPLA2-IIA in secondary prevention, we prospectively evaluated sPLA2-IIA mass and genetic variants with CVD events in a primary prevention population with chronic inflammation. Approach and Results- The JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) randomized participants with LDL (low-density lipoprotein) <130 mg/dL and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) ≥2 mg/L to high-intensity rosuvastatin versus placebo. Baseline and 1-year plasma sPLA2-IIA mass was measured (N=11 269 baseline; N=9620 1 year). We also identified genetic variants influencing sPLA2-IIA using genome-wide association and examined them with CVD. Three hundred thirteen incident CVD events occurred during follow-up. Baseline sPLA2-IIA mass (median, 25th-75th percentile: 3.81, 2.49-6.03 ng/mL) was associated with increased risk of CVD: risk factor-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI; P) per SD increment: 1.22 (1.08-1.38; P=0.002). This remained significant (1.18; 1.04-1.35; P=0.01) after incrementally adjusting for hsCRP. Similar estimates were observed in rosuvastatin and placebo groups ( P treatment interaction>0.05). The rs11573156C variant in PLA2G2A (encoding sPLA2-IIA) had the strongest effect on sPLA2-II: median (25th-75th percentile, ng/mL) for CC and GG genotypes: 2.79 (1.97-4.01) and 7.38 (5.38-10.19), respectively; and had nonsignificant trend for higher CVD risk (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89-1.38; P=0.34). Conclusions- In the JUPITER population recruited on chronic inflammation, sPLA2-IIA mass was associated with CVD risk relating to vascular inflammation not fully reflected by hsCRP. Additional studies, including larger functional genetic and clinical studies, are needed to determine whether sPLA2-IIA may be a potential pharmacological target for primary prevention of CVD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

8.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A genetic correlation is the proportion of phenotypic variance between traits that is shared on a genetic basis. Here we explore genetic correlations between diabetes- and glaucoma-related traits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We assembled genome-wide association study summary statistics from European-derived participants regarding diabetes-related traits like fasting blood sugar (FBS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glaucoma-related traits (intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cup-disc ratio (CDR), and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)). We included data from the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database, the UK Biobank and the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium. We calculated genetic correlation (rg) between traits using linkage disequilibrium score regression. We also calculated genetic correlations between IOP, CCT and selected diabetes-related traits based on individual level phenotype data in two Northern European population-based samples using pedigree information and Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). RESULTS: Overall, there was little rg between diabetes- and glaucoma-related traits. Specifically, we found a non-significant negative correlation between T2D and POAG (rg=-0.14; p=0.16). Using SOLAR, the genetic correlations between measured IOP, CCT, FBS, fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c, were null. In contrast, genetic correlations between IOP and POAG (rg ≥0.45; p≤3.0E-04) and between CDR and POAG were high (rg =0.57; p=2.8E-10). However, genetic correlations between corneal properties (CCT, CRF and CH) and POAG were low (rg range: -0.18 - 0.11) and non-significant (p≥0.07). CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest there is limited genetic correlation between diabetes- and glaucoma-related traits.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(14): 2449-2457, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046077

RESUMO

Except for drinking water, most beverages taste bitter or sweet. Taste perception and preferences are heritable and determinants of beverage choice and consumption. Consumption of several bitter- and sweet-tasting beverages has been implicated in development of major chronic diseases. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-reported bitter and sweet beverage consumption among ~370 000 participants of European ancestry, using a two-staged analysis design. Bitter beverages included coffee, tea, grapefruit juice, red wine, liquor and beer. Sweet beverages included artificially and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and non-grapefruit juices. Five loci associated with total bitter beverage consumption were replicated (in/near GCKR, ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A1/2). No locus was replicated for total sweet beverage consumption. Sub-phenotype analyses targeting the alcohol, caffeine and sweetener components of beverages yielded additional loci: (i) four loci for bitter alcoholic beverages (GCKR, KLB, ADH1B and AGBL2); (ii) five loci for bitter non-alcoholic beverages (ANXA9, AHR, POR, CYP1A1/2 and CSDC2); (iii) 10 loci for coffee; six novel loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, OR8U8, AKAP6, MC4R and SPECC1L-ADORA2A); (iv) FTO for SSBs. Of these 17 replicated loci, 12 have been associated with total alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, plasma caffeine metabolites or BMI in previous GWAS; none was involved in known sweet and bitter taste transduction pathways. Our study suggests that genetic variants related to alcohol consumption, coffee consumption and obesity were primary genetic determinants of bitter and sweet beverage consumption. Whether genetic variants related to taste perception are associated with beverage consumption remains to be determined.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

12.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624689

RESUMO

Background: Vitamins are among the most frequently used supplements (48% of US adults). However, little is known about contributions of genetic variation to their efficacy and safety. Multiple pathways link catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to the vitamin E supplement, alpha-tocopherol, and cancer. Methods: Here we determined if COMT exerted pharmacogenetic effects on cancer prevention in two randomized trials of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Pharmacogenetic effects of common COMT rs4680 (val158met), which encodes a nonsynonymous valine-to-methionine substitution, were examined in the trial plus a 10-year post-trial follow-up (overall) period of The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294), a 10-year alpha-tocopherol and aspirin trial with 10 years post-trial follow-up. Results were validated in a case/control (N = 2396/2235) subset of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC, N = 29 133). The primary outcome was total cancers. Rates of cancer types prevalent in women (colorectal, breast, lung, uterine, and lymphoma/leukemia) were also examined. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Random-effects meta-analysis of rs4680 genotype strata, in WGHS and ATBC overall periods, revealed differential alpha-tocopherol effects compared with placebo: met/met (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80 to 0.97; P = .01), val/met (HR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.06; P = .74), and val/val (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.31; P = .002) with a statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction (Pinteraction <.001). Timing of effects differed, with stronger effects in WGHS trial and ATBC post-trial. Conclusion: Pharmacogenetic analysis of COMT and cancer prevention in two large randomized trials revealed statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction, such that alpha-tocopherol was beneficial among rs4680 met-allele (28.0%), but not val-allele (22.8%) homozygotes. These effects indicate the need for additional studies of genetic variation as a determinant of the benefits and possible harms of over-the-counter supplements, like alpha-tocopherol, used for health promotion.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 144-152, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673084

RESUMO

Importance: Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study-level mendelian randomization (MR) included 11 studies, and summary-level MR included 55 114 AF cases and 482 295 referents, all of European ancestry. Exposures: Genomewide significant variants were used as instruments for standardized FT4 and thyrotropin levels within the reference range, standardized triiodothyronine (FT3):FT4 ratio, hypothyroidism, standardized thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and hyperthyroidism. Mendelian randomization used genetic risk scores in study-level analysis or individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2-sample MR for the summary-level data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident AF. Results: The study-level analysis included 7679 individuals with AF and 49 233 referents (mean age [standard error], 62 [3] years; 15 859 men [29.7%]). In study-level random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio of FT4 levels (nanograms per deciliter) for incident AF was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.20; P = .02; I2 = 76%) and the pooled odds ratio (OR) for prevalent AF was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.41-5.54; P = .003; I2 = 64%) in multivariable-adjusted analyses. The FT4 genetic risk score was associated with an increase in FT4 by 0.082 SD (standard error, 0.007; P < .001) but not with incident AF (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1.14; P = .27) or prevalent AF (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.64-2.73; P = .46). Similarly, in summary-level inverse-variance weighted random-effects MR, gene-based FT4 within the reference range was not associated with AF (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; P = .88). However, gene-based increased FT3:FT4 ratio, increased thyrotropin within the reference range, and hypothyroidism were associated with AF with inverse-variance weighted random-effects OR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.63; P = .006), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P < .001), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = .009), respectively, and robust to tests of horizontal pleiotropy. However, the subset of hypothyroidism single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in autoimmunity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels were not associated with AF. Gene-based hyperthyroidism was associated with AF with MR-Egger OR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P = .02) with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (P = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically increased FT3:FT4 ratio and hyperthyroidism, but not FT4 within the reference range, were associated with increased AF, and increased thyrotropin within the reference range and hypothyroidism were associated with decreased AF, supporting a pathway involving the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(1): 97-106, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565958

RESUMO

Objective- Higher triglyceride (TG) is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but paradoxically, genetic susceptibility for higher TG has been associated with lower T2DM risk. There is also evidence that the genetic association may be modified by baseline TG. Whether such associations can be replicated and the interaction is selective for certain TG-rich lipoprotein particles remains to be explored. Approach and Results- Cox regression involving TG, TG-rich lipoprotein particles, and genetic determinants of TG was performed among 15 813 participants with baseline fasting status in the WGHS (Women's Genome Health Study), including 1453 T2DM incident cases during a mean 18.6 (SD=5.3) years of follow-up. A weighted, 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score was inversely associated with incident T2DM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.66 [0.58-0.75]/10-TG risk alleles; P<0.0001) with adjustment for baseline body mass index, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and TG. TG-associated risk was higher among individuals in the low compared with the high 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score tertile (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.98 [1.83-2.14] versus 1.68 [1.58-1.80] per mmol/L; Pinteraction=0.0007). In TG-adjusted analysis, large and medium but not small TG-rich lipoprotein particles were associated with higher T2DM incidence for successively lower 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score tertiles, Pinteraction=0.013, 0.012, and 0.620 across tertiles, respectively. Conclusions- Our results confirm the previous observations of the paradoxical associations of TG with T2DM while focusing attention on the larger TG-rich lipoprotein particle subfractions, suggesting their importance in clinical profiling of T2DM risk.

18.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2354-2364, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535219

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Objective: To perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program includes longitudinal and cohort studies that underwent high-depth whole-genome sequencing between 2014 and 2017 in 18 526 individuals from the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Samoa. This case-control study included 2781 patients with early-onset AF from 9 studies and identified 4959 controls of European ancestry from the remaining participants. Results were replicated in the UK Biobank (346 546 participants) and the MyCode Study (42 782 participants). Exposures: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in genes at AF loci and common genetic variation across the whole genome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early-onset AF (defined as AF onset in persons <66 years of age). Due to multiple testing, the significance threshold for the rare variant analysis was P = 4.55 × 10-3. Results: Among 2781 participants with early-onset AF (the case group), 72.1% were men, and the mean (SD) age of AF onset was 48.7 (10.2) years. Participants underwent whole-genome sequencing at a mean depth of 37.8 fold and mean genome coverage of 99.1%. At least 1 LOF variant in TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein titin, was present in 2.1% of case participants compared with 1.1% in control participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% CI, 1.04-2.97]). The proportion of individuals with early-onset AF who carried a LOF variant in TTN increased with an earlier age of AF onset (P value for trend, 4.92 × 10-4), and 6.5% of individuals with AF onset prior to age 30 carried a TTN LOF variant (OR, 5.94 [95% CI, 2.64-13.35]; P = 1.65 × 10-5). The association between TTN LOF variants and AF was replicated in an independent study of 1582 patients with early-onset AF (cases) and 41 200 control participants (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.19-3.92]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In a case-control study, there was a statistically significant association between an LOF variant in the TTN gene and early-onset AF, with the variant present in a small percentage of participants with early-onset AF (the case group). Further research is necessary to understand whether this is a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conectina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351367

RESUMO

Background: It is unknown whether dietary quality modifies genetic association with body mass index (BMI). Objective: This study examined whether dietary quality modifies genetic association with BMI. Design: We calculated 3 diet quality scores including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), the Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (AMED), and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. We examined the interactions of a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 97 BMI-associated variants with the 3 diet quality scores on BMI in 30,904 participants from 3 large cohorts. Results: We found significant interactions between total GRS and all 3 diet scores on BMI assessed after 2-3 y, with an attenuated genetic effect observed in individuals with healthier diets (AHEI: P-interaction = 0.003; AMED: P = 0.001; DASH: P = 0.004). For example, the difference in BMI (kg/m2) per 10-unit increment of the GRS was smaller among participants in the highest tertile of AHEI score compared with those in the lowest tertile (0.84; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.96 compared with 1.14; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.29). Results were consistent across the 3 cohorts with no significant heterogeneity. The interactions with diet scores on BMI appeared more significant for central nervous system GRSs (P < 0.01 for 3 diet scores) than for non-central nervous system GRSs (P > 0.05 for 3 diet scores). Conclusions: A higher diet quality attenuated genetic predisposition to obesity. These findings underscore the importance of maintaining a healthful diet for the prevention of obesity, particularly for those individuals with a strong genetic predisposition to obesity. This trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry as NCT03577639.

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