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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: LDL cholesterol (LDLc)-lowering drugs modestly increase body weight and type 2 diabetes risk, but the extent to which the diabetogenic effect of lowering LDLc is mediated through increased BMI is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted summary-level univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in 921,908 participants to investigate the effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes risk and the proportion of this effect mediated through BMI. We used data from 92,532 participants from 14 observational studies to replicate findings in individual-level MR analyses. RESULTS: A 1-SD decrease in genetically predicted LDLc was associated with increased type 2 diabetes odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.24]) and BMI (ß = 0.07 SD units [95% CI 0.02, 0.12]) in univariable MR analyses. The multivariable MR analysis showed evidence of an indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01, 1.08]) with a proportion mediated of 38% of the total effect (P = 0.03). Total and indirect effect estimates were similar across a number of sensitivity analyses. Individual-level MR analyses confirmed the indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI with an estimated proportion mediated of 8% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the diabetogenic effect attributed to lowering LDLc is partially mediated through increased BMI. Our results could help advance understanding of adipose tissue and lipids in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and inform strategies to reduce diabetes risk among individuals taking LDLc-lowering medications.

2.
Neurology ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate phenotypic and genetic relationships between migraine and lipoprotein subfractions. METHODS: We evaluated phenotypic associations between migraine and 19 lipoprotein subfractions measures in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N=22,788). We then investigated genetic relationships between these traits using summary statistics from the International Headache Genetics Consortium (IHGC) for migraine (Ncase=54,552, Ncontrol=297,970) and combined summary data for lipoprotein subfractions (N up to 47,713). RESULTS: There was a significant phenotypic association (odds ratio=1.27 [95% confidence interval:1.12-1.44]) and a significant genetic correlation at 0.18 (P=0.001) between migraine and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLP) concentration but not for LDL or HDL subfractions. Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates were largely null implying that pleiotropy rather than causality underlies the genetic correlation between migraine and lipoprotein subfractions. Pleiotropy was further supported in cross-trait meta-analysis revealing significant shared signals at four loci (chr2p21 harboring THADA, chr5q13.3 harboring HMGCR, chr6q22.31 harboring HEY2, and chr7q11.23 harboring MLXIPL) between migraine and lipoprotein subfractions. Three of these loci were replicated for migraine (P<0.05) in a smaller sample from the UK Biobank. The shared signal at chr5q13.3 colocalized with expression of HMGCR, ANKDD1B, and COL4A3BP in multiple tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The current study supports the association between certain lipoprotein subfractions, especially for TRLP, and migraine in populations of European ancestry. The corresponding shared genetic components may be help identify potential targets for future migraine therapeutics. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that migraine is significantly associated with some lipoprotein subfractions.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480422

RESUMO

AIMS: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10-8 under an additive genetic model. CONCLUSIONS: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426670

RESUMO

Dietary intake is a major contributor to the global obesity epidemic and represents a complex behavioural phenotype that is partially affected by innate biological differences. Here, we present a multivariate genome-wide association analysis of overall variation in dietary intake to account for the correlation between dietary carbohydrate, fat and protein in 282,271 participants of European ancestry from the UK Biobank (n = 191,157) and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 91,114), and identify 26 distinct genome-wide significant loci. Dietary intake signals map exclusively to specific brain regions and are enriched for genes expressed in specialized subtypes of GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. We identified two main clusters of genetic variants for overall variation in dietary intake that were differently associated with obesity and coronary artery disease. These results enhance the biological understanding of interindividual differences in dietary intake by highlighting neural mechanisms, supporting functional follow-up experiments and possibly providing new avenues for the prevention and treatment of prevalent complex metabolic diseases.

5.
Thyroid ; 31(9): 1305-1315, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210154

RESUMO

Background: Untreated hypothyroidism is associated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombosis risk. However, the causal effects of thyroid function on hemostasis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis are unknown. Methods: In a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study with genome-wide association variants, we assessed causality of genetically predicted hypothyroidism (N = 134,641), normal-range thyrotropin (TSH; N = 54,288) and free thyroxine (fT4) (N = 49,269), hyperthyroidism (N = 51,823), and thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (N = 25,821) on coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time, von Willebrand factor [VWF], factor VIII [FVIII], prothrombin time, factor VII, fibrinogen) and fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [TPA], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) from the CHARGE Hemostasis Consortium (N = 2583-120,246). Inverse-variance-weighted random effects were the main MR analysis followed by sensitivity analyses. Two-sided p < 0.05 was nominally significant, and p < 0.0011[ = 0.05/(5 exposures × 9 outcomes)] was Bonferroni significant for the main MR analysis. Results: Genetically increased TSH was associated with decreased VWF [ß(SE) = -0.020(0.006), p = 0.001] and with decreased fibrinogen [ß(SE) = -0.008(0.002), p = 0.001]. Genetically increased fT4 was associated with increased VWF [ß(SE) = 0.028(0.011), p = 0.012]. Genetically predicted hyperthyroidism was associated with increased VWF [ß(SE) = 0.012(0.004), p = 0.006] and increased FVIII [ß(SE) = 0.013(0.005), p = 0.007]. Genetically predicted hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were associated with decreased TPA [ß(SE) = -0.009(0.024), p = 0.024] and increased TPA [ß(SE) = 0.022(0.008), p = 0.008], respectively. MR sensitivity analyses showed similar direction but lower precision. Other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were inconclusive. Conclusions: In the largest genetic studies currently available, genetically increased TSH and fT4 may be associated with decreased and increased synthesis of VWF, respectively. Since Bonferroni correction may be too conservative given the correlation between the analyzed traits, we cannot reject nominal associations of thyroid traits with coagulation or fibrinolytic factors.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(18): 1773-1783, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864366

RESUMO

Diet is a significant modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), and its effect on disease risk is under partial genetic control. Identification of specific gene-diet interactions (GDIs) influencing risk biomarkers such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a critical step towards precision nutrition for T2D prevention, but progress has been slow due to limitations in sample size and accuracy of dietary exposure measurement. We leveraged the large UK Biobank (UKB) cohort and a diverse group of dietary exposures, including 30 individual dietary traits and 8 empirical dietary patterns, to conduct genome-wide interaction studies in ~340 000 European-ancestry participants to identify novel GDIs influencing HbA1c. We identified five variant-dietary trait pairs reaching genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8): two involved dietary patterns (meat pattern with rs147678157 and a fruit & vegetable-based pattern with rs3010439) and three involved individual dietary traits (bread consumption with rs62218803, dried fruit consumption with rs140270534 and milk type [dairy vs. other] with 4:131148078_TAGAA_T). These were affected minimally by adjustment for geographical and lifestyle-related confounders, and four of the five variants lacked genetic main effects that would have allowed their detection in a traditional genome-wide association study for HbA1c. Notably, multiple loci near transient receptor potential subfamily M genes (TRPM2 and TRPM3) interacted with carbohydrate-containing food groups. These interactions were further characterized using non-European UKB subsets and alternative measures of glycaemia (fasting glucose and follow-up HbA1c measurements). Our results highlight GDIs influencing HbA1c for future investigation, while reinforcing known challenges in detecting and replicating GDIs.

7.
Neurology ; 96(20): e2481-e2487, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess support for a causal relationship between hemostatic measures and migraine susceptibility using genetic instrumental analysis. METHODS: Two-sample Mendelian randomization instrumental analyses leveraging available genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics were applied to hemostatic measures as potentially causal for migraine and its subtypes, migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Twelve blood-based measures of hemostasis were examined, including plasma level or activity of 8 hemostatic factors and 2 fibrinopeptides together with 2 hemostasis clinical tests. RESULTS: There were significant instrumental effects between increased coagulation factor VIII activity (FVIII; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.05 [1.03, 1.08]/SD, p = 6.08 × 10-05), von Willebrand factor level (vWF; 1.05 [1.03, 1.08]/SD, p = 2.25 × 10-06), and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A level (1.13 [1.07, 1.19]/SD, p = 5.44 × 10-06) with migraine susceptibility. When extended to migraine subtypes, FVIII, vWF, and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A showed slightly stronger effects with MA than overall migraine. Fibrinogen level was inversely linked with MA (0.76 [0.64, 0.91]/SD, p = 2.32 × 10-03) but not overall migraine. None of the hemostatic factors was linked with MO. In sensitivity analysis, effects for fibrinogen and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A were robust, whereas independent effects of FVIII and vWF could not be distinguished, and FVIII associations were potentially affected by pleiotropy at the ABO locus. Causal effects from migraine to the hemostatic measures were not supported in reverse Mendelian randomization. However, MA was not included due to lack of instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support potential causality of increased FVIII, vWF, and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A and decreased fibrinogen in migraine susceptibility, especially for MA, potentially revealing etiologic relationships between hemostasis and migraine.


Assuntos
Hemostasia/genética , Enxaqueca com Aura/genética , Enxaqueca sem Aura/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator VII/metabolismo , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Fator XI/metabolismo , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinopeptídeo A/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Enxaqueca com Aura/sangue , Enxaqueca com Aura/epidemiologia , Enxaqueca sem Aura/sangue , Enxaqueca sem Aura/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Tempo de Protrombina , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
8.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(3): 1329-1337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic variant rs9923231 (VKORC1) is associated with differences in the coagulation of blood and consequentially with sensitivity to the drug warfarin. Variation in VKORC1 has been linked in a gene-based test to dementia/Alzheimer's disease in the parents of participants, with suggestive evidence for an association for rs9923231 (p = 1.8×10-7), which was included in the genome-wide significant KAT8 locus. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between rs9923231 and dementia persists only for certain dementia sub-types, and if those taking warfarin are at greater risk. METHODS: We used logistic regression and data from 238,195 participants from UK Biobank to examine the relationship between VKORC1, risk of dementia, and the interplay with warfarin use. RESULTS: Parental history of dementia, APOE variant, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia all had strong associations with vascular dementia (p < 4.6×10-6). The T-allele in rs9923231 was linked to a lower warfarin dose (ßperT - allele = -0.29, p < 2×10-16) and risk of vascular dementia (OR = 1.17, p = 0.010), but not other dementia sub-types. However, the risk of vascular dementia was not affected by warfarin use in carriers of the T-allele. CONCLUSION: Our study reports for the first time an association between rs9923231 and vascular dementia, but further research is warranted to explore potential mechanisms and specify the relationship between rs9923231 and features of vascular dementia.


Assuntos
Demência Vascular/genética , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigorous evaluation of the calibration and discrimination of breast-cancer risk-prediction models in prospective cohorts is critical for applications under clinical guidelines. We comprehensively evaluated an integrated model incorporating classical risk factors and a 313-variant polygenic risk score (PRS) to predict breast-cancer risk. METHODS: Fifteen prospective cohorts from six countries with 239 340 women (7646 incident breast-cancer cases) of European ancestry aged 19-75 years were included. Calibration of 5-year risk was assessed by comparing expected and observed proportions of cases overall and within risk categories. Risk stratification for women of European ancestry aged 50-70 years in those countries was evaluated by the proportion of women and future cases crossing clinically relevant risk thresholds. RESULTS: Among women <50 years old, the median (range) expected-to-observed ratio for the integrated model across 15 cohorts was 0.9 (0.7-1.0) overall and 0.9 (0.7-1.4) at the highest-risk decile; among women ≥50 years old, these were 1.0 (0.7-1.3) and 1.2 (0.7-1.6), respectively. The proportion of women identified above a 3% 5-year risk threshold (used for recommending risk-reducing medications in the USA) ranged from 7.0% in Germany (∼841 000 of 12 million) to 17.7% in the USA (∼5.3 of 30 million). At this threshold, 14.7% of US women were reclassified by adding the PRS to classical risk factors, with identification of 12.2% of additional future cases. CONCLUSION: Integrating a 313-variant PRS with classical risk factors can improve the identification of European-ancestry women at elevated risk who could benefit from targeted risk-reducing strategies under current clinical guidelines.

11.
Nature ; 590(7845): 290-299, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568819

RESUMO

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes)1. In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Medicina de Precisão , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mutagênese , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Densidade Demográfica , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Tamanho da Amostra , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(3): 335-344, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548002

RESUMO

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are observationally associated with sex hormone concentrations and sexual dysfunction, but causality is unclear. We investigated whether TSH, fT4, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are causally associated with sex hormones and sexual function. We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on TSH and fT4 and hypo- and hyperthyroidism from the ThyroidOmics Consortium (N ≤ 54,288). Outcomes from UK Biobank (women ≤ 194,174/men ≤ 167,020) and ReproGen (women ≤ 252,514) were sex hormones (sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], testosterone, estradiol, free androgen index [FAI]) and sexual function (ovulatory function in women: duration of menstrual period, age at menarche and menopause, reproductive lifespan, and erectile dysfunction in men). We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses on summary level, and unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) analysis on individual level data. One SD increase in TSH was associated with a 1.332 nmol/L lower (95% CI: - 0.717,- 1.946; p = 2 × 10-5) SHBG and a 0.103 nmol/l lower (- 0.051,V0.154; p = 9 × 10-5) testosterone in two-sample MR, supported by the GRS approach. Genetic predisposition to hypothyroidism was associated with decreased and genetic predisposition to hyperthyroidism with increased SHBG and testosterone in both approaches. The GRS for fT4 was associated with increased testosterone and estradiol in women only. The GRS for TSH and hypothyroidism were associated with increased and the GRS for hyperthyroidism with decreased FAI in men only. While genetically predicted thyroid function was associated with sex hormones, we found no association with sexual function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo
13.
Blood ; 137(17): 2394-2402, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512453

RESUMO

Genetic risk score (GRS) analysis is a popular approach to derive individual risk prediction models for complex diseases. In venous thrombosis (VT), such type of analysis shall integrate information at the ABO blood group locus, which is one of the major susceptibility loci. However, there is no consensus about which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) must be investigated when properly assessing association between ABO locus and VT risk. Using comprehensive haplotype analyses of ABO blood group tagging SNPs in 5425 cases and 8445 controls from 6 studies, we demonstrate that using only rs8176719 (tagging O1) to correctly assess the impact of ABO locus on VT risk is suboptimal, because 5% of rs8176719-delG carriers do not have an increased risk of developing VT. Instead, we recommend the use of 4 SNPs, rs2519093 (tagging A1), rs1053878 (A2), rs8176743 (B), and rs41302905 (O2), when assessing the impact of ABO locus on VT risk to avoid any risk misestimation. Compared with the O1 haplotype, the A2 haplotype is associated with a modest increase in VT risk (odds ratio, âˆ¼1.2), the A1 and B haplotypes are associated with an âˆ¼1.8-fold increased risk, whereas the O2 haplotype tends to be slightly protective (odds ratio, âˆ¼0.80). In addition, although the A1 and B blood groups are associated with increased von Willebrand factor and factor VIII plasma levels, only the A1 blood group is associated with ICAM levels, but in an opposite direction, leaving additional avenues to be explored to fully understand the spectrum of biological effects mediated by ABO locus on cardiovascular traits.

14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(1): 59-70, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Hum Genet ; 140(3): 529-552, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959083

RESUMO

Evidence from observational studies indicates that endometriosis and depression often co-occur. However, conflicting evidence exists, and the etiology as well as biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Utilizing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, we comprehensively assessed the relationship between endometriosis and depression. Single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis (SECA) found a significant genetic overlap between endometriosis and depression (PFsig-permuted = 9.99 × 10-4). Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis estimated a positive and highly significant genetic correlation between the two traits (rG = 0.27, P = 8.85 × 10-27). A meta-analysis of endometriosis and depression GWAS (sample size = 709,111), identified 20 independent genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8), of which eight are novel. Mendelian randomization analysis (MR) suggests a causal effect of depression on endometriosis. Combining gene-based association results across endometriosis and depression GWAS, we identified 22 genes with a genome-wide significant Fisher's combined P value (FCPgene < 2.75 × 10-6). Genes with a nominal gene-based association (Pgene < 0.05) were significantly enriched across endometriosis and depression (Pbinomial-test = 2.90 × 10-4). Also, genes overlapping the two traits at Pgene < 0.1 (Pbinomial-test = 1.31 × 10-5) were significantly enriched for the biological pathways 'cell-cell adhesion', 'inositol phosphate metabolism', 'Hippo-Merlin signaling dysregulation' and 'gastric mucosa abnormality'. These results reveal a shared genetic etiology for endometriosis and depression. Indeed, additional analyses found evidence of a causal association between each of endometriosis and depression and at least one abnormal condition of gastric mucosa. Our study confirms the comorbidity of endometriosis and depression, implicates links with gastric mucosa abnormalities in their causal pathways and reveals potential therapeutic targets for further investigation.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Endometriose/genética , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 2111-2125, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372009

RESUMO

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Epistasia Genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Genet Med ; 23(1): 140-148, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873934

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), characterized by painful cutaneous photosensitivity, results from pathogenic variants in ferrochelatase (FECH). For 96% of patients, EPP results from coinheriting a rare pathogenic variant in trans of a common hypomorphic variant c.315-48T>C (minor allele frequency 0.05). The estimated prevalence of EPP derived from the number of diagnosed individuals in Europe is 0.00092%, but this may be conservative due to underdiagnosis. No study has estimated EPP prevalence using large genetic data sets. METHODS: Disease-associated FECH variants were identified in the UK Biobank, a data set of 500,953 individuals including 49,960 exome sequences. EPP prevalence was then estimated. The association of FECH variants with EPP-related traits was assessed. RESULTS: Analysis of pathogenic FECH variants in the UK Biobank provides evidence that EPP prevalence is 0.0059% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0042-0.0076%), 1.7-3.0 times more common than previously thought in the UK. In homozygotes for the common c.315-48T>C FECH variant, there was a novel decrement in both erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of EPP has been underestimated secondary to underdiagnosis. The common c.315-48T>C allele is associated with both MCV and hemoglobin, an association that could be important both for those with and without EPP.


Assuntos
Protoporfiria Eritropoética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Europa (Continente) , Ferroquelatase/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Protoporfiria Eritropoética/diagnóstico , Protoporfiria Eritropoética/epidemiologia , Protoporfiria Eritropoética/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025466, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211107

RESUMO

Importance: Higher Mediterranean diet (MED) intake has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. Objective: To characterize the relative contribution of conventional and novel biomarkers in MED-associated type 2 diabetes risk reduction in a US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among 25 317 apparently healthy women. The participants with missing information regarding all traditional and novel metabolic biomarkers or those with baseline diabetes were excluded. Participants were invited for baseline assessment between September 1992 and May 1995. Data were collected from November 1992 to December 2017 and analyzed from December 2018 to December 2019. Exposures: MED intake score (range, 0 to 9) was computed from self-reported dietary intake, representing adherence to Mediterranean diet intake. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through annual questionnaires; reported cases were confirmed by either telephone interview or supplemental questionnaire. Proportion of reduced risk of type 2 diabetes explained by clinical risk factors and a panel of 40 biomarkers that represent different physiological pathways was estimated. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 25 317 female participants was 52.9 (9.9) years, and they were followed up for a mean (SD) of 19.8 (5.8) years. Higher baseline MED intake (score ≥6 vs ≤3) was associated with as much as a 30% lower type 2 diabetes risk (age-adjusted and energy-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62-0.79; when regression models were additionally adjusted with body mass index [BMI]: hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Biomarkers of insulin resistance made the largest contribution to lower risk (accounting for 65.5% of the MED-type 2 diabetes association), followed by BMI (55.5%), high-density lipoprotein measures (53.0%), and inflammation (52.5%), with lesser contributions from branched-chain amino acids (34.5%), very low-density lipoprotein measures (32.0%), low-density lipoprotein measures (31.0%), blood pressure (29.0%), and apolipoproteins (23.5%), and minimal contribution (≤2%) from hemoglobin A1c. In post hoc subgroup analyses, the inverse association of MED diet with type 2 diabetes was seen only among women who had BMI of at least 25 at baseline but not those who had BMI of less than 25 (eg, women with BMI <25, age- and energy-adjusted HR for MED score ≥6 vs ≤3, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.77-1.33; P for trend = .92; women with BMI ≥25: HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.87; P for trend < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher MED intake scores were associated with a 30% relative risk reduction in type 2 diabetes during a 20-year period, which could be explained in large part by biomarkers of insulin resistance, BMI, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adiposidade , Adulto , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína B-100/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Proteção , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(12): 1280-1289, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119047

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies suggest that higher intake or blood levels of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids may be associated with lower risks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, evidence from randomized trials is limited. Objective: To evaluate whether daily supplementation with vitamin D3, marine ω-3 fatty acids, or both prevents the development or progression of AMD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), a nationwide, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design randomized clinical trial of supplementation with vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Participants included 25 871 men and women in the US. Randomization was from November 2011 to March 2014, and study pill-taking ended as planned on December 31, 2017. Interventions: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 2000 IU per day, and marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was total AMD events, a composite of incident cases of AMD plus cases of progression to advanced AMD among participants with AMD at baseline, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Analyses were conducted using the intention-to-treat population. Results: In total, 25 871 participants with a mean (SD) age of 67.1 (7.0) years were included in the trial. Of them, 50.6% were women, 71.3% were self-declared non-Hispanic White participants, and 20.2% were Black participants. During a median (range) of 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years of treatment and follow-up, 324 participants experienced an AMD event (285 incident AMD and 39 progression to advanced AMD). For vitamin D3, there were 163 events in the treated group and 161 in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.27). For ω-3 fatty acids, there were 157 events in the treated group and 167 in the placebo group (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.76-1.17). In analyses of individual components for the primary end point, HRs comparing vitamin D3 groups were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.86-1.37) for incident AMD and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.33-1.21) for AMD progression. For ω-3 fatty acids, HRs were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.73-1.17) for incident AMD and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.56-1.97) for AMD progression. Conclusion and Relevance: Neither vitamin D3 nor marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation had a significant overall effect on AMD incidence or progression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01782352.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Degeneração Macular/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
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