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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025466, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211107

RESUMO

Importance: Higher Mediterranean diet (MED) intake has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, but underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. Objective: To characterize the relative contribution of conventional and novel biomarkers in MED-associated type 2 diabetes risk reduction in a US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among 25 317 apparently healthy women. The participants with missing information regarding all traditional and novel metabolic biomarkers or those with baseline diabetes were excluded. Participants were invited for baseline assessment between September 1992 and May 1995. Data were collected from November 1992 to December 2017 and analyzed from December 2018 to December 2019. Exposures: MED intake score (range, 0 to 9) was computed from self-reported dietary intake, representing adherence to Mediterranean diet intake. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through annual questionnaires; reported cases were confirmed by either telephone interview or supplemental questionnaire. Proportion of reduced risk of type 2 diabetes explained by clinical risk factors and a panel of 40 biomarkers that represent different physiological pathways was estimated. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 25 317 female participants was 52.9 (9.9) years, and they were followed up for a mean (SD) of 19.8 (5.8) years. Higher baseline MED intake (score ≥6 vs ≤3) was associated with as much as a 30% lower type 2 diabetes risk (age-adjusted and energy-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62-0.79; when regression models were additionally adjusted with body mass index [BMI]: hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Biomarkers of insulin resistance made the largest contribution to lower risk (accounting for 65.5% of the MED-type 2 diabetes association), followed by BMI (55.5%), high-density lipoprotein measures (53.0%), and inflammation (52.5%), with lesser contributions from branched-chain amino acids (34.5%), very low-density lipoprotein measures (32.0%), low-density lipoprotein measures (31.0%), blood pressure (29.0%), and apolipoproteins (23.5%), and minimal contribution (≤2%) from hemoglobin A1c. In post hoc subgroup analyses, the inverse association of MED diet with type 2 diabetes was seen only among women who had BMI of at least 25 at baseline but not those who had BMI of less than 25 (eg, women with BMI <25, age- and energy-adjusted HR for MED score ≥6 vs ≤3, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.77-1.33; P for trend = .92; women with BMI ≥25: HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.87; P for trend < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher MED intake scores were associated with a 30% relative risk reduction in type 2 diabetes during a 20-year period, which could be explained in large part by biomarkers of insulin resistance, BMI, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.

3.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119047

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies suggest that higher intake or blood levels of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids may be associated with lower risks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, evidence from randomized trials is limited. Objective: To evaluate whether daily supplementation with vitamin D3, marine ω-3 fatty acids, or both prevents the development or progression of AMD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), a nationwide, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design randomized clinical trial of supplementation with vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Participants included 25 871 men and women in the US. Randomization was from November 2011 to March 2014, and study pill-taking ended as planned on December 31, 2017. Interventions: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 2000 IU per day, and marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was total AMD events, a composite of incident cases of AMD plus cases of progression to advanced AMD among participants with AMD at baseline, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Analyses were conducted using the intention-to-treat population. Results: In total, 25 871 participants with a mean (SD) age of 67.1 (7.0) years were included in the trial. Of them, 50.6% were women, 71.3% were self-declared non-Hispanic White participants, and 20.2% were Black participants. During a median (range) of 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years of treatment and follow-up, 324 participants experienced an AMD event (285 incident AMD and 39 progression to advanced AMD). For vitamin D3, there were 163 events in the treated group and 161 in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.27). For ω-3 fatty acids, there were 157 events in the treated group and 167 in the placebo group (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.76-1.17). In analyses of individual components for the primary end point, HRs comparing vitamin D3 groups were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.86-1.37) for incident AMD and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.33-1.21) for AMD progression. For ω-3 fatty acids, HRs were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.73-1.17) for incident AMD and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.56-1.97) for AMD progression. Conclusion and Relevance: Neither vitamin D3 nor marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation had a significant overall effect on AMD incidence or progression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01782352.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk of migraine, however the extent of shared underlying biology and the direction of causal relationships between these traits is unclear. Delineating causality between sleep patterns and migraine may offer new pathophysiologic insights and inform subsequent intervention studies. Here, we used genetic approaches to test for shared genetic influences between sleep patterns and migraine, and to test whether habitual sleep patterns may be causal risk factors for migraine and vice versa. METHODS: To quantify genetic overlap, we performed genome-wide genetic correlation analyses using genome-wide association studies of nine sleep traits in the UK Biobank (n ≥ 237,627), and migraine from the International Headache Genetics Consortium (59,674 cases and 316,078 controls). We then tested for potential causal effects between sleep traits and migraine using bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: Seven sleep traits demonstrated genetic overlap with migraine, including insomnia symptoms (rg = 0.29, P < 10-31 ) and difficulty awakening (rg = 0.11, P < 10-4 ). Mendelian randomization analyses provided evidence for potential causal effects of difficulty awakening on risk of migraine (OR [95% CI] = 1.37 [1.12-1.68], P = 0.002), and nominal evidence that liability to insomnia symptoms increased the risk of migraine (1.09 [1.02-1.16], P = 0.02). In contrast, there was minimal evidence for an effect of migraine liability on sleep patterns or disturbances. INTERPRETATION: These data support a shared genetic basis between several sleep traits and migraine, and support potential causal effects of difficulty awakening and insomnia symptoms on migraine risk. Treatment of sleep disturbances may therefore be a promising clinical intervention in the management of migraine.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16534, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024201

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for > 13 cancer sites, although it is unknown whether there is a common mechanism across sites. Evidence suggests a role for impaired branched-chain amino acid (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) metabolism in obesity, insulin resistance, and immunity; thus, we hypothesized circulating BCAAs may be associated with incident obesity-related cancers. We analyzed participants in the prospective Women's Health Study without a history of cancer at baseline blood collection (N = 26,711, mean age = 54.6 years [SD = 7.1]). BCAAs were quantified via NMR spectroscopy, log-transformed, and standardized. We used Cox proportional regression models adjusted for age, race, smoking, diet, alcohol, physical activity, menopausal hormone use, Body Mass Index (BMI), diabetes, and other risk factors. The endpoint was a composite of obesity-related cancers, defined per the International Agency for Research on Cancer 2016 report, over a median 24 years follow-up. Baseline BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 compared with BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m2 was associated with 23% greater risk of obesity-related cancers (n = 2751 events; multivariable HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.37). However, BCAAs were not associated with obesity-related cancers (multivariable HR per SD = 1.01 [0.97-1.05]). Results for individual BCAA metabolites suggested a modest association for leucine with obesity-related cancers (1.04 [1.00-1.08]), and no association for isoleucine or valine (0.99 [0.95-1.03] and 1.00 [0.96-1.04], respectively). Exploratory analyses of BCAAs with individual sites included positive associations between leucine and postmenopausal breast cancer, and isoleucine with pancreatic cancer. Total circulating BCAAs were unrelated to obesity-related cancer incidence although an association was observed for leucine with incident obesity-related cancer.

6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.

7.
Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959083

RESUMO

Evidence from observational studies indicates that endometriosis and depression often co-occur. However, conflicting evidence exists, and the etiology as well as biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Utilizing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, we comprehensively assessed the relationship between endometriosis and depression. Single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis (SECA) found a significant genetic overlap between endometriosis and depression (PFsig-permuted = 9.99 × 10-4). Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis estimated a positive and highly significant genetic correlation between the two traits (rG = 0.27, P = 8.85 × 10-27). A meta-analysis of endometriosis and depression GWAS (sample size = 709,111), identified 20 independent genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8), of which eight are novel. Mendelian randomization analysis (MR) suggests a causal effect of depression on endometriosis. Combining gene-based association results across endometriosis and depression GWAS, we identified 22 genes with a genome-wide significant Fisher's combined P value (FCPgene < 2.75 × 10-6). Genes with a nominal gene-based association (Pgene < 0.05) were significantly enriched across endometriosis and depression (Pbinomial-test = 2.90 × 10-4). Also, genes overlapping the two traits at Pgene < 0.1 (Pbinomial-test = 1.31 × 10-5) were significantly enriched for the biological pathways 'cell-cell adhesion', 'inositol phosphate metabolism', 'Hippo-Merlin signaling dysregulation' and 'gastric mucosa abnormality'. These results reveal a shared genetic etiology for endometriosis and depression. Indeed, additional analyses found evidence of a causal association between each of endometriosis and depression and at least one abnormal condition of gastric mucosa. Our study confirms the comorbidity of endometriosis and depression, implicates links with gastric mucosa abnormalities in their causal pathways and reveals potential therapeutic targets for further investigation.

8.
Genet Med ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873934

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), characterized by painful cutaneous photosensitivity, results from pathogenic variants in ferrochelatase (FECH). For 96% of patients, EPP results from coinheriting a rare pathogenic variant in trans of a common hypomorphic variant c.315-48T>C (minor allele frequency 0.05). The estimated prevalence of EPP derived from the number of diagnosed individuals in Europe is 0.00092%, but this may be conservative due to underdiagnosis. No study has estimated EPP prevalence using large genetic data sets. METHODS: Disease-associated FECH variants were identified in the UK Biobank, a data set of 500,953 individuals including 49,960 exome sequences. EPP prevalence was then estimated. The association of FECH variants with EPP-related traits was assessed. RESULTS: Analysis of pathogenic FECH variants in the UK Biobank provides evidence that EPP prevalence is 0.0059% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0042-0.0076%), 1.7-3.0 times more common than previously thought in the UK. In homozygotes for the common c.315-48T>C FECH variant, there was a novel decrement in both erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of EPP has been underestimated secondary to underdiagnosis. The common c.315-48T>C allele is associated with both MCV and hemoglobin, an association that could be important both for those with and without EPP.

9.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2806-2818, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917775

RESUMO

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare LEP mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in LEP, ZNF800, KLHL31, and ACTL9, and one intergenic variant near KLF14. The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in LEP was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry (P = 2 × 10-16, n = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3368, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632093

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) was inconsistently associated with migraine and the mechanisms of BP-lowering medications in migraine prophylaxis are unknown. Leveraging large-scale summary statistics for migraine (Ncases/Ncontrols = 59,674/316,078) and BP (N = 757,601), we find positive genetic correlations of migraine with diastolic BP (DBP, rg = 0.11, P = 3.56 × 10-06) and systolic BP (SBP, rg = 0.06, P = 0.01), but not pulse pressure (PP, rg = -0.01, P = 0.75). Cross-trait meta-analysis reveals 14 shared loci (P ≤ 5 × 10-08), nine of which replicate (P < 0.05) in the UK Biobank. Five shared loci (ITGB5, SMG6, ADRA2B, ANKDD1B, and KIAA0040) are reinforced in gene-level analysis and highlight potential mechanisms involving vascular development, endothelial function and calcium homeostasis. Mendelian randomization reveals stronger instrumental estimates of DBP (OR [95% CI] = 1.20 [1.15-1.25]/10 mmHg; P = 5.57 × 10-25) on migraine than SBP (1.05 [1.03-1.07]/10 mmHg; P = 2.60 × 10-07) and a corresponding opposite effect for PP (0.92 [0.88-0.95]/10 mmHg; P = 3.65 × 10-07). These findings support a critical role of DBP in migraine susceptibility and shared biology underlying BP and migraine.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/genética , Fatores de Risco , Telomerase/genética
11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002772, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake influences plasma lipid levels, and such effects may be moderated by genetic variants. We aimed to characterize the role of aggregated rare and low-frequency protein-coding variants in gene by alcohol consumption interactions associated with fasting plasma lipid levels. METHODS: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, fasting plasma triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 34 153 individuals with European ancestry from 5 discovery studies and 32 277 individuals from 6 replication studies. Rare and low-frequency functional protein-coding variants (minor allele frequency, ≤5%) measured by an exome array were aggregated by genes and evaluated by a gene-environment interaction test and a joint test of genetic main and gene-environment interaction effects. Two dichotomous self-reported alcohol consumption variables, current drinker, defined as any recurrent drinking behavior, and regular drinker, defined as the subset of current drinkers who consume at least 2 drinks per week, were considered. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 21 gene-lipid associations at 13 known lipid loci through the joint test. Eight loci (PCSK9, LPA, LPL, LIPG, ANGPTL4, APOB, APOC3, and CD300LG) remained significant after conditioning on the common index single-nucleotide polymorphism identified by previous genome-wide association studies, suggesting an independent role for rare and low-frequency variants at these loci. One significant gene-alcohol interaction on triglycerides in a novel locus was significantly discovered (P=6.65×10-6 for the interaction test) and replicated at nominal significance level (P=0.013) in SMC5. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study applied new gene-based statistical approaches and suggested that rare and low-frequency genetic variants interacted with alcohol consumption on lipid levels.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372009

RESUMO

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.

13.
Cephalalgia ; 40(9): 998-1002, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential causality between genetic liability to migraine and Alzheimer's disease, intelligence, and brain volume using two-sample Mendelian randomization. METHODS: The exposure consisted of independent genetic variants associated with migraine in the largest (59,674 cases/316,078 controls) published genome-wide association study. Outcomes included Alzheimer's disease (71,880 cases/383,378 controls), a measure of general intelligence (n = 269,867), intracranial volume (n = 11,373), and seven subcortical brain volumes (n ∼ 13,000), all with available genome-wide association study summary statistics. Mendelian randomization effects were estimated using inverse-variance weighted analysis. RESULTS: Genetic liability to migraine did not associate with Alzheimer's disease (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.01 [1.00-1.02], p = 0.07), intelligence (standardized beta [95% confidence interval] 0.01 [0.00-0.02], p = 0.13), or any brain volume measures (all p > 0.05). No individual migraine variant associated with any of the outcomes at genome-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support a causal effect of migraine liability on Alzheimer's disease, intelligence, or brain volume.

14.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(6): 629-641, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227373

RESUMO

Although multiple lifestyle exposures simultaneously impact blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular health, most analysis so far has considered each single lifestyle exposure (e.g., smoking) at a time. Here, we exploit gene-multiple lifestyle exposure interactions to find novel BP loci. For each of 6,254 Framingham Heart Study participants, we computed lifestyle risk score (LRS) value by aggregating the risk of four lifestyle exposures (smoking, alcohol, education, and physical activity) on BP. Using the LRS, we performed genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis in systolic and diastolic BP using the joint 2 degree of freedom (DF) and 1 DF interaction tests. We identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) and 11 suggestive (p < 1 × 10-6 ) loci. Gene-environment analysis using single lifestyle exposures identified only one of the 12 loci. Nine of the 12 BP loci detected were novel. Loci detected by the LRS were located within or nearby genes with biologically plausible roles in the pathophysiology of hypertension, including KALRN, VIPR2, SNX1, and DAPK2. Our results suggest that simultaneous consideration of multiple lifestyle exposures in gene-environment interaction analysis can identify additional loci missed by single lifestyle approaches.

15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 1036-1047, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with inflammation but the role of vitamin D in this process is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], BMI, and 16 inflammatory biomarkers, and to assess the role of vitamin D as a potential mediator in the association between higher BMI and inflammation. METHODS: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) 31-y data on 3586 individuals were analyzed to examine the observational associations between BMI, 25(OH)D, and 16 inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariable regression analyses and 2-sample regression-based Mendelian randomization (MR) mediation analysis were performed to assess any role of vitamin D in mediating a causal effect of BMI on inflammatory biomarkers [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)] for which observational associations were detected. For MR, genome-wide association study summary results ranging from 5163 to 806,834 individuals were used for biomarkers, 25(OH)D, and BMI. Findings were triangulated with a literature review of vitamin D supplementation trials. RESULTS: In NFBC1966, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.8 (95% CI: 24.7, 25.0) and mean 25(OH)D was 50.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 49.8, 50.7 nmol/L). Inflammatory biomarkers correlated as 4 independent clusters: interleukins, adhesion molecules, acute-phase proteins, and chemokines. BMI was positively associated with 9 inflammatory biomarkers and inversely with 25(OH)D (false discovery rate < 0.05). 25(OH)D was inversely associated with sICAM-1, hs-CRP, and AGP, which were positively associated with BMI. The MR analyses showed causal association of BMI on these 3 inflammatory biomarkers. There was no observational or MR evidence that circulating 25(OH)D concentrations mediated the association between BMI and these 3 inflammatory markers. Review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supported our findings showing no impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our observational study and causal MR analyses, together with data from RCTs, do not support a beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation on obesity-related inflammation.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 646-658, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302534

RESUMO

Genetic risk for a disease in the population may be represented as a genetic risk score (GRS) constructed as the sum of inherited risk alleles, weighted by allelic effects established in an independent population. While this formulation captures overall genetic risk, it typically does not address risk due to specific biological mechanisms or pathways that may nevertheless be important for interpretation or treatment response. Here, a GRS for disease is resolved into independent or nearly independent components pertaining to biological mechanisms inferred from pleiotropic relationships. The component GRSs' weights are derived from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the matrix of appropriately scaled genetic effects, i.e., beta coefficients, of the disease variants across a panel of the disease-related phenotypes. The SVD-based formalism also associates combinations of disease-related phenotypes with inferred disease pathways. Applied to incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Women's Genome Health Study (N = 23,294), component GRSs discriminate glycemic control and lipid-based genetic risk, while revealing significant interactions between specific components and BMI or physical activity, the latter not observed with a GRS for overall T2D genetic liability. Applied to coronary artery disease (CAD) in both the WGHS and in JUPITER (N = 8,749), a randomized trial of rosuvastatin for primary prevention of CVD, component GRSs discriminate genetic risk associated with LDL-C from risk associated with reciprocal genetic effects on triglycerides and HDL-C. They also inform the pharmacogenetics of statin treatment by demonstrating that benefit from rosuvastatin is as strongly related to genetic risk from triglycerides and HDL-C as from LDL-C.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121467

RESUMO

Observational epidemiological studies indicate that endometriosis and migraine co-occur within individuals more than expected by chance. However, the aetiology and biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Here we examined the relationship between endometriosis and migraine using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis found a significant concordance of SNP risk effects across endometriosis and migraine GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis found a positive and highly significant genetic correlation (rG = 0.38, P = 2.30 × 10-25) between endometriosis and migraine. A meta-analysis of endometriosis and migraine GWAS data did not reveal novel genome-wide significant SNPs, and Mendelian randomisation analysis found no evidence for a causal relationship between the two traits. However, gene-based analyses identified two novel loci for migraine. Also, we found significant enrichment of genes nominally associated (Pgene < 0.05) with both traits (Pbinomial-test = 9.83 × 10-6). Combining gene-based p-values across endometriosis and migraine, three genes, two (TRIM32 and SLC35G6) of which are at novel loci, were genome-wide significant. Genes having Pgene < 0.1 for both endometriosis and migraine (Pbinomial-test = 1.85 ×10-°3) were significantly enriched for biological pathways, including interleukin-1 receptor binding, focal adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling, MAPK and TNF-α signalling. Our findings further confirm the comorbidity of endometriosis and migraine and indicate a non-causal relationship between the two traits, with shared genetically-controlled biological mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of the two disorders.

18.
Cephalalgia ; 40(6): 625-634, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been indicated in migraine pathogenesis, but genetic studies to date have focused on candidate variants, with sparse findings. We aimed to perform the first mitochondrial genome-wide association study of migraine, examining both single variants and mitochondrial haplogroups. METHODS: In total, 71,860 participants from the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study were genotyped. We excluded samples not passing quality control for nuclear genotypes, in addition to samples with low call rate and closely maternally related. We analysed 775 mitochondrial DNA variants in 4021 migraine cases and 14,288 headache-free controls, using logistic regression. In addition, we analysed 3831 cases and 13,584 controls who could be reliably assigned to a mitochondrial haplogroup. Lastly, we attempted to replicate previously reported mitochondrial DNA candidate variants. RESULTS: Neither of the mitochondrial variants or haplogroups were associated with migraine. In addition, none of the previously reported mtDNA candidate variants replicated in our data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a major role of mitochondrial genetic variation in migraine pathophysiology, but a larger sample is needed to detect rare variants and future studies should also examine heteroplasmic variation, epigenetic changes and copy-number variation.

19.
Thyroid ; 30(3): 365-379, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910748

RESUMO

Background: Uncertainty in the mechanism and directionality of observational associations between thyroid function and kidney function may be addressed by genetic analysis with an instrumental variable method termed bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods: In the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), observational associations between thyroid measures and kidney function were evaluated. Genetic instruments for MR were from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of hypothyroidism, thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations within the reference range, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), estimated glomerular filtration rate from creatinine (eGFRcrea), eGFR from cystatin C (eGFRcys), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In WGHS individual-level data, these instruments were used for bidirectional MR between thyroid (N = 3336) and kidney (N = 23,186) functions. To increase power, MR was also performed using GWAS summary statistics from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics Consortium (CKDGen) for eGFRcrea (N = 567,460), eGFRcys (N = 24,063), CKD [N(total) = 480,698, N(cases) = 41,395], and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR/N = 54,450). Results: In the WGHS, hypothyroidism was observationally associated with decreased eGFRcrea [beta (standard error, SE): -0.024 (0.009) ln(mL/min/1.73 m2), p = 0.01]. By MR, hypothyroidism was associated with decreased eGFRcrea in the WGHS [beta (SE): -0.007 (0.002) per doubled odds hypothyroidism, p = 1.7 × 10-3] and in CKDGen [beta (SE): -0.004 (0.0005), p = 2.0 × 10-22], and robust to sensitivity analysis. Hypothyroidism was also associated by MR with increased CKD in CKDGen (odds ratio, OR [confidence interval, CI]: 1.05 [1.03-1.08], p = 3.3 × 10-5), but not in the WGHS (OR [CI]: 1.02 [0.95-1.10], p = 0.57). Increased TSH within the reference range had an MR association with increased eGFRcrea in the WGHS [beta (SE): -0.018 (0.007) ln(mL/min/1.73 m2)/standard deviation, SD, p = 6.5 × 10-3] and CKDGen [beta (SE): -0.008 (0.001) ln(mL/min/1.73 m2)/SD, p = 6.8 × 10-17], and with CKD in CKDGen (OR [CI]: 1.10 [1.04-1.15], p = 3.1 × 10-4). There were no MR associations of hypothyroidism or TSH with eGFRcys or UACR, and MR associations of fT4 in the reference range with kidney function were inconsistent in both the WGHS and CKDGen. However, by MR in CKDGen, TPOAb were robustly associated with decreased eGFRcrea [beta (SE): -0.041 (0.009), p = 6.2 × 10-6] and decreased eGFRcys [beta (SE): -0.294 (0.065), p = 6.2 × 10-6]. TPOAb were less robustly associated with CKD but not associated with UACR. In reverse MR in the WGHS, kidney function was not consistently associated with thyroid function. Conclusions: Bidirectional MR supports a directional association from hypothyroidism, increased TSH, and TPOAb, but not fT4, to decreased eGFRcrea and increased CKD.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 163, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919418

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Risco
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