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Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1625-1628, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508914


The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure (SSBP) is defined as a rise or fall in blood pressure induced by a change in sodium intake. There is an interindividual variation and no strong diagnostic criteria exist to date. The SSBP may lead to underestimation of the beneficial effect of sodium restriction in some patients in meta-analyzes. High sodium intake in salt sensitive patients results in an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and target organ damage. The etiology seems to be a failure of one or more natriuretic mechanisms. Some environmental, genetic and epidemiological factors increase its susceptibility. Per se, SSBP cannot be treated, but its identification may help in preventing hypertension and adapt the treatment in some populations.

Variação Biológica Individual , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
Rev Med Suisse ; 14(623): 1829-1833, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329227


Pneumocystis jirovecii (formely carinii) pneumonia (PcP) affects immunosuppressed patients. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has proven to be effective and its indications in HIV patients are well established. In non-HIV patients, the prognosis is poorer and diagnostic tests are of lower sensitivity. Recommendations for prophylaxis in hematology, oncology and solid organ transplantation are based on expert consensus. In rheumatology, the incidence of PcP is mainly related to the administration of corticosteroids. For some inflammatory diseases, a low CD4 cell count, and the administration of anti-TNFα, rituximab or cyclophosphamide may increase the risk. There are currently no well-defined concise guidelines concerning prophylaxis for immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Infecções por HIV , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco