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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term safety and tolerability of anifrolumab, a human monoclonal antibody to the type I interferon (IFN) receptor subunit 1, in patients with moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: This 3-year, multinational, open-label extension (OLE) enrolled adult patients who completed treatment (48 weeks anifrolumab or placebo; 12-week follow-up) in the MUSE phase 2b randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients initially received intravenous anifrolumab 1000 mg every 4 weeks, reduced to 300 mg every 4 weeks based on the benefit/risk profile established in MUSE. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed monthly. Exploratory endpoints included SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC Damage Index (SDI), pharmacodynamics, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). RESULTS: Of 246 patients who completed the RCT, 218 (88.6%) enrolled in the OLE; 139/218 (63.8%) completed 3 years of treatment. Approximately 69.7% of patients reported ≥1 AE during the first year of OLE treatment. Frequency and patterns of serious AEs and AEs of special interest over 3 years were consistent with those reported for 1 year of treatment in the RCT. Few patients (6.9%) discontinued treatment because of AEs. No new safety signals were identified. Improvement in SLEDAI-2K was sustained over 3 years. SDI and Short Form 36 Health Survey scores remained stable. Neutralization of type I IFN gene signatures was maintained in the IFN-high population, and C3, C4, and anti-dsDNA showed numeric trends toward sustained improvement. CONCLUSION: Long-term anifrolumab treatment demonstrated an acceptable safety profile with sustained improvement in disease activity, HRQoL, and serologies.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, mechanism of action, and preliminary efficacy of rituximab followed by belimumab in the treatment of refractory lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial, 43 patients with recurrent or refractory LN were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide (CYC), and glucocorticoids followed by weekly belimumab infusions until week 48 (RCB group) or with rituximab and CYC but no belimumab infusions (RC group). Patients were followed up until week 96. Percentages of total and autoreactive B cell subsets in the patients' peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment with belimumab did not increase the incidence of adverse events in patients with refractory LN. At week 48, a complete or partial renal response occurred in 11 (52%) of 21 patients receiving belimumab, compared to 9 (41%) of 22 patients in the RC group who did not receive belimumab (P = 0.452). Lack of improvement in or worsening of LN was the major reason for treatment failure. B cell depletion occurred in both groups, but the percentage of B cells remained lower in those receiving belimumab (geometric mean number of B cells at week 60, 53 cells/µl in the RCB group versus 11 cells/µl in the RC group; P = 0.0012). Percentages of total and autoreactive transitional B cells increased from baseline to week 48 in both groups. However, percentages of total and autoreactive naive B cells decreased from baseline to week 48 in the belimumab group compared to the no belimumab RC group (P = 0.0349), a finding that is consistent with impaired maturation of naive B cells and enhanced censoring of autoreactive B cells. CONCLUSION: The addition of belimumab to a treatment regimen with rituximab and CYC was safe in patients with refractory LN. This regimen diminished maturation of transitional to naive B cells during B cell reconstitution, and enhanced the negative selection of autoreactive B cells. Clinical efficacy was not improved with rituximab and CYC in combination with belimumab when compared to a therapeutic strategy of B cell depletion alone in patients with LN.

3.
Lupus ; 29(9): 1095-1105, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Type-I interferons contribute to pathogenesis in systemic lupus erythematosus, including nephritis. Interferons consist of a family of 16 proteins yet are often characterized in patients without knowledge of the specific interferon subtypes involved. Different interferons may function in the kidneys, and other organs, relative to what is often measured in patient blood. Moreover, antibodies to interferons may potentially modulate systemic or organ-specific interferon activity. The aim of this study was to characterize global interferon activity levels and identify autoantibodies to the 12 interferon α subtypes in patient serum and urine. METHODS: Interferon activity levels in serum and urine were measured using an interferon bioassay. Anti-interferon and anti-cytokine autoantibodies were measured by ELISA. Serum and urine samples were also characterized for their ability to neutralize the biological activity of exogenously added interferons. RESULTS: Serum interferon activity was increased in 62% of systemic lupus erythematosus patient samples, relative to healthy donor controls, whereas binding interferon α autoantibodies to at least one interferon α subtype were found in 68% of the samples evaluated. High Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index scores were significantly (p = 0.001) associated with patient samples containing interferon α autoantibodies to three or more interferon α subtypes in their serum. Interferon α autoantibodies that potently block interferon activity were rare (∼5% of samples), but collectively bound to all 12 interferon α subtypes. Urine interferon activity and interferon α autoantibody profiles did not correlate with their serum counterparts, suggesting immune responses in systemic lupus erythematosus kidneys can be distinct from those measured in serum. Analysis of autoantibodies to 15 additional cytokines in serum identified higher frequencies of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 17A autoantibodies, suggesting these signaling pathways may potentially contribute, with interferons, to systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of autoantibodies to multiple interferon subtypes in serum and urine may provide an alternative method for following interferon-mediated systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity. The results suggest autoantibodies might be used for patient monitoring and/or identifying additional cytokine signaling pathways that are functioning in different systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

4.
J Rheumatol ; 47(11): 1723, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513790
5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1734-1740, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, atherosclerotic vascular events (AVEs) were shown to occur in ~10% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We undertook this study to investigate the annual occurrence and potential risk factors for AVEs in a multinational, multiethnic inception cohort of patients with SLE. METHODS: A large 33-center cohort of SLE patients was followed up yearly between 1999 and 2017. AVEs were attributed to atherosclerosis based on SLE being inactive at the time of the AVE as well as typical atherosclerotic changes observed on imaging or pathology reports and/or evidence of atherosclerosis elsewhere. Analyses included descriptive statistics, rate of AVEs per 1,000 patient-years, and univariable and multivariable relative risk regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1,848 patients enrolled in the cohort, 1,710 had ≥1 follow-up visit after enrollment, for a total of 13,666 patient-years. Of these 1,710 patients, 3.6% had ≥1 AVEs attributed to atherosclerosis, for an event rate of 4.6 per 1,000 patient-years. In multivariable analyses, lower AVE rates were associated with antimalarial treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.32-0.91]), while higher AVE rates were associated with any prior vascular event (HR 4.00 [95% CI 1.55-10.30]) and a body mass index of >40 kg/m2 (HR 2.74 [95% CI 1.04-7.18]). A prior AVE increased the risk of subsequent AVEs (HR 5.42 [95% CI 3.17-9.27], P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AVEs and the rate of AVE accrual demonstrated in the present study is much lower than that seen in previously published data. This may be related to better control of both the disease activity and classic risk factors.

6.
J Rheumatol ; 47(10): 1590-1591, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451354
7.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335514

RESUMO

We appreciate our Italian colleagues' interest in our editorial denoting the rheumatologist's role in helping to diagnose and treat cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) in the setting of the Covid-19 panemic (1). It is encouraging that none of the 123 pediatric rheumatology patients (primarily juvenile idiopathic arthritis) on background biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapies in Milan, Italy surveyed over a 7-week period from February 25 through April 14, 2020 (during which time Covid-19 was hyper-endemic there) had either confirmed or suspected Covid-19 (2).

9.
J Autoimmun ; 106: 102340, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(5): e1002800, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decision-making regarding immunosuppressive therapy is challenging for individuals with lupus. We assessed the effectiveness of a decision aid for immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a United States multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT), adult women with lupus nephritis, mostly from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds with low socioeconomic status (SES), seen in in- or outpatient settings, were randomized to an individualized, culturally tailored, computerized decision aid versus American College of Rheumatology (ACR) lupus pamphlet (1:1 ratio), using computer-generated randomization. We hypothesized that the co-primary outcomes of decisional conflict and informed choice regarding immunosuppressive medications would improve more in the decision aid group. Of 301 randomized women, 298 were analyzed; 47% were African-American, 26% Hispanic, and 15% white. Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 37 (12) years, 57% had annual income of <$40,000, and 36% had a high school education or less. Compared with the provision of the ACR lupus pamphlet (n = 147), participants randomized to the decision aid (n = 151) had (1) a clinically meaningful and statistically significant reduction in decisional conflict, 21.8 (standard error [SE], 2.5) versus 12.7 (SE, 2.0; p = 0.005) and (2) no difference in informed choice in the main analysis, 41% versus 31% (p = 0.08), but clinically meaningful and statistically significant difference in sensitivity analysis (net values for immunosuppressives positive [in favor] versus negative [against]), 50% versus 35% (p = 0.006). Unresolved decisional conflict was lower in the decision aid versus pamphlet groups, 22% versus 44% (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the decision aid versus pamphlet group rated information to be excellent for understanding lupus nephritis (49% versus 33%), risk factors (43% versus 27%), medication options (50% versus 33%; p ≤ 0.003 for all); and the ease of use of materials was higher in the decision aid versus pamphlet groups (51% versus 38%; p = 0.006). Key study limitations were the exclusion of men, short follow-up, and the lack of clinical outcomes, including medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: An individualized decision aid was more effective than usual care in reducing decisional conflict for choice of immunosuppressive medications in women with lupus nephritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02319525.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Participação do Paciente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Nefrite Lúpica/etnologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folhetos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Elife ; 82019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090539

RESUMO

Although B cells expressing the IFNγR or the IFNγ-inducible transcription factor T-bet promote autoimmunity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)-prone mouse models, the role for IFNγ signaling in human antibody responses is unknown. We show that elevated levels of IFNγ in SLE patients correlate with expansion of the T-bet expressing IgDnegCD27negCD11c+CXCR5neg (DN2) pre-antibody secreting cell (pre-ASC) subset. We demonstrate that naïve B cells form T-bethi pre-ASCs following stimulation with either Th1 cells or with IFNγ, IL-2, anti-Ig and TLR7/8 ligand and that IL-21 dependent ASC formation is significantly enhanced by IFNγ or IFNγ-producing T cells. IFNγ promotes ASC development by synergizing with IL-2 and TLR7/8 ligands to induce genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming of B cells, which results in increased chromatin accessibility surrounding IRF4 and BLIMP1 binding motifs and epigenetic remodeling of IL21R and PRDM1 loci. Finally, we show that IFNγ signals poise B cells to differentiate by increasing their responsiveness to IL-21.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Epigênese Genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/química , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/análise
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1125-1134, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) belimumab plus standard of care (SOC) therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in patients with active, autoantibody-positive SLE. METHODS: The study was designed as a multicenter, open-label, continuation study of IV belimumab given every 4 weeks in conjunction with SOC therapy in patients with SLE who completed a phase II, double-blind study. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory data were monitored from the first belimumab dose (in either study) until 24 weeks after the final dose. Efficacy assessments included SLE Responder Index (SRI) and flare index scores (each assessed at 16-week intervals) and glucocorticoid use (assessed at 4-week intervals). RESULTS: Of the 476 patients in the parent study, 298 (62.6%) entered the continuation study, of whom 96 (32.2%) remained in the study. Patients received belimumab for up to 13 years (median duration of exposure 3,334.0 days [range 260-4,332 days], total belimumab exposure 2,294 patient-years, median number of infusions 115.5 [range 7-155]). The percentage of patients with AEs each year remained stable or decreased. Normal serum IgG levels were maintained in the majority of patients over the study, and the rate of infections remained stable. The percentage of patients who achieved an SRI response increased from 32.8% (year 1) to 75.6% of those remaining on treatment at year 12. The glucocorticoid dose was decreased in patients who had been receiving >7.5 mg/day at baseline. CONCLUSION: This study is the longest to date to assess belimumab treatment in patients with SLE in clinical trials. Belimumab was well tolerated with no new safety concerns, and efficacy was maintained in patients who continued the study. For patients who initially exhibited a satisfactory response to belimumab, the treatment continues to be well tolerated and provides long-term disease control.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Osteopontina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ásia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , América do Norte , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Immunol ; 201(8): 2203-2208, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201809

RESUMO

In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type I IFNs promote induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) and can drive B cells to produce autoantibodies. Little is known about the expression of distinct type I IFNs in lupus, particularly high-affinity IFN-ß. Single-cell analyses of transitional B cells isolated from SLE patients revealed distinct B cell subpopulations, including type I IFN producers, IFN responders, and mixed IFN producer/responder clusters. Anti-Ig plus TLR3 stimulation of SLE B cells induced release of bioactive type I IFNs that could stimulate HEK-Blue cells. Increased levels of IFN-ß were detected in circulating B cells from SLE patients compared with controls and were significantly higher in African American patients with renal disease and in patients with autoantibodies. Together, the results identify type I IFN-producing and -responding subpopulations within the SLE B cell compartment and suggest that some patients may benefit from specific targeting of IFN-ß.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Circulação Sanguínea , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Espaço Intracelular , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Immunol ; 196(6): 2492-503, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880764

RESUMO

Frequently fatal, primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) occurs in infancy resulting from homozygous mutations in NK and CD8 T cell cytolytic pathway genes. Secondary HLH presents after infancy and may be associated with heterozygous mutations in HLH genes. We report two unrelated teenagers with HLH and an identical heterozygous RAB27A mutation (c.259G→C). We explore the contribution of this Rab27A missense (p.A87P) mutation on NK cell cytolytic function by cloning it into a lentiviral expression vector prior to introduction into the human NK-92 cell line. NK cell degranulation (CD107a expression), target cell conjugation, and K562 target cell lysis was compared between mutant- and wild-type-transduced NK-92 cells. Polarization of granzyme B to the immunologic synapse and interaction of mutant Rab27A (p.A87P) with Munc13-4 were explored by confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay, respectively. Overexpression of the RAB27A mutation had no effect on cell conjugate formation between the NK and target cells but decreased NK cell cytolytic activity and degranulation. Moreover, the mutant Rab27A protein decreased binding to Munc13-4 and delayed granzyme B polarization toward the immunologic synapse. This heterozygous RAB27A mutation blurs the genetic distinction between primary and secondary HLH by contributing to HLH via a partial dominant-negative effect.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/metabolismo , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução Genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Proteínas rab27 de Ligação ao GTP
17.
Crit Care Med ; 44(2): 275-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of anakinra (recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) in improving 28-day survival in sepsis patients with features of macrophage activation syndrome. Despite equivocal results in sepsis trials, anakinra is effective in treating macrophage activation syndrome, a similar entity with fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, cytopenias, and hyperferritinemia. Hence, sepsis patients with macrophage activation syndrome features may benefit from interleukin-1 receptor blockade. DESIGN: Reanalysis of deidentified data from the phase III randomized interleukin-1 receptor antagonist trial in severe sepsis. SETTING: Multicenter study recruiting through 91 centers from 11 countries in Europe and North America. PATIENTS: Sepsis patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and/or shock (original study) were regrouped based on the presence or the absence of concurrent hepatobiliary dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation as features of macrophage activation syndrome. The non-hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation group included patients with only hepatobiliary dysfunction, only disseminated intravascular coagulation, or neither. INTERVENTION: Treatment with anakinra or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Data were available for 763 adults from the original study cohort, randomized to receive either anakinra or placebo. Concurrent hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation was noted in 43 patients (5.6% of total; 18-75 years old; 47% women). The 28-day survival was similar in both anakinra and placebo-treated non-hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation patients (71.4% vs 70.8%; p = 0.88). Treatment with anakinra was associated with significant improvement in the 28-day survival rate in hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation patients (65.4% anakinra vs 35.3% placebo), with hazard ratio for death 0.28 (0.11-0.71; p = 0.0071) for the treatment group in Cox regression. CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis, interleukin-1 receptor blockade was associated with significant improvement in survival of patients with sepsis and concurrent hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation. A prospective randomized trial using features of macrophage activation syndrome for mortality risk stratification should be undertaken to confirm the role of interleukin-1 blockage.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/epidemiologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/epidemiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/epidemiologia , APACHE , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 29(2): 226-43, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362741

RESUMO

Vasculitis due to infection may occur as a consequence of the inflammation of vessel walls due to direct or contiguous infection, type II or immune complex-mediated reaction, cell-mediated hypersensitivity, or inflammation due to immune dysregulation triggered by bacterial toxin and/or superantigen production. As immunosuppressive therapy administered in the absence of antimicrobial therapy may increase morbidity and fail to effect the resolution of infection-associated vascular inflammation, it is important to consider infectious entities as potential inciting factors in vasculitis syndromes. The causality between infection and vasculitis has been established in hepatitis B-associated polyarteritis nodosa (HBV-PAN) and hepatitis C-associated (cryoglobulinemic) vasculitis (HCV-CV). The review summarizes the recent literature on the pathophysiological mechanisms and the approaches to the management of HBV-PAN and HCV-CV. Roles of other viral and microbial infections, which either manifest as vasculitic syndromes or are implicated in the pathogenesis of primary vasculitides, are also discussed.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Poliarterite Nodosa/virologia , Vasculite/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Crioglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Crioglobulinemia/terapia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/terapia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/terapia , Humanos , Poliarterite Nodosa/diagnóstico , Poliarterite Nodosa/terapia , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Vasculite/microbiologia , Vasculite/terapia
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 67(7): 1848-57, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25777546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D modulates the immune response and blocks induction of an interferon (IFN) signature by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the IFN signature in patients with SLE. METHODS: SLE patients (n = 57) with stable, inactive disease, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level ≤20 ng/ml, an elevated anti-double-stranded DNA antibody level, and an IFN signature (as determined by measuring the expression levels of 3 IFN response genes) were randomized into a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 at doses of 2,000 IU or 4,000 IU. An IFN signature response was defined as a 50% reduction in the expression of 1 of the 3 genes or a 25% reduction in the expression of 2 of the 3 genes. Disease activity, adverse events, and endocrine effects were assessed. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the patients in the 3 treatment groups (placebo, low-dose vitamin D3 , or high-dose vitamin D3 ) were similar. Repletion of 25(OH)D (i.e., levels ≥30 ng/ml) was not observed in any of the patients who were receiving placebo, while repletion was observed in 16 of 33 patients receiving vitamin D3 . The percentage of patients with an IFN signature response did not differ among the treatment groups. Moreover, there was no difference in the percentage of patients with an IFN signature response between those who remained vitamin D deficient and those who demonstrated repletion of vitamin D. Modular microarray analysis of a subset of patients (n = 40) did not reveal changes from baseline in any modules (including the IFN-inducible module) in any of the treatment groups, and no differences in expression were found between patients who demonstrated vitamin D repletion and patients who were persistently vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D3 was well tolerated, and there were no safety concerns. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D3 supplementation up to 4,000 IU daily was safe and well-tolerated but failed to diminish the IFN signature in vitamin D-deficient SLE patients. Higher 25(OH)D levels sustained for a longer duration may be required to affect immunologic outcomes.


Assuntos
Antígenos/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/sangue , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Antígenos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , DNA/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
20.
Lupus Sci Med ; 1(1): e000056, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25396070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance characteristics of cell-bound complement (C4d) activation products (CBCAPS) on erythrocyte (EC4d) and B cells (BC4d) with antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and complement C3 and C4 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: The study enrolled 794 subjects consisting of 304 SLE and a control group consisting of 285 patients with other rheumatic diseases and 205 normal individuals. Anti-dsDNA and other autoantibodies were measured using solid-phase immunoassays while EC4d and BC4d were determined using flow cytometry. Complement proteins were determined using immunoturbidimetry. Disease activity in SLE was determined using a non-serological Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index SELENA Modification. A two-tiered methodology combining CBCAPS with autoantibodies to cellular and citrullinated antigens was also developed. Statistical analyses used area under receiver operating characteristic curves and calculations of area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: AUC for EC4d (0.82±0.02) and BC4d (0.84±0.02) was higher than those yielded by C3 (0.73±0.02) and C4 (0.72±0.02) (p<0.01). AUC for CBCAPS was also higher than the AUC yielded by anti-dsDNA (0.79±0.02), but significance was only achieved for BC4d (p<0.01). The combination of EC4d and BC4d in multivariate testing methodology with anti-dsDNA and autoantibodies to cellular and citrullinated antigens yielded 80% sensitivity for SLE and specificity ranging from 70% (Sjogren's syndrome) to 92% (rheumatoid arthritis) (98% vs. normal). A higher proportion of patients with SLE with higher levels of disease activity tested positive for elevated CBCAPS, reduced complement and anti-dsDNA (p<0.03). CONCLUSIONS: CBCAPS have higher sensitivity than standard complement and anti-dsDNA measurements, and may help with the differential diagnosis of SLE in combination with other autoantibodies.

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