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1.
J Autoimmun ; : 102340, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

2.
Elife ; 82019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090539

RESUMO

Although B cells expressing the IFNγR or the IFNγ-inducible transcription factor T-bet promote autoimmunity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)-prone mouse models, the role for IFNγ signaling in human antibody responses is unknown. We show that elevated levels of IFNγ in SLE patients correlate with expansion of the T-bet expressing IgDnegCD27negCD11c+CXCR5neg (DN2) pre-antibody secreting cell (pre-ASC) subset. We demonstrate that naïve B cells form T-bethi pre-ASCs following stimulation with either Th1 cells or with IFNγ, IL-2, anti-Ig and TLR7/8 ligand and that IL-21 dependent ASC formation is significantly enhanced by IFNγ or IFNγ-producing T cells. IFNγ promotes ASC development by synergizing with IL-2 and TLR7/8 ligands to induce genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming of B cells, which results in increased chromatin accessibility surrounding IRF4 and BLIMP1 binding motifs and epigenetic remodeling of IL21R and PRDM1 loci. Finally, we show that IFNγ signals poise B cells to differentiate by increasing their responsiveness to IL-21.

3.
PLoS Med ; 16(5): e1002800, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decision-making regarding immunosuppressive therapy is challenging for individuals with lupus. We assessed the effectiveness of a decision aid for immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a United States multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT), adult women with lupus nephritis, mostly from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds with low socioeconomic status (SES), seen in in- or outpatient settings, were randomized to an individualized, culturally tailored, computerized decision aid versus American College of Rheumatology (ACR) lupus pamphlet (1:1 ratio), using computer-generated randomization. We hypothesized that the co-primary outcomes of decisional conflict and informed choice regarding immunosuppressive medications would improve more in the decision aid group. Of 301 randomized women, 298 were analyzed; 47% were African-American, 26% Hispanic, and 15% white. Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 37 (12) years, 57% had annual income of <$40,000, and 36% had a high school education or less. Compared with the provision of the ACR lupus pamphlet (n = 147), participants randomized to the decision aid (n = 151) had (1) a clinically meaningful and statistically significant reduction in decisional conflict, 21.8 (standard error [SE], 2.5) versus 12.7 (SE, 2.0; p = 0.005) and (2) no difference in informed choice in the main analysis, 41% versus 31% (p = 0.08), but clinically meaningful and statistically significant difference in sensitivity analysis (net values for immunosuppressives positive [in favor] versus negative [against]), 50% versus 35% (p = 0.006). Unresolved decisional conflict was lower in the decision aid versus pamphlet groups, 22% versus 44% (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the decision aid versus pamphlet group rated information to be excellent for understanding lupus nephritis (49% versus 33%), risk factors (43% versus 27%), medication options (50% versus 33%; p ≤ 0.003 for all); and the ease of use of materials was higher in the decision aid versus pamphlet groups (51% versus 38%; p = 0.006). Key study limitations were the exclusion of men, short follow-up, and the lack of clinical outcomes, including medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: An individualized decision aid was more effective than usual care in reducing decisional conflict for choice of immunosuppressive medications in women with lupus nephritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02319525.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Participação do Paciente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Nefrite Lúpica/etnologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folhetos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1125-1134, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) belimumab plus standard of care (SOC) therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in patients with active, autoantibody-positive SLE. METHODS: The study was designed as a multicenter, open-label, continuation study of IV belimumab given every 4 weeks in conjunction with SOC therapy in patients with SLE who completed a phase II, double-blind study. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory data were monitored from the first belimumab dose (in either study) until 24 weeks after the final dose. Efficacy assessments included SLE Responder Index (SRI) and flare index scores (each assessed at 16-week intervals) and glucocorticoid use (assessed at 4-week intervals). RESULTS: Of the 476 patients in the parent study, 298 (62.6%) entered the continuation study, of whom 96 (32.2%) remained in the study. Patients received belimumab for up to 13 years (median duration of exposure 3,334.0 days [range 260-4,332 days], total belimumab exposure 2,294 patient-years, median number of infusions 115.5 [range 7-155]). The percentage of patients with AEs each year remained stable or decreased. Normal serum IgG levels were maintained in the majority of patients over the study, and the rate of infections remained stable. The percentage of patients who achieved an SRI response increased from 32.8% (year 1) to 75.6% of those remaining on treatment at year 12. The glucocorticoid dose was decreased in patients who had been receiving >7.5 mg/day at baseline. CONCLUSION: This study is the longest to date to assess belimumab treatment in patients with SLE in clinical trials. Belimumab was well tolerated with no new safety concerns, and efficacy was maintained in patients who continued the study. For patients who initially exhibited a satisfactory response to belimumab, the treatment continues to be well tolerated and provides long-term disease control.

5.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

6.
J Immunol ; 201(8): 2203-2208, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201809

RESUMO

In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type I IFNs promote induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) and can drive B cells to produce autoantibodies. Little is known about the expression of distinct type I IFNs in lupus, particularly high-affinity IFN-ß. Single-cell analyses of transitional B cells isolated from SLE patients revealed distinct B cell subpopulations, including type I IFN producers, IFN responders, and mixed IFN producer/responder clusters. Anti-Ig plus TLR3 stimulation of SLE B cells induced release of bioactive type I IFNs that could stimulate HEK-Blue cells. Increased levels of IFN-ß were detected in circulating B cells from SLE patients compared with controls and were significantly higher in African American patients with renal disease and in patients with autoantibodies. Together, the results identify type I IFN-producing and -responding subpopulations within the SLE B cell compartment and suggest that some patients may benefit from specific targeting of IFN-ß.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Circulação Sanguínea , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Espaço Intracelular , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Immunol ; 196(6): 2492-503, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880764

RESUMO

Frequently fatal, primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) occurs in infancy resulting from homozygous mutations in NK and CD8 T cell cytolytic pathway genes. Secondary HLH presents after infancy and may be associated with heterozygous mutations in HLH genes. We report two unrelated teenagers with HLH and an identical heterozygous RAB27A mutation (c.259G→C). We explore the contribution of this Rab27A missense (p.A87P) mutation on NK cell cytolytic function by cloning it into a lentiviral expression vector prior to introduction into the human NK-92 cell line. NK cell degranulation (CD107a expression), target cell conjugation, and K562 target cell lysis was compared between mutant- and wild-type-transduced NK-92 cells. Polarization of granzyme B to the immunologic synapse and interaction of mutant Rab27A (p.A87P) with Munc13-4 were explored by confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay, respectively. Overexpression of the RAB27A mutation had no effect on cell conjugate formation between the NK and target cells but decreased NK cell cytolytic activity and degranulation. Moreover, the mutant Rab27A protein decreased binding to Munc13-4 and delayed granzyme B polarization toward the immunologic synapse. This heterozygous RAB27A mutation blurs the genetic distinction between primary and secondary HLH by contributing to HLH via a partial dominant-negative effect.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/metabolismo , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução Genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Proteínas rab27 de Ligação ao GTP
9.
Crit Care Med ; 44(2): 275-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of anakinra (recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) in improving 28-day survival in sepsis patients with features of macrophage activation syndrome. Despite equivocal results in sepsis trials, anakinra is effective in treating macrophage activation syndrome, a similar entity with fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatobiliary dysfunction, cytopenias, and hyperferritinemia. Hence, sepsis patients with macrophage activation syndrome features may benefit from interleukin-1 receptor blockade. DESIGN: Reanalysis of deidentified data from the phase III randomized interleukin-1 receptor antagonist trial in severe sepsis. SETTING: Multicenter study recruiting through 91 centers from 11 countries in Europe and North America. PATIENTS: Sepsis patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and/or shock (original study) were regrouped based on the presence or the absence of concurrent hepatobiliary dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation as features of macrophage activation syndrome. The non-hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation group included patients with only hepatobiliary dysfunction, only disseminated intravascular coagulation, or neither. INTERVENTION: Treatment with anakinra or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Data were available for 763 adults from the original study cohort, randomized to receive either anakinra or placebo. Concurrent hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation was noted in 43 patients (5.6% of total; 18-75 years old; 47% women). The 28-day survival was similar in both anakinra and placebo-treated non-hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation patients (71.4% vs 70.8%; p = 0.88). Treatment with anakinra was associated with significant improvement in the 28-day survival rate in hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation patients (65.4% anakinra vs 35.3% placebo), with hazard ratio for death 0.28 (0.11-0.71; p = 0.0071) for the treatment group in Cox regression. CONCLUSIONS: In this subgroup analysis, interleukin-1 receptor blockade was associated with significant improvement in survival of patients with sepsis and concurrent hepatobiliary dysfunction/disseminated intravascular coagulation. A prospective randomized trial using features of macrophage activation syndrome for mortality risk stratification should be undertaken to confirm the role of interleukin-1 blockage.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/epidemiologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/epidemiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/epidemiologia , APACHE , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 29(2): 226-43, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362741

RESUMO

Vasculitis due to infection may occur as a consequence of the inflammation of vessel walls due to direct or contiguous infection, type II or immune complex-mediated reaction, cell-mediated hypersensitivity, or inflammation due to immune dysregulation triggered by bacterial toxin and/or superantigen production. As immunosuppressive therapy administered in the absence of antimicrobial therapy may increase morbidity and fail to effect the resolution of infection-associated vascular inflammation, it is important to consider infectious entities as potential inciting factors in vasculitis syndromes. The causality between infection and vasculitis has been established in hepatitis B-associated polyarteritis nodosa (HBV-PAN) and hepatitis C-associated (cryoglobulinemic) vasculitis (HCV-CV). The review summarizes the recent literature on the pathophysiological mechanisms and the approaches to the management of HBV-PAN and HCV-CV. Roles of other viral and microbial infections, which either manifest as vasculitic syndromes or are implicated in the pathogenesis of primary vasculitides, are also discussed.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia/virologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Poliarterite Nodosa/virologia , Vasculite/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Crioglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Crioglobulinemia/terapia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/terapia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/terapia , Humanos , Poliarterite Nodosa/diagnóstico , Poliarterite Nodosa/terapia , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Vasculite/microbiologia , Vasculite/terapia
11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 67(7): 1848-57, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25777546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D modulates the immune response and blocks induction of an interferon (IFN) signature by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the IFN signature in patients with SLE. METHODS: SLE patients (n = 57) with stable, inactive disease, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level ≤20 ng/ml, an elevated anti-double-stranded DNA antibody level, and an IFN signature (as determined by measuring the expression levels of 3 IFN response genes) were randomized into a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 at doses of 2,000 IU or 4,000 IU. An IFN signature response was defined as a 50% reduction in the expression of 1 of the 3 genes or a 25% reduction in the expression of 2 of the 3 genes. Disease activity, adverse events, and endocrine effects were assessed. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the patients in the 3 treatment groups (placebo, low-dose vitamin D3 , or high-dose vitamin D3 ) were similar. Repletion of 25(OH)D (i.e., levels ≥30 ng/ml) was not observed in any of the patients who were receiving placebo, while repletion was observed in 16 of 33 patients receiving vitamin D3 . The percentage of patients with an IFN signature response did not differ among the treatment groups. Moreover, there was no difference in the percentage of patients with an IFN signature response between those who remained vitamin D deficient and those who demonstrated repletion of vitamin D. Modular microarray analysis of a subset of patients (n = 40) did not reveal changes from baseline in any modules (including the IFN-inducible module) in any of the treatment groups, and no differences in expression were found between patients who demonstrated vitamin D repletion and patients who were persistently vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D3 was well tolerated, and there were no safety concerns. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D3 supplementation up to 4,000 IU daily was safe and well-tolerated but failed to diminish the IFN signature in vitamin D-deficient SLE patients. Higher 25(OH)D levels sustained for a longer duration may be required to affect immunologic outcomes.


Assuntos
Antígenos/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/sangue , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Antígenos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , DNA/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
12.
Lupus Sci Med ; 1(1): e000056, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25396070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance characteristics of cell-bound complement (C4d) activation products (CBCAPS) on erythrocyte (EC4d) and B cells (BC4d) with antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and complement C3 and C4 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: The study enrolled 794 subjects consisting of 304 SLE and a control group consisting of 285 patients with other rheumatic diseases and 205 normal individuals. Anti-dsDNA and other autoantibodies were measured using solid-phase immunoassays while EC4d and BC4d were determined using flow cytometry. Complement proteins were determined using immunoturbidimetry. Disease activity in SLE was determined using a non-serological Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index SELENA Modification. A two-tiered methodology combining CBCAPS with autoantibodies to cellular and citrullinated antigens was also developed. Statistical analyses used area under receiver operating characteristic curves and calculations of area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: AUC for EC4d (0.82±0.02) and BC4d (0.84±0.02) was higher than those yielded by C3 (0.73±0.02) and C4 (0.72±0.02) (p<0.01). AUC for CBCAPS was also higher than the AUC yielded by anti-dsDNA (0.79±0.02), but significance was only achieved for BC4d (p<0.01). The combination of EC4d and BC4d in multivariate testing methodology with anti-dsDNA and autoantibodies to cellular and citrullinated antigens yielded 80% sensitivity for SLE and specificity ranging from 70% (Sjogren's syndrome) to 92% (rheumatoid arthritis) (98% vs. normal). A higher proportion of patients with SLE with higher levels of disease activity tested positive for elevated CBCAPS, reduced complement and anti-dsDNA (p<0.03). CONCLUSIONS: CBCAPS have higher sensitivity than standard complement and anti-dsDNA measurements, and may help with the differential diagnosis of SLE in combination with other autoantibodies.

13.
J Rheumatol ; 41(2): 300-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24187095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy/safety of belimumab plus standard therapy in patients (n = 449) with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treated up to 7 years (n = 177 currently ongoing). METHODS: Patients (n = 345) who completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 52-week study of belimumab 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg and 24-week extension of belimumab (placebo switched to 10 mg/kg; belimumab same dose or switched to 10 mg/kg) could receive belimumab 10 mg/kg in an open-label continuation study (n = 296). Disease activity was analyzed in patients with active SLE at baseline of the initial study. Biomarker and SLE medication changes were evaluated, and adverse events (AE) were monitored throughout the study. RESULTS: Total belimumab exposure over 7 years (double-blind and open-label periods): 1746 patient-years. SLE Responder Index (SRI) response rates at Week 52 in autoantibody-positive patients: placebo, 29%; belimumab, 46% (p < 0.05). In the continuation study, 57% of auto-antibody-positive patients had an SRI response by Year 2 and 65% by Year 7; severe flares occurred in 19% with placebo and 17% with belimumab during the first year, with the annual rate declining to 2%-9% during years 2-7. Anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in patients positive for them at baseline had a progressive decline of 40%-60% from baseline over 2-7 years with belimumab. Corticosteroid use decreased over time with ≥ 50-55% reduction in median dose during years 5-7. Serious and overall annual AE rates, including infections, were generally stable or decreased during 7-year treatment. CONCLUSION: Disease control and safety profile were maintained in patients with active SLE taking belimumab plus standard therapy for up to 7 years. [ClinicalTrials.gov numbers: NCT00071487 and NCT00583362].


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Autoanticorpos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS Genet ; 9(8): e1003678, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23950730

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with known genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors. To assess the role of DNA methylation in SLE, we collected CD4+ T-cells, CD19+ B-cells, and CD14+ monocytes from 49 SLE patients and 58 controls, and performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis with Illumina Methylation 450 microarrays. We identified 166 CpGs in B-cells, 97 CpGs in monocytes, and 1,033 CpGs in T-cells with highly significant changes in DNA methylation levels (p < 1 × 10(-8)) among SLE patients. Common to all three cell-types were widespread and severe hypomethylation events near genes involved in interferon signaling (type I). These interferon-related changes were apparent in patients collected during active and quiescent stages of the disease, suggesting that epigenetically-mediated hypersensitivity to interferon persists beyond acute stages of the disease and is independent of circulating interferon levels. This interferon hypersensitivity was apparent in memory, naïve and regulatory T-cells, suggesting that this epigenetic state in lupus patients is established in progenitor cell populations. We also identified a widespread, but lower amplitude shift in methylation in CD4+ T-cells (> 16,000 CpGs at FDR < 1%) near genes involved in cell division and MAPK signaling. These cell type-specific effects are consistent with disease-specific changes in the composition of the CD4+ population and suggest that shifts in the proportion of CD4+ subtypes can be monitored at CpGs with subtype-specific DNA methylation patterns.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Interferons/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigenômica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Interferons/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
15.
Arthritis Rheum ; 64(12): 4040-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22932861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of cell-bound complement activation products in combination with antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibody (anti-MCV) for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which 593 subjects were enrolled (210 SLE patients, 178 patients with other rheumatic diseases, and 205 healthy subjects). Complement receptor 1 levels on erythrocytes (ECR1) together with complement C4d levels on erythrocytes (EC4d), platelets (PC4d), and B cells (BC4d) were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Serologic markers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using area under the curve (AUC), logistic regression, and calculations of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Anti-dsDNA was an insensitive (30%) but specific (>95%) marker for SLE. Levels of EC4d, BC4d, and PC4d were several times higher, and levels of ECR1 lower, in SLE patients compared to patients with other rheumatic diseases and healthy subjects. Among 523 anti-dsDNA-negative subjects, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SLE was associated with ANA positivity (≥20 units), anti-MCV negativity (≤70 units), and elevated levels of both EC4d and BC4d (AUC 0.918, P < 0.001). A positive index score corresponding to the weighted sum of these 4 markers correctly categorized 72% of SLE patients. Specificity in relation to patients with other rheumatic diseases and healthy controls was >90%. The combination of anti-dsDNA and index score positivity yielded 80% sensitivity for SLE and 87% specificity against other rheumatic diseases. CONCLUSION: An assay panel combining anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-MCV, EC4d, and BC4d is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of SLE.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Receptores de Complemento/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ativação do Complemento/fisiologia , Complemento C4b , Estudos Transversais , DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vimentina/sangue
16.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 19(9): 1555-6, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22815150

RESUMO

To reliably transport blood samples for cryoglobulin analysis, we have created a sample transport device containing a mixture of two waxes that solidifies at 38°C and maintains sample temperature at 38°C. Samples arriving at the laboratory at 37 to 38°C increased to 95% from 34% with the use of the device.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Crioglobulinas/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
J Rheumatol ; 39(8): 1632-40, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22707609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), evidence suggests that most vaccines (except live-virus vaccines) are safe, although antibody response may be reduced. This substudy from the phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled BLISS-76 trial evaluated the effects of belimumab on preexisting antibody levels against pneumococcal, tetanus, and influenza antigens in patients with SLE. METHODS: In BLISS-76, patients with autoantibody-positive, active SLE were treated with placebo or belimumab 1 or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 28 days and every 28 days thereafter, plus standard SLE therapy, for 76 weeks. This analysis included a subset of patients who had received pneumococcal or tetanus vaccine within 5 years or influenza vaccine within 1 year of study participation. Antibodies to vaccine antigens were tested at baseline and Week 52, and percentage changes in antibody levels from baseline and proportions of patients maintaining levels at Week 52 were assessed. Antibody titers were also assessed in a small number of patients vaccinated during the study. RESULTS: Consistent with preservation of the memory B cell compartment with belimumab treatment, the proportions of patients maintaining antibody responses to pneumococcal, tetanus, and influenza antigens were not reduced. In a small group receiving influenza vaccine on study, antibody responses were frequently lower with belimumab, although titer levels were > 1:10 in all patients treated with 10 mg/kg and in the majority treated with 1 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: Treatment with belimumab did not affect the ability of patients with SLE to maintain antibody titers to previous pneumococcal, tetanus, and influenza immunizations. [ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT 00410384].


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Toxoide Tetânico/uso terapêutico
19.
Arthritis Rheum ; 64(7): 2328-37, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22275291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of the B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)-specific inhibitor belimumab on immunologic biomarkers, including B cell and T cell populations, and maintenance of antibody titers to prior vaccines in autoantibody-positive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Pooled data from 2 phase III trials, the Study of Belimumab in Subjects with SLE 52-week (BLISS-52) and 76-week (BLISS-76) trials, comparing belimumab 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg versus placebo (plus standard SLE therapy for each group) were analyzed for changes in autoantibody, immunoglobulin, and complement levels. BLISS-76 patients were also analyzed for changes in B cell and T cell populations and effects on prior vaccine-induced antibody levels. RESULTS: Belimumab-treated patients experienced significant sustained reductions in IgG and autoantibodies and improvement in C3/C4 levels, resulting in greater positive-to-negative conversion rates for IgG anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anti-Sm, anticardiolipin, and anti-ribosomal P autoantibodies and normalization of hypergammaglobulinemia and low C3/C4 levels. Belimumab-treated patients experienced significant decreases in the numbers of naive and activated B cells, as well as plasma cells, whereas memory B cells and T cell populations did not decrease. Belimumab did not substantially affect preexisting antipneumococcal or anti-tetanus toxoid antibody levels. Post hoc analysis showed greater reductions in SLE disease activity and the risk of severe flares in patients treated with belimumab 10 mg/kg (P≤0.01) who were anti-dsDNA positive and had low C3/C4 levels at baseline. Normalization of the C3 or anti-dsDNA level by 8 weeks, irrespective of therapy, was predictive of a reduced risk of severe flare over 52 weeks. CONCLUSION: Belimumab appears to promote normalization of serologic activity and reduce BLyS-dependent B cell subsets in serologically and clinically active SLE. Greater serologic activity may predict a better treatment response to belimumab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Arthritis Rheum ; 63(12): 3918-30, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22127708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy/safety of the B lymphocyte stimulator inhibitor belimumab plus standard therapy compared with placebo plus standard therapy in active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: In a phase III, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 819 antinuclear antibody-positive or anti-double-stranded DNA-positive SLE patients with scores ≥6 on the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA) version of the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 1 mg/kg belimumab, 10 mg/kg belimumab, or placebo intravenously on days 0, 14, and 28 and then every 28 days for 72 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the SLE Responder Index (SRI) response rate at week 52 (an SRI response was defined as a ≥4-point reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI score, no new British Isles Lupus Assessment Group [BILAG] A organ domain score and no more than 1 new BILAG B score, and no worsening in physician's global assessment score versus baseline). RESULTS: Belimumab at 10 mg/kg plus standard therapy met the primary efficacy end point, generating a significantly greater SRI response at week 52 compared with placebo (43.2% versus 33.5%; P = 0.017). The rate with 1 mg/kg belimumab was 40.6% (P = 0.089). Response rates at week 76 were 32.4%, 39.1%, and 38.5% with placebo, 1 mg/kg belimumab, and 10 mg/kg belimumab, respectively. In post hoc sensitivity analyses evaluating higher SELENA-SLEDAI score thresholds, 10 mg/kg belimumab achieved better discrimination at weeks 52 and 76. Risk of severe flares over 76 weeks (based on the modified SLE Flare Index) was reduced with 1 mg/kg belimumab (34%) (P = 0.023) and 10 mg/kg belimumab (23%) (P = 0.13). Serious and severe adverse events, including infections, laboratory abnormalities, malignancies, and deaths, were comparable across groups. CONCLUSION: Belimumab plus standard therapy significantly improved SRI response rate, reduced SLE disease activity and severe flares, and was generally well tolerated in SLE.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Fator Ativador de Células B/antagonistas & inibidores , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Fator Ativador de Células B/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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