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1.
Oral Oncol ; 111: 104894, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated T cell clonality (TCC) and T cell fraction (TCF) in human papilloma virus associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV(+)OPSCC) progressors [cases] vs. non-progressors [controls]. METHODS: This nested case-control study included patients undergoing intent-to-cure surgery ± adjuvant therapy from 6/1/2007-10/3/2016. Patients experiencing local/regional/distant disease (progressors), and a consecutive sample of non-progressors were matched (2 controls: 1 case) on tumor subsite, T-stage and number of metastatic lymph nodes. We performed imunosequencing of the CDR3 regions of human TCRß chains. RESULTS: 34 progressors and 65 non-progressors were included. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline TCF (range: 0.039-1.084) and TCC (range: 0.007-0.240) (p > 0.05). Female sex was associated with higher TCF (p = 0.03), while extranodal extension (ENE) was associated with lower TCF (p = 0.01). There was a positive correlation between tumor size and clonality (R = 0.34, p < 0.01). The strongest predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) was TCF (HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.66-0.96, p = 0.02). The strongest predictors of cancer specific survival (CSS) were TCF (HR0.69, 95%CI 0.47-1.00, p < 0.05) and Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score (p < 0.05). Similarly, the strongest predictors of overall survival (OS) were TCF (HR 0.62, 95%CI 0.43-0.91, p = 0.01) and ACE-27 score (p = 0.03). On multivariable modeling, TCF ≥ 0.4 was independently associated with PFS (HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.14-0.85, p = 0.02) while an ACE-27 score of ≥ 2 independently predicted CSS (HR 3.85, 95%CI 1.07-13.85, p = 0.04) and OS (HR 3.51, 95%CI 1.10-11.20, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HPV(+)OPSCC, TCF was higher in female patients and those without ENE, suggesting differential immune responses. Lower TCF was significantly and independently associated with disease progression. Better ACE-27 scores appear to predict improved oncologic control.

2.
Anaerobe ; 64: 102246, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717475

RESUMO

Anaerobic meningitis is a rare serious clinical condition which mainly affects vulnerable populations and patients with predisposing factors such as head trauma, prior neurosurgical procedures or implantable medical devices such as ventriculoperitoneal shunts or ventricular drains. In this study we retrieved data from aerobic and anaerobic cultures of cerebrospinal (CSF) or ventricular fluid ordered over a 5 year period at our institution. A total of 8868 aerobic and 594 anaerobic cultures were performed from 2013 to 2017. 24/594 (4%) anaerobic cultures from 14 patients were positive for anaerobes. Only 3 of those patients were diagnosed clinically with anaerobic meningitis, each with predisposing factors, while anaerobes (Cutibacterium acnes and Clostridium perfringens) recovered from the remaining 21 patients were regarded as contaminants. 129/8868 (1.45%) aerobic CSF cultures were positive for anaerobes. 120/129 (93%) cultures recovered C. acnes while non-C. acnes anaerobes were recovered in the remaining 9 cultures and were deemed to be contaminants. In the majority of situations, recovery of C. acnes from CSF or ventricular fluid was regarded as contamination. Our cohort included 18 patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt or ventricular drain, 17 of whom had C. acnes recovered from either aerobic or anaerobic culture, and 10 were treated with targeted antibiotics and surgical replacement of the shunt or drain. Anaerobic culture of the CSF or ventricular fluid aided in identification of two patients with anaerobic meningitis and an additional two patients with shunt infection. Anaerobe culture of CSF is important in identification of anaerobic meningitis, as growth of anaerobes other than C. acnes is rare from aerobic CSF culture.

4.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 3489420933645, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: LMNA-associated familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) is a rare autosomal dominant A-type laminopathy characterized by variable loss and redistribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Though A-type lamins play a key role in nuclear membrane structure and regulation of cell proliferation, an association between cancer and LMNA-associated FPLD has not been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: This report outlines the case of two biological sisters with LMNA-associated FPLD who developed hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the absence of any other risk factors for head and neck cancer. CONCLUSION: These observations prompt further investigation into the potential role of A-type lamins in the development and progression of head and neck cancers.

5.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buccal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a locoregionally aggressive malignancy, representing a small subset of oral cancers in North America. We investigated the prognostic value of several clinicopathologic factors in a cohort of patients diagnosed with buccal SCC. METHODS: Between years 1992 and 2017, 52 patients were diagnosed with conventional buccal SCC. Archival surgical pathology material was retrospectively reviewed for reportable findings according to the latest reporting guidelines published by the College of American Pathologists. Clinical data were obtained through chart review. RESULTS: The majority of patients were of older age, current or past smokers, and without specific gender predilection. Most presented at a clinically advanced stage and were treated with surgery alone, or surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. The tumor recurred in about 40% of patients, and almost half of the patients died from the disease by the end of the follow-up period. The worst pattern of invasion (WPOI) was associated with greater depth of invasion (DOI) (P = .031) and perineural invasion (P < .001). In univariate analyses, older age (P = .004), positive nodal status (P = .047), lymphovascular invasion (P = .012), perineural invasion (P = .05), and WPOI-5 (P = .015) were adverse predictors of 5-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, older age (P = .011), WPOI-5 (P < .001), and perineural invasion (P = .001) remained statistically significant independent prognosticators of worse 5-year OS. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, WPOI-5, and perineural invasion are significant prognosticators of worse OS. WPOI is associated with DOI, a finding which may have important implications for the pathogenesis and biologic behavior of the disease.

6.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350809

RESUMO

Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) commonly expresses androgen receptor (AR) and HER2, giving rise to treatment implications. SDC may also express programmed-death-ligand-1 (PD-L1), a predictive marker of response to checkpoint inhibitors. PD-L1 can be associated with genomic instability and high density of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Evaluation of HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in SDC is not standardized, and relationships between ERBB2 copy numbers, PD-L1 expression and TILs in SDC are unknown. We evaluated 32 SDCs for HER2, AR and PD-L1 expression (IHC), ERBB2 status (FISH) and TILs (slide review). HER2 was scored with three different systems (breast, gastric, proposed salivary gland). PD-L1 was evaluated with the combined positive score. Most patients were older men, presenting at advanced clinical stage with nodal or distant metastases. During follow-up (mean 5 years, range 6 months to 21 years), 25 of the 32 patients (78%) died of SDC. We propose a HER2 IHC scoring system which accurately predicts underlying ERBB2 amplification or increased copy numbers in SDC. Most tumors had increased ERBB2 copy numbers (19/32 amplification, 6/32 aneusomy), a finding associated with higher TIL densities (p = 0.045) and PD-L1 expression (p = 0.025). Patients with TILs ≥ 40% had better prognoses (Log-Rank p = 0.013), with TILs being favorable prognosticators in univariate analysis (Hazard ratio: 0.18, p = 0.024). A subset of SDCs with increased ERBB2 copy numbers have higher TILs and PD-L1 expression. TILs ≥ 40% are associated with better prognosis.

7.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1549-1564, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their subsets contribute to breast cancer prognosis. We investigated the prognostic impact of CD3+, CD8+ and FOXP3+ TILs in patients with early intermediate/high-risk breast cancer treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy within two randomized trials conducted by our Group. METHODS: We examined 1011 patients (median follow-up 130.9 months) and their tumors for total, stromal (s) and intratumoral (i) CD3, CD8 and FOXP3 lymphocyte density (counts/mm2) on tissue-microarray cores by immunohistochemistry. Morphological sTIL density on whole H&E-stained sections was also evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of TILs were CD3+. Total CD3 and CD8, sCD3 and sCD8, iCD3 and iCD8, sFOXP3 and iFOXP3 were strongly correlated (Spearman's rho values > 0.6). High individual lymphocytic subsets and sTIL density were strongly associated with high tumor grade, higher proliferation and HER2-positive and triple-negative tumors (all p values < 0.001). Higher sTIL density (10% increments), high density of almost each individual marker and all-high profiles conferred favorable prognosis. However, when adjusted for sTIL density, stromal and intratumoral lymphocytic subsets lost their prognostic significance, while higher sTIL density conferred up to 15% lower risk for relapse. Independently of sTIL density, higher total CD3+ and CD8+ TILs conferred 35% and 28% lower risk for relapse, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stromal and intratumoral CD3+, CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL density do not seem to add prognostic information over the morphologically assessed sTIL density, which is worth introducing in routine histology reports.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Células Estromais/imunologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 435-441, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201924

RESUMO

Formalin pigment deposition is a known artifact of autopsy histology, often anecdotally associated with decomposition of bodies. However, there is minimal data within the forensic literature demonstrating an association between formalin pigment deposition and length of postmortem interval. Furthermore, there is minimal data concerning other predisposing factors and patterns of distribution of formalin pigment deposition. In this study, we compare the amount and patterns of formalin deposition on histology slides from three categories of death: 1) decomposed bodies, 2) critically ill at time of death, and 3) sudden cardiac death. We also compare the effectiveness of two relatively simple histology laboratory methods to remove formalin pigment deposition from histology slides. Amongst the three categories of death, formalin deposition was highest in the decomposed category, second highest in the critically ill category, and lowest in the sudden cardiac death category. The organs most severely affected by formalin deposition were liver/spleen/pancreas and kidneys, and the organs least affected were brain and lung. Formalin pigment deposition correlated with length of postmortem interval. Histologic patterns of formalin deposition included the endothelial lining of vessels, perinuclear compartment of neurons and myocytes, and the basal epithelial compartment of renal tubular epithelial cells. The alcoholic ammonium hydroxide method (AAH) was slightly more effective than the alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) method for removing formalin pigment, though both methods were effective. Because formalin pigment is strongly refractile under polarized light, a polarization filter can also be useful for distinguishing formalin pigment from other pigments.

9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(3): 102414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study summarizes the treatment modalities of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) of the parotid gland and subsequent outcome at a single institution to better define the treatment of this rare tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated for BCAC of the parotid gland from 1/01/1996 to 08/1/2018 was performed. Patients were identified using our institution's Cancer Registry. RESULTS: A total of thirteen patients (46% female, median age of 56) treated for BCAC of the parotid gland were identified. Eight patients (57%) were staged as T1, four were staged as T2 (29%), and two were stage T4a (14%) due to tumor involvement of the facial nerve. None of the patients had nodal involvement or distant metastases. Three patients (21%) underwent radiation therapy ranging from 60-70Gy for positive margin or facial nerve involvement by tumor. Five patients (36%) underwent a neck dissection (ND) ranging from just a level IIb dissection up to levels IIa, IIb, and III with none of the nodes being positive for disease. The remainder of patients did not undergo a neck dissection. Follow-up was 8.1 ± 6.2 (mean ± SD) years with no local or regional recurrence at time of last follow-up in any patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests that elective neck dissections are not necessary following resection of T1/T2N0M0 basal cell adenocarcinoma for the prevention of local or regional recurrence. No longer performing neck dissections for T1/T2N0M0 BCAC would reduce the morbidity associated with the treatment of this rare parotid tumor.

10.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 17(2): 181-193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Age may pertain to different tumor genotype characteristics which may interfere with treatment efficacy and prognosis. We investigated the distribution and prognostic effect of mutations and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (stromal TIL density) in young (≤35 years) and elderly (>65 years) early breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin tumor genotypes of all clinical subtypes from 345 patients were examined. RESULTS: A total of 638 mutations were detected in 221 patients (64.1%). Compared to young, elderly patients presented with lower TIL density (p<0.001) but more TILs in TP53 mutated tumors (p=0.042). Mutation in one, rather than in 2 or more genes, conferred better outcome (DFS: HR=0.51, p=0.016; OS: HR=0.47, p=0.015) but the effect was age-independent. CONCLUSION: There are fewer TILs and different mutations patterns in tumors from elderly patients compared to young. Age and TIL-independent gene agnostic co-mutations affect patient outcome.

11.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(1): 128-132, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic dysfunction is hypothesized to be an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of yellow nail syndrome (YNS) (yellow nails, lymphedema, pleural effusions, and frequently chronic rhinosinusitis [CRS]). It is unclear why some YNS patients develop CRS. We quantified lymphatic and total vasculature of sinonasal mucosa in YNS patients and compared it to controls from CRS patients with (CRSwNP) or without polyps (CRSsNP). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on archival sinonasal mucosal samples from 5 patients with YNS and 14 controls with antibodies against podoplanin and CD31, markers of lymphatics. Morphometric assessment was performed on digital images using ImageJ software. RESULTS: In YNS, the number of lymphatics/mm2 ranged from 7 to 18/mm2 (controls: 6 to 43/mm2 , p = 0.343), with a mean perimeter between 92 and 201 µm (controls: 42 to 280 µm, p = 0.482). Total vasculature density was higher than lymphatics, ranging between 189 and 1159 vessels/mm2 , average 669 (controls: 139 to 1467/mm2 , average 503, p = 0.257) with smaller average perimeter, 40 to 117 µm, mean 64.8 µm (controls: 42 to 92 µm, mean 65.3 µm, p = 0.965). Lymphatics constituted only a small fragment of the total vasculature, ranging from 1.15% to 4.76%, average 2.34% (controls: 0.81% to 10.58%, average 4.88%, p = 0.156). CRSwNP patients had significantly higher lymphatic density (p = 0.011) and ratio of lymphatics to total vasculature (p = 0.045) than patients with YNS or CRSsNP. CONCLUSION: This is the first histological analysis of sinus mucosa in patients with YNS. Vascular type, density, size, and distribution in the sinonasal mucosa of YNS patients are not statistically significantly different from those of the CRSsNP group. Lymphatic density and ratio to total vasculature is higher in CRSwNP patients.

12.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749124

RESUMO

To evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and of CD8+ T-cell subsets in patients with surgically treated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), LSCC from 283 patients were examined. TIL density was morphologically assessed on whole sections. CD8+ cell counts/mm2 were evaluated on multiple tissue microarray cores per tumor (median counts for high/low CD8+/mm2). TIL density and CD8+ counts weakly correlated with each other (Spearman's rho = 0.348). Heterogeneous CD8+ counts/mm2 were demonstrated in 28% of the tumors. In univariate analysis, a significant interaction was observed between CD8 expression and nodal status with respect to outcome; in node-positive patients, those with high CD8+ tumors had 77% lower risk of relapse (interaction p < 0.001) and 74% lower risk for death (interaction p = 0.002) compared to patients with low CD8+ tumors. In multivariate analysis, higher TIL density independently conferred lower risk for relapse in the entire cohort (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98; Wald's p = 0.017) and in node-positive patients (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.23-0.75; p = 0.003) and, similarly, for death (p = 0.025 and p = 0.003, respectively). High CD8+ was not a significant independent prognostic marker in any analysis setting. The assessment of CD8+ infiltrates does not seem to offer additional prognostic information over the morphologically assessed TIL density. It also appears that the favorable prognostic impact of higher TIL density and CD8+ infiltrates mostly concerns node-positive but not node-negative disease. If validated in larger node-positive cohorts, these findings are worth considering for the diagnostic development of immune cell infiltrates in LSCC.

13.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(4): e370-e384, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) results in VEGFAxxxb antiangiogenic isoforms that fail to activate angiogenesis. Bevacizumab, widely used in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), binds both VEGFA and VEGFAxxxb isoforms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumors from metastatic CRC patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) + bevacizumab (n = 285) or FOLFIRI only (n = 75) were collected. The relative expression of VEGFA121a, 121b, 145a, 145b, 165a, and 165b was assessed with custom TaqMan-MGB assays and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 101.5 months, left-sided primary CRC was a favorable prognosticator (median survival, 29.2 vs. 18.2 months; P = .015). Positive high VEGFA145b was an unfavorable factor for progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.44; P = .009) in patients who received FOLFIRI + bevacizumab, without prognostic significance in FOLFIRI-only patients (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.34-1.44; P = .33). The adverse effect on PFS of 145b was more pronounced in patients with right-sided colon cancer (HR = 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.12; P = .005), especially in those who received bevacizumab (HR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.31-6.21; P = .008). In patients with right-sided colon primary tumors, isoform 121b correlated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.73; 95% CI, 0.94-3.18; P = .076) and overall survival (OS; HR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.08-3.72; P = .028). In patients with left-sided primary tumors, positive high 165b correlated with superior PFS (HR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99; P = .044) and OS (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.90; P = .006). At multivariate analysis, right-sided primary tumor was associated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64), while 145b consistently retained predictive significance for lack of benefit in PFS with bevacizumab (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.53). Multivariate analysis for OS showed that VEGFA165b expression was favorable in patients with left-sided but unfavorable in patients with right-sided primary tumors (Pinteraction < .001). CONCLUSION: The antiangiogenic isoform VEGFA145b messenger RNA may predict resistance to bevacizumab. Differences in biological relevance and prognostic significance of various VEGFA isoforms were found for right- versus left-sided primary tumors.

14.
Histopathology ; 75(6): 825-832, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236950

RESUMO

AIMS: Pulmonary chondromas, which are rare cartilaginous neoplasms that often arise in the setting of Carney triad, are morphologically similar to pulmonary hamartomas, which are much more common. There is evidence that succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency drives neoplasia in patients with Carney triad, and SDHB immunohistochemistry can be used as a surrogate marker to detect SDH deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of SDHB immunohistochemistry in distinguishing pulmonary chondromas from hamartomas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (clone 21A11AE7) was performed on histological sections from six cases of pulmonary chondroma and 33 cases of pulmonary hamartoma. SDHB expression was retained in all 33 pulmonary hamartomas, and lost in the majority of evaluable chondromas (five of six). Of the five patients with chondromas showing SDHB loss, four had definitive Carney triad. Most patients with pulmonary hamartomas were older males with small solitary masses, whereas chondromas often presented as multiple masses in young females. CONCLUSION: Loss of SDHB immunohistochemical expression can be useful for differentiating pulmonary chondromas from hamartomas, and potentially identifying patients with Carney triad.


Assuntos
Condroma/classificação , Hamartoma/classificação , Leiomiossarcoma/classificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Paraganglioma Extrassuprarrenal/classificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Condroma/patologia , Feminino , Hamartoma/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leiomiossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Paraganglioma Extrassuprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
15.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 19(2): 113-125.e4, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined tumor genotype characteristics of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive relapsed (R-) and de novo (dn-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in trastuzumab-treated patients who were previously not exposed to this agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed genotypes obtained upon deep sequencing from 113 HER2-positive primary tumors from 69 patients with R-MBC and 44 patients with dn-MBC. RESULTS: Mutations were observed in 90 (79.6%) tumors, 56 R-MBC and 34 dn-MBC (median number per tumor: 2; mean: 11.2; range: 0-150). The top mutated gene was TP53 (63.7%) followed by PIK3CA (24.8%) and others that were mostly co-mutated with TP53 (eg, 22 of 28 PIK3CA mutated tumors were co-mutated in TP53, 17 of these were R-MBC [P = .041]). dn-MBC had higher CEN17 average copies (P = .048). Tumor mutational burden inversely correlated with average HER2 copies (rho -0.32; P < .001). In all patients, PIK3CA mutations and higher proliferation rate were independent unfavorable prognosticators. In R-MBC, longer disease-free interval between initial diagnosis and relapse conferred lower risk for time-to-progression (P < .001) and death (P = .009); PIK3CA mutations conferred higher risk for death (P = .035). In dn-MBC, surgical removal of the primary tumor before any other therapy was favorable for time-to-progression (P = .002); higher tumor mutational burden was unfavorable for survival (P = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Except for the overall unfavorable prognostic effect of PIK3CA mutations in trastuzumab-treated MBC, our exploratory findings indicate that the outcome of patients with R-MBC is related to patient benefit from the preceding adjuvant chemotherapy and provide initial evidence that tumor mutational burden may be related to prognosis in dn-MBC, which is of potential clinical relevance and merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
Folia Med Cracov ; 58(3): 83-87, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521513

RESUMO

Meckel's diverticulum represents a remnant of the proximal end of the omphalomesenteric duct, which constitutes a connection between the middle intestine and the vitelline vesicle. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and is found in approximately 0.3-2% of the general population. Complications such as hemorrhage, bowel obstruction, inflammation, perforation, intussusception, volvulus and malignant transformation develop in only 4-4.8% of all patients, with most cases presenting in childhood, while relative risk decreases during life. The aim of the present study is to present our experience in managing a 15-year old male patient with Meckel's diverticulum covered perforation. It was a case of disguised perforation of the Meckel's diverticulum, with development of adhesions to the anterior surface of the right third of the transverse colon, which was successfully treated on the basis of emergency. Diagnosis was made intraoperatively and was documented by histological examination of the excised diverticulum.


Assuntos
Colo Transverso/patologia , Diverticulite/patologia , Doenças do Íleo/patologia , Perfuração Intestinal/patologia , Divertículo Ileal/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Úlcera/patologia , Adolescente , Diverticulite/cirurgia , Humanos , Doenças do Íleo/cirurgia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Divertículo Ileal/cirurgia , Aderências Teciduais/cirurgia , Úlcera/cirurgia
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208221, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521558

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of the Hedgehog (Gli, Patched-1, Shh, Smo) and Notch (Jag1, Notch2, Notch3) pathway members, in comparison to a panel of proteins (ER, PgR, HER2/neu, Ki67, p53, p16, PTEN and MMR) previously suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer, in association with clinical outcome and standard clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 204 patients with histological diagnosis of endometrial cancer treated from 2004 to 2013 were included. The evaluation of protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis showed that higher Ki67 labeling, expression of PTEN, p16, Notch2 and Notch3 proteins, as well as MMR proficiency were associated with increased relapse and mortality rate. Additionally, Patched-1 protein expression was associated with worse DFS, while p53 overexpression was associated with worse OS. In multivariate analyses, patients with MMR proficient tumors had more than double risk for death than patients with MMR deficient (MMRd) tumors (adjusted HR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.05-4.58, p = 0.036). Jag1 positivity conferred reduced mortality risk (HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.97, p = 0.042). However, as shown by hierarchical clustering, patients fared better when their tumors expressed high Jag1 protein in the absence of Notch2 and Notch3, while they fared worse when all three proteins were highly expressed. Patched-1 positivity conferred higher risk for relapse (HR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.05-3.96, p = 0.036). Aberrant expression of key components of the Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways, as well as MMRd may serve as independent prognostic factors for recurrence and survival in patients with endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Receptor Patched-1/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor Notch2/genética , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Receptor Notch3/genética , Receptor Notch3/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 61(2): 41-46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216181

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to describe an entity of primary hydrocele accompanied with fibrosis, thickening and hemorrhagic infiltration of parietal layer of tunica vaginalis (PLTV). During a 4-year period (2011-2014), 94 boys (2.5-14 years old) underwent primary hydrocele repair. Hydrocele was right sided in 55 (58.5 %), left sided in 26 (28.7%) and bilateral in 12 patients (13.8%). Eighty three out of 94 patients (88.30%) had communicating hydrocele and the rest eleven patients (11.7%) had non-communicating. Our case group consists of 8 patients (8.51%) based on operative findings consistent with PLTV induration, thickening and hemorrhagic infiltration. Preoperative ultrasonography did not reveal any pathology of the intrascrotal structures besides hydrocele. There weren't hyperechoic reflections or septa within the fluid. Evaluation of thickness of the PLTV was not feasible. Presence of lymph or exudate was excluded after fluid biochemical analysis. Tunica vaginalis histological examination confirmed thickening, hemorrhagic infiltration and inflammation, while there was absence of mesothelial cells. Immunochemistry for desmin was positive, excluding malignant mesothelioma. One patient underwent high ligation of the patent processus vaginalis and PLTV sheath fenestration, but one year later, he faced a recurrence. An elective second surgery was conducted via scrotal incision and Jaboulay operation was performed. The latter methodology was our treatment choice in other 7 out of 8 patients. During a 2-year postoperative follow-up, no other patient had any recurrence. We conclude that in primary hydrocele with macroscopic features indicative of tunica vaginalis inflammation, reversion of the tunica should be a part of operative strategy instead of sheath fenestration, in order to minimize the recurrence.


Assuntos
Membrana Serosa/patologia , Hidrocele Testicular/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Membrana Serosa/cirurgia
19.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 12: 846, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079108

RESUMO

Various mechanisms such as second primary lesion, tumour seeding or lymphogenous and haematogenous metastasis could be proposed to explain the nature of dual malignant lesions. We report the case of a glottic laryngeal carcinoma combined with a secondary endotracheal tumour. Following the imaging modalities, the patient underwent total laryngectomy and wide excision of the trachea. Histopathology ultimately established that the tracheal lesion was a metastatic tumour secondary to regional lymphatic spread of the glottic tumour. To our knowledge, there is no previous report in the English literature concerning tracheal lymphogenous metastatic involvement in the context of laryngeal malignancy. Paradoxical lymphatic spread must always remain an issue of head and neck oncology.

20.
Med Oncol ; 35(7): 101, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855806

RESUMO

This clinical trial assessed the efficacy and toxicity of panitumumab combined with oxaliplatin and capecitabine as first-line treatment in KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients with exon 2 KRAS wild-type mCRC received panitumumab 9 mg/Kg, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2, and capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 repeated every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR, minimum 42 responses). We retrospectively assessed mutations in genes implicated in CRC with massively parallel sequencing; ERBB2 and EGFR amplification with fluorescence in situ hybridization, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density. Among 78 patients enrolled, 45 (57.7%) completed 6 cycles. Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were skin rash (19.2%), diarrhea (18%), and neuropathy (6.4%). Among 5 (6.4%) potentially treatment-related deaths, 2 (2.6%) were characterized toxic. Objective response occurred in 43 (55.1%) of the patients (complete 6.4% and partial response 48.7%; stable 17.9% and progressive disease 7.7%), while 3.8% were non-evaluable and 15% discontinued their treatment early. Additional mutations in KRAS/NRAS/BRAF were found in 11/62 assessable (18%) tumors. After 51 months median follow-up, median progression-free (PFS) was 8.1 and overall survival 20.2 months, independently of KRAS/NRAS/BRAF or PI3K-pathway mutation status. Patients with TP53 mutations (n = 34; 55%), as well as those with left colon primary tumors (n = 66; 85%), had significantly better PFS, also confirmed in multivariate analysis. Although the clinical trial met its primary endpoint, according to the current standards, the efficacy and tolerability of the drug combination are considered insufficient. Extended genotyping yielded interesting results regarding the significance of TP53 mutations.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01215539, Registration date: Sep 29, 2010.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina , Panitumumabe , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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