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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201417

RESUMO

Law enforcement and domain experts can detect human trafficking (HT) in online escort websites by analyzing suspicious clusters of connected ads. How can we explain clustering results intuitively and interactively, visualizing potential evidence for experts to analyze? We present TRAFFICVIS, the first interface for cluster-level HT detection and labeling. Developed through months of participatory design with domain experts, TRAFFICVIS provides coordinated views in conjunction with carefully chosen backend algorithms to effectively show spatio-temporal and text patterns to a wide variety of anti-HT stakeholders. We build upon state-of-the-art text clustering algorithms by incorporating shared metadata as a signal of connected and possibly suspicious activity, then visualize the results. Domain experts can use TRAFFICVIS to label clusters as HT, or other, suspicious, but non-HT activity such as spam and scam, quickly creating labeled datasets to enable further HT research. Through domain expert feedback and a usage scenario, we demonstrate TRAFFICVIS's efficacy. The feedback was overwhelmingly positive, with repeated high praises for the usability and explainability of our tool, the latter being vital for indicting possible criminals.

2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 813-823, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587079

RESUMO

Existing research on making sense of deep neural networks often focuses on neuron-level interpretation, which may not adequately capture the bigger picture of how concepts are collectively encoded by multiple neurons. We present Neurocartography, an interactive system that scalably summarizes and visualizes concepts learned by neural networks. It automatically discovers and groups neurons that detect the same concepts, and describes how such neuron groups interact to form higher-level concepts and the subsequent predictions. Neurocartography introduces two scalable summarization techniques: (1) neuron clustering groups neurons based on the semantic similarity of the concepts detected by neurons (e.g., neurons detecting "dog faces" of different breeds are grouped); and (2) neuron embedding encodes the associations between related concepts based on how often they co-occur (e.g., neurons detecting "dog face" and "dog tail" are placed closer in the embedding space). Key to our scalable techniques is the ability to efficiently compute all neuron pairs' relationships, in time linear to the number of neurons instead of quadratic time. Neurocartography scales to large data, such as the ImageNet dataset with 1.2M images. The system's tightly coordinated views integrate the scalable techniques to visualize the concepts and their relationships, projecting the concept associations to a 2D space in Neuron Projection View, and summarizing neuron clusters and their relationships in Graph View. Through a large-scale human evaluation, we demonstrate that our technique discovers neuron groups that represent coherent, human-meaningful concepts. And through usage scenarios, we describe how our approaches enable interesting and surprising discoveries, such as concept cascades of related and isolated concepts. The Neurocartography visualization runs in modern browsers and is open-sourced.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise por Conglomerados , Neurônios , Semântica
3.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 41(6): 7-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890313

RESUMO

The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across application domains has prompted our society to pay closer attention to AI's trustworthiness, fairness, interpretability, and accountability. In order to foster trust in AI, it is important to consider the potential of interactive visualization, and how such visualizations help build trust in AI systems. This manifesto discusses the relevance of interactive visualizations and makes the following four claims: i) trust is not a technical problem, ii) trust is dynamic, iii) visualization cannot address all aspects of trust, and iv) visualization is crucial for human agency in AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Confiança , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
4.
J Biomed Inform ; 119: 103824, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048933

RESUMO

Substances involved in overdose deaths have shifted over time and continue to undergo transition. Early detection of emerging drugs involved in overdose is a major challenge for traditional public health data systems. While novel social media data have shown promise, there is a continued need for robust natural language processing approaches that can identify emerging substances. Consequently, we developed a new metric, the relative similarity ratio, based on diachronic word embeddings to measure movement in the semantic proximity of individual substance words to 'overdose' over time. Our analysis of 64,420,376 drug-related posts made between January 2011 and December 2018 on Reddit, the largest online forum site, reveals that this approach successfully identified fentanyl, the most significant emerging substance in the overdose epidemic, >1 year earlier than traditional public health data systems. Use of diachronic word embeddings may enable improved identification of emerging substances involved in drug overdose, thereby improving the timeliness of prevention and treatment activities.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Semântica
5.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1396-1406, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048723

RESUMO

Deep learning's great success motivates many practitioners and students to learn about this exciting technology. However, it is often challenging for beginners to take their first step due to the complexity of understanding and applying deep learning. We present CNN Explainer, an interactive visualization tool designed for non-experts to learn and examine convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a foundational deep learning model architecture. Our tool addresses key challenges that novices face while learning about CNNs, which we identify from interviews with instructors and a survey with past students. CNN Explainer tightly integrates a model overview that summarizes a CNN's structure, and on-demand, dynamic visual explanation views that help users understand the underlying components of CNNs. Through smooth transitions across levels of abstraction, our tool enables users to inspect the interplay between low-level mathematical operations and high-level model structures. A qualitative user study shows that CNN Explainer helps users more easily understand the inner workings of CNNs, and is engaging and enjoyable to use. We also derive design lessons from our study. Developed using modern web technologies, CNN Explainer runs locally in users' web browsers without the need for installation or specialized hardware, broadening the public's education access to modern deep learning techniques.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos
6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 1096-1106, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443005

RESUMO

Deep learning is increasingly used in decision-making tasks. However, understanding how neural networks produce final predictions remains a fundamental challenge. Existing work on interpreting neural network predictions for images often focuses on explaining predictions for single images or neurons. As predictions are often computed from millions of weights that are optimized over millions of images, such explanations can easily miss a bigger picture. We present Summit, an interactive system that scalably and systematically summarizes and visualizes what features a deep learning model has learned and how those features interact to make predictions. Summit introduces two new scalable summarization techniques: (1) activation aggregation discovers important neurons, and (2) neuron-influence aggregation identifies relationships among such neurons. Summit combines these techniques to create the novel attribution graph that reveals and summarizes crucial neuron associations and substructures that contribute to a model's outcomes. Summit scales to large data, such as the ImageNet dataset with 1.2M images, and leverages neural network feature visualization and dataset examples to help users distill large, complex neural network models into compact, interactive visualizations. We present neural network exploration scenarios where Summit helps us discover multiple surprising insights into a prevalent, large-scale image classifier's learned representations and informs future neural network architecture design. The Summit visualization runs in modern web browsers and is open-sourced.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130198

RESUMO

Recent success in deep learning has generated immense interest among practitioners and students, inspiring many to learn about this new technology. While visual and interactive approaches have been successfully developed to help people more easily learn deep learning, most existing tools focus on simpler models. In this work, we present GAN Lab, the first interactive visualization tool designed for non-experts to learn and experiment with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), a popular class of complex deep learning models. With GAN Lab, users can interactively train generative models and visualize the dynamic training process's intermediate results. GAN Lab tightly integrates an model overview graph that summarizes GAN's structure, and a layered distributions view that helps users interpret the interplay between submodels. GAN Lab introduces new interactive experimentation features for learning complex deep learning models, such as step-by-step training at multiple levels of abstraction for understanding intricate training dynamics. Implemented using TensorFlow.js, GAN Lab is accessible to anyone via modern web browsers, without the need for installation or specialized hardware, overcoming a major practical challenge in deploying interactive tools for deep learning.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993551

RESUMO

Deep learning has recently seen rapid development and received significant attention due to its state-of-the-art performance on previously-thought hard problems. However, because of the internal complexity and nonlinear structure of deep neural networks, the underlying decision making processes for why these models are achieving such performance are challenging and sometimes mystifying to interpret. As deep learning spreads across domains, it is of paramount importance that we equip users of deep learning with tools for understanding when a model works correctly, when it fails, and ultimately how to improve its performance. Standardized toolkits for building neural networks have helped democratize deep learning; visual analytics systems have now been developed to support model explanation, interpretation, debugging, and improvement. We present a survey of the role of visual analytics in deep learning research, which highlights its short yet impactful history and thoroughly summarizes the state-of-the-art using a human-centered interrogative framework, focusing on the Five W's and How (Why, Who, What, How, When, and Where). We conclude by highlighting research directions and open research problems. This survey helps researchers and practitioners in both visual analytics and deep learning to quickly learn key aspects of this young and rapidly growing body of research, whose impact spans a diverse range of domains.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515937

RESUMO

The advent of mobile health (mHealth) technologies challenges the capabilities of current visualizations, interactive tools, and algorithms. We present Chronodes, an interactive system that unifies data mining and human-centric visualization techniques to support explorative analysis of longitudinal mHealth data. Chronodes extracts and visualizes frequent event sequences that reveal chronological patterns across multiple participant timelines of mHealth data. It then combines novel interaction and visualization techniques to enable multifocus event sequence analysis, which allows health researchers to interactively define, explore, and compare groups of participant behaviors using event sequence combinations. Through summarizing insights gained from a pilot study with 20 behavioral and biomedical health experts, we discuss Chronodes's efficacy and potential impact in the mHealth domain. Ultimately, we outline important open challenges in mHealth, and offer recommendations and design guidelines for future research.

10.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 88-97, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866557

RESUMO

While deep learning models have achieved state-of-the-art accuracies for many prediction tasks, understanding these models remains a challenge. Despite the recent interest in developing visual tools to help users interpret deep learning models, the complexity and wide variety of models deployed in industry, and the large-scale datasets that they used, pose unique design challenges that are inadequately addressed by existing work. Through participatory design sessions with over 15 researchers and engineers at Facebook, we have developed, deployed, and iteratively improved ACTIVIS, an interactive visualization system for interpreting large-scale deep learning models and results. By tightly integrating multiple coordinated views, such as a computation graph overview of the model architecture, and a neuron activation view for pattern discovery and comparison, users can explore complex deep neural network models at both the instance- and subset-level. ACTIVIS has been deployed on Facebook's machine learning platform. We present case studies with Facebook researchers and engineers, and usage scenarios of how ACTIVIS may work with different models.

11.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 215-225, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866563

RESUMO

Finding patterns in graphs has become a vital challenge in many domains from biological systems, network security, to finance (e.g., finding money laundering rings of bankers and business owners). While there is significant interest in graph databases and querying techniques, less research has focused on helping analysts make sense of underlying patterns within a group of subgraph results. Visualizing graph query results is challenging, requiring effective summarization of a large number of subgraphs, each having potentially shared node-values, rich node features, and flexible structure across queries. We present VIGOR, a novel interactive visual analytics system, for exploring and making sense of query results. VIGOR uses multiple coordinated views, leveraging different data representations and organizations to streamline analysts sensemaking process. VIGOR contributes: (1) an exemplar-based interaction technique, where an analyst starts with a specific result and relaxes constraints to find other similar results or starts with only the structure (i.e., without node value constraints), and adds constraints to narrow in on specific results; and (2) a novel feature-aware subgraph result summarization. Through a collaboration with Symantec, we demonstrate how VIGOR helps tackle real-world problems through the discovery of security blindspots in a cybersecurity dataset with over 11,000 incidents. We also evaluate VIGOR with a within-subjects study, demonstrating VIGOR's ease of use over a leading graph database management system, and its ability to help analysts understand their results at higher speed and make fewer errors.

13.
Ext Abstr Hum Factors Computing Syst ; 2017: 1694-1699, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354810

RESUMO

Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as "black-boxes" due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user's data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

14.
Proc ACM Int Conf Ubiquitous Comput ; 2017: 237-240, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354812

RESUMO

We present Discovery Dashboard, a visual analytics system for exploring large volumes of time series data from mobile medical field studies. Discovery Dashboard offers interactive exploration tools and a data mining motif discovery algorithm to help researchers formulate hypotheses, discover trends and patterns, and ultimately gain a deeper understanding of their data. Discovery Dashboard emphasizes user freedom and flexibility during the data exploration process and enables researchers to do things previously challenging or impossible to do - in the web-browser and in real time. We demonstrate our system visualizing data from a mobile sensor study conducted at the University of Minnesota that included 52 participants who were trying to quit smoking.

15.
J Biomed Inform ; 61: 267-75, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A significant challenge in treating rare forms of cancer such as Glioblastoma (GBM) is to find optimal personalized treatment plans for patients. The goals of our study is to predict which patients survive longer than the median survival time for GBM based on clinical and genomic factors, and to assess the predictive power of treatment patterns. METHOD: We developed a predictive model based on the clinical and genomic data from approximately 300 newly diagnosed GBM patients for a period of 2years. We proposed sequential mining algorithms with novel clinical constraints, namely, 'exact-order' and 'temporal overlap' constraints, to extract treatment patterns as features used in predictive modeling. With diverse features from clinical, genomic information and treatment patterns, we applied both logistic regression model and Cox regression to model patient survival outcome. RESULTS: The most predictive features influencing the survival period of GBM patients included mRNA expression levels of certain genes, some clinical characteristics such as age, Karnofsky performance score, and therapeutic agents prescribed in treatment patterns. Our models achieved c-statistic of 0.85 for logistic regression and 0.84 for Cox regression. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the importance of diverse sources of features in predicting GBM patient survival outcome. The predictive model presented in this study is a preliminary step in a long-term plan of developing personalized treatment plans for GBM patients that can later be extended to other types of cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Mineração de Dados , Marcadores Genéticos , Glioblastoma , Algoritmos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
AVI ; 2016: 272-279, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553670

RESUMO

Extracting useful patterns from large network datasets has become a fundamental challenge in many domains. We present VISAGE, an interactive visual graph querying approach that empowers users to construct expressive queries, without writing complex code (e.g., finding money laundering rings of bankers and business owners). Our contributions are as follows: (1) we introduce graph autocomplete, an interactive approach that guides users to construct and refine queries, preventing over-specification; (2) VISAGE guides the construction of graph queries using a data-driven approach, enabling users to specify queries with varying levels of specificity, from concrete and detailed (e.g., query by example), to abstract (e.g., with "wildcard" nodes of any types), to purely structural matching; (3) a twelve-participant, within-subject user study demonstrates VISAGE's ease of use and the ability to construct graph queries significantly faster than using a conventional query language; (4) VISAGE works on real graphs with over 468K edges, achieving sub-second response times for common queries.

17.
HT ACM Conf Hypertext Soc Media ; 2015: 139-148, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26640831

RESUMO

Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported "badge" information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking (~one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence (~40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy.

18.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 22(6): 1137-42, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26555017

RESUMO

Mobile sensor data-to-knowledge (MD2K) was chosen as one of 11 Big Data Centers of Excellence by the National Institutes of Health, as part of its Big Data-to-Knowledge initiative. MD2K is developing innovative tools to streamline the collection, integration, management, visualization, analysis, and interpretation of health data generated by mobile and wearable sensors. The goal of the big data solutions being developed by MD2K is to reliably quantify physical, biological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors that contribute to health and disease risk. The research conducted by MD2K is targeted at improving health through early detection of adverse health events and by facilitating prevention. MD2K will make its tools, software, and training materials widely available and will also organize workshops and seminars to encourage their use by researchers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/instrumentação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Telemetria , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
19.
IUI ; 2015(Companion): 61-64, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25859567

RESUMO

Given the explosive growth of modern graph data, new methods are needed that allow for the querying of complex graph structures without the need of a complicated querying languages; in short, interactive graph querying is desirable. We describe our work towards achieving our overall research goal of designing and developing an interactive querying system for large network data. We focus on three critical aspects: scalable data mining algorithms, graph visualization, and interaction design. We have already completed an approximate subgraph matching system called MAGE in our previous work that fulfills the algorithmic foundation allowing us to query a graph with hundreds of millions of edges. Our preliminary work on visual graph querying, Graphite, was the first step in the process to making an interactive graph querying system. We are in the process of designing the graph visualization and robust interaction needed to make truly interactive graph querying a reality.

20.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 22(2): 318-23, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25656514

RESUMO

Health care delivery processes consist of complex activity sequences spanning organizational, spatial, and temporal boundaries. Care is human-directed so these processes can have wide variations in cost, quality, and outcome making systemic care process analysis, conformance testing, and improvement challenging. We designed and developed an interactive visual analytic process exploration and discovery tool and used it to explore clinical data from 5784 pediatric asthma emergency department patients.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Apresentação de Dados , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Interface Usuário-Computador , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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