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1.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986714

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anti-angiogenic drugs are an efficacious class of therapy in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Aflibercept, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) trap which binds the angiogenic factors VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PIGF) is approved in combination with FOLFIRI chemotherapy following progression after an oxaliplatin-containing regimen. AREAS COVERED: This report provides a review of the practice-changing clinical studies which have established the use of anti-angiogenic therapy as second-line therapy in mCRC including aflibercept with FOLFIRI (5FU, leucovorin, irinotecan). This review also evaluates aflibercept with other chemotherapy regimens as well as efficacy and safety data from real-world studies. EXPERT OPINION: Aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI chemotherapy is an established safe and efficacious regimen for the treatment of mCRC as second-line chemotherapy. Although several toxicities have been described, the majority are either low grade or manageable by drug cessation and supportive therapies. For optimal outcomes, patient selection and close observation of toxicities is essential.

2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-13, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865586

RESUMO

Intratumoral injection of G100, a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, was shown pre-clinically to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses and tumor regression. This open-label, multicenter, phase 1/2 trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of intratumoral G100 injections following localized low-dose radiation in patients with follicular lymphoma (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02501473). The study was comprised of a G100 dose escalation (5 or 10 µg/dose, or 20 µg/dose for large tumors); a randomized component comparing G100 to G100 plus pembrolizumab; and G100 20 µg/dose expansion. Adverse events grade ≥3 were uncommon in patients treated with G100, and no unexpected toxicities were observed when combined with pembrolizumab. G100 20 µg (n = 18) resulted in an overall response rate of 33.3% and abscopal tumor regression in 72.2% of patients. This early-phase study provides a foundation for combining an intratumoral TLR4 agonist with agents to produce immune-mediated responses in follicular lymphoma with limited added toxicity.

3.
Cancer Imaging ; 21(1): 67, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modelling can inform on tissue perfusion without exogenous contrast administration. Dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can also characterise tissue perfusion, but requires a bolus injection of a Gadolinium-based contrast agent. This study compares the use of DCE-MRI and IVIM-DWI methods in assessing response to anti-angiogenic treatment in patients with colorectal liver metastases in a cohort with confirmed treatment response. METHODS: This prospective imaging study enrolled 25 participants with colorectal liver metastases to receive Regorafenib treatment. A target metastasis > 2 cm in each patient was imaged before and at 15 days after treatment on a 1.5T MR scanner using slice-matched IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI protocols. MRI data were motion-corrected and tumour volumes of interest drawn on b=900 s/mm2 diffusion-weighted images were transferred to DCE-MRI data for further analysis. The median value of four IVIM-DWI parameters [diffusion coefficient D (10-3 mm2/s), perfusion fraction f (ml/ml), pseudodiffusion coefficient D* (10-3 mm2/s), and their product fD* (mm2/s)] and three DCE-MRI parameters [volume transfer constant Ktrans (min-1), enhancement fraction EF (%), and their product KEF (min-1)] were recorded at each visit, before and after treatment. Changes in pre- and post-treatment measurements of all MR parameters were assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P<0.05 was considered significant). DCE-MRI and IVIM-DWI parameter correlations were evaluated with Spearman rank tests. Functional MR parameters were also compared against Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours v.1.1 (RECIST) evaluations. RESULTS: Significant treatment-induced reductions of DCE-MRI parameters across the cohort were observed for EF (91.2 to 50.8%, P<0.001), KEF (0.095 to 0.045 min-1, P<0.001) and Ktrans (0.109 to 0.078 min-1, P=0.002). For IVIM-DWI, only D (a non-perfusion parameter) increased significantly post treatment (0.83 to 0.97 × 10-3 mm2/s, P<0.001), while perfusion-related parameters showed no change. No strong correlations were found between DCE-MRI and IVIM-DWI parameters. A moderate correlation was found, after treatment, between Ktrans and D* (r=0.60; P=0.002) and fD* (r=0.67; P<0.001). When compared to RECIST v.1.1 evaluations, KEF and D correctly identified most clinical responders, whilst non-responders were incorrectly identified. CONCLUSION: IVIM-DWI perfusion-related parameters showed limited sensitivity to the anti-angiogenic effects of Regorafenib treatment in colorectal liver metastases and showed low correlation with DCE-MRI parameters, despite profound and significant post-treatment reductions in DCE-MRI measurements. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03010722 clinicaltrials.gov; registration date 6th January 2015.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-19, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the recent development of new chemotherapeutic regimens and combination strategies, metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) still shows only a modest response to conventional cytotoxic agents. However, several novel therapeutic agents targeting the unique features of mPC are showing promise in clinical trials. AREA COVERED: This article reviews the current state of development of new agents targeting various systems and molecular pathways. We searched PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov in September 2021 with a special focus on ongoing early phase clinical trials to identify the promising therapeutic strategies for mPC. EXPERT OPINION: Extensive tumor heterogeneity, complex tumor microenvironment, genetic alterations of the oncogenic signaling pathways, metabolic dysregulation, and a low immunogenicity are hurdles for current treatment approaches. Ongoing research efforts strive to overcome these hurdles and are showing some promising early results.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6738, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795259

RESUMO

FOLFIRINOX, a combination of chemotherapy drugs (Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan -FOI), provides the best clinical benefit in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. In this study we explore the role of miRNAs (MIR) as modulators of chemosensitivity to identify potential biomarkers of response. We find that 41 and 84 microRNA inhibitors enhance the sensitivity of Capan1 and MiaPaCa2 PDAC cells respectively. These include a MIR1307-inhibitor that we validate in further PDAC cell lines. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and DNA damage accumulation are higher in MIR1307 knock-out (MIR1307KO) versus control PDAC cells, while re-expression of MIR1307 in MIR1307KO cells rescues these effects. We identify binding of MIR1307 to CLIC5 mRNA through covalent ligation of endogenous Argonaute-bound RNAs cross-linking immunoprecipitation assay. We validate these findings in an in vivo model with MIR1307 disruption. In a pilot cohort of PDAC patients undergoing FOLFIRONX chemotherapy, circulating MIR1307 correlates with clinical outcome.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(35): 3978-3992, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To increase awareness, outline strategies, and offer guidance on the recommended management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of medical oncology, neurology, hematology, emergency medicine, nursing, trialists, and advocacy experts was convened to develop the guideline. Guideline development involved a systematic literature review and an informal consensus process. The systematic review focused on evidence published from 2017 to 2021. RESULTS: The systematic review identified 35 eligible publications. Because of the paucity of high-quality evidence, recommendations are based on expert consensus. RECOMMENDATIONS: The multidisciplinary team issued recommendations to aid in the recognition, workup, evaluation, and management of the most common CAR T-cell-related toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome, immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, B-cell aplasia, cytopenias, and infections. Management of short-term toxicities associated with CAR T cells begins with supportive care for most patients, but may require pharmacologic interventions for those without adequate response. Management of patients with prolonged or severe CAR T-cell-associated cytokine release syndrome includes treatment with tocilizumab with or without a corticosteroid. On the basis of the potential for rapid decline, patients with moderate to severe immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome should be managed with corticosteroids and supportive care.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101440, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To increase awareness, outline strategies, and offer guidance on the recommended management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) therapy. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of medical oncology, dermatology, gastroenterology, rheumatology, pulmonology, endocrinology, neurology, hematology, emergency medicine, nursing, trialists, and advocacy experts was convened to update the guideline. Guideline development involved a systematic literature review and an informal consensus process. The systematic review focused on evidence published from 2017 through 2021. RESULTS: A total of 175 studies met the eligibility criteria of the systematic review and were pertinent to the development of the recommendations. Because of the paucity of high-quality evidence, recommendations are based on expert consensus. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations for specific organ system-based toxicity diagnosis and management are presented. While management varies according to the organ system affected, in general, ICPi therapy should be continued with close monitoring for grade 1 toxicities, except for some neurologic, hematologic, and cardiac toxicities. ICPi therapy may be suspended for most grade 2 toxicities, with consideration of resuming when symptoms revert ≤ grade 1. Corticosteroids may be administered. Grade 3 toxicities generally warrant suspension of ICPis and the initiation of high-dose corticosteroids. Corticosteroids should be tapered over the course of at least 4-6 weeks. Some refractory cases may require other immunosuppressive therapy. In general, permanent discontinuation of ICPis is recommended with grade 4 toxicities, except for endocrinopathies that have been controlled by hormone replacement. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

8.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738860

RESUMO

Thyroid abnormalities are well reported following childhood treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). Limited information exists for adult patients and after modern treatments. We analyzed risks of thyroid disorders in 237 female participants treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital 1970-2015. Multivariable analyses of risk according to treatment and time-related factors, survival analyses, and Cox regression modeling were undertaken. Overall, 33.8% of patients reported thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism 30.0% and thyroid nodules 6.8%). Cumulative prevalence was 42.9% by 40 years follow-up. Risks were greatest after supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy (RR = 5.0, p < 0.001), and increasing dose (RR = 1.03/Gy, p < 0.001). There was no association with a chemotherapy agent. Risks of thyroid disease were as raised following adult as childhood treatment. There was no trend in risk by decade of supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy treatment. Risks of thyroid disease after supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy are as great after adult as childhood treatment and persist after more recent treatment periods.

9.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer remains a challenging malignancy due to the high proportion of patients diagnosed at advanced stages and the limited treatment options. This article discusses recent evidence in the management of both localized and advanced pancreatic cancer and offers an expert opinion on current best practice. AREAS COVERED: For patients with localized disease, the evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy is discussed as well as emerging neoadjuvant approaches for resectable, borderline resectable, and locally advanced disease. Advances in metastatic disease are discussed including cytotoxic chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and the role of genomic testing to identify patients with molecular alterations. Reviewed literature included journal publications, abstracts presented at major international oncology meetings, and ongoing clinical trials databases. EXPERT OPINION: Pancreatic cancer is a devastating diagnosis and despite recent advances has a very poor prognosis. Only a minority of patients, 20%, are diagnosed with potentially curable disease. The shifting paradigm toward neoadjuvant therapy may improve resectability and survival rates; however, robust evidence is required. Thus far, there has only been limited progress in advanced stage disease. Genomic testing may potentially identify more treatment targets although limited to small subgroups.

11.
Res Sq ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580668

RESUMO

Patients with cancer have higher COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Here we present the prospective CAPTURE study (NCT03226886) integrating longitudinal immune profiling with clinical annotation. Of 357 patients with cancer, 118 were SARS-CoV-2-positive, 94 were symptomatic and 2 patients died of COVID-19. In this cohort, 83% patients had S1-reactive antibodies, 82% had neutralizing antibodies against WT, whereas neutralizing antibody titers (NAbT) against the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants were substantially reduced. Whereas S1-reactive antibody levels decreased in 13% of patients, NAbT remained stable up to 329 days. Patients also had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and CD4+ responses correlating with S1-reactive antibody levels, although patients with hematological malignancies had impaired immune responses that were disease and treatment-specific, but presented compensatory cellular responses, further supported by clinical. Overall, these findings advance the understanding of the nature and duration of immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer.

12.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(11): 933-946, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506756

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a prevalent disease worldwide, with more than 50% of patients developing metastases to the liver. Despite advances in improving resectability, most patients present with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases requiring palliative systemic therapy and locoregional disease control strategies. There is a growing interest in the use of liver transplantation to treat non-resectable colorectal liver metastases in well selected patients, leading to a surge in the number of studies and prospective trials worldwide, thereby fuelling the emerging field of transplant oncology. The interdisciplinary nature of this field requires domain-specific evidence and expertise to be drawn from multiple clinical specialities and the basic sciences. Importantly, the wider societal implication of liver transplantation for non-resectable colorectal liver metastases, such as the effect on the allocation of resources and national transplant waitlists, should be considered. To address the urgent need for a consensus approach, the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association commissioned the Liver Transplantation for Colorectal liver Metastases 2021 working group, consisting of international leaders in the areas of hepatobiliary surgery, colorectal oncology, liver transplantation, hepatology, and bioethics. The aim of this study was to standardise nomenclature and define management principles in five key domains: patient selection, evaluation of biological behaviour, graft selection, recipient considerations, and outcomes. An extensive literature review was done within the five domains identified. Between November, 2020, and January, 2021, a three-step modified Delphi consensus process was undertaken by the workgroup, who were further subgrouped into the Scientific Committee, Expert Panel, and Transplant Centre Representatives. A final consensus of 44 statements, standardised nomenclature, and a practical management algorithm is presented. Specific criteria for clinico-patho-radiological assessments with molecular profiling is crucial in this setting. After this, the careful evaluation of biological behaviour with bridging therapy to transplantation with an appropriate assessment of the response is required. The sequencing of treatment in synchronous metastatic disease requires special consideration and is highlighted here. Some ethical dilemmas within organ allocation for malignant indications are discussed and the role for extended criteria grafts, living donor transplantation, and machine perfusion technologies for non-resectable colorectal liver metastases are reviewed. Appropriate immunosuppressive regimens and strategies for the follow-up and treatment of recurrent disease are proposed. This consensus guideline provides a framework by which liver transplantation for non-resectable colorectal liver metastases might be safely instituted and is a meaningful step towards future evidenced-based practice for better patient selection and organ allocation to improve the survival for patients with this disease.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico
13.
Gastric Cancer ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 KEYNOTE-061 study (cutoff: 10/26/2017), pembrolizumab did not significantly prolong OS vs paclitaxel as second-line (2L) therapy in PD-L1 combined positive score (CPS) ≥ 1 gastric/GEJ cancer. We present results in CPS ≥ 1, ≥ 5, and ≥ 10 populations after two additional years of follow-up (cutoff: 10/07/2019). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated 1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg Q3W for ≤ 35 cycles or standard-dose paclitaxel. Primary endpoints: OS and PFS (CPS ≥ 1 population). HRs were calculated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: 366/395 patients (92.7%) with CPS ≥ 1 died. Pembrolizumab demonstrated a trend toward improved OS vs paclitaxel in the CPS ≥ 1 population (HR, 0.81); 24-month OS rates: 19.9% vs 8.5%. Pembrolizumab incrementally increased the OS benefit with PD-L1 enrichment (CPS ≥ 5: HR, 0.72, 24-month rate, 24.2% vs 8.8%; CPS ≥ 10: 0.69, 24-month rate, 32.1% vs 10.9%). There was no difference in median PFS among treatment groups (CPS ≥ 1: HR, 1.25; CPS ≥ 5: 0.98; CPS ≥ 10: 0.79). ORR (pembrolizumab vs paclitaxel) was 16.3% vs 13.6% (CPS ≥ 1), 20.0% vs 14.3% (CPS ≥ 5), and 24.5% vs 9.1% (CPS ≥ 10); median DOR was 19.1 months vs 5.2, 32.7 vs 4.8, and NR vs 6.9, respectively. Fewer treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) occurred with pembrolizumab than paclitaxel (53% vs 84%). CONCLUSION: In this long-term analysis, 2L pembrolizumab did not significantly improve OS but was associated with higher 24-month OS rates than paclitaxel. Pembrolizumab also increased OS benefit with PD-L1 enrichment among patients with PD-L1-positive gastric/GEJ cancer and led to fewer TRAEs than paclitaxel. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02370498.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 691185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336679

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) presents extremely aggressive tumours and is associated with poor survival. This is attributed to the unique features of the tumour microenvironment (TME), which is known to create a dense stromal formation and poorly immunogenic condition. In particular, the TME of PC, including the stromal cells and extracellular matrix, plays an essential role in the progression and chemoresistance of PC. Consequently, several promising agents that target key components of the stroma have already been developed and are currently in multiple stages of clinical trials. Therefore, the authors review the latest available evidence on novel stroma-targeting approaches, highlighting the potential impact of the stroma as a key component of the TME in PC.

15.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(8): 3549-3561, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341730

RESUMO

Background: Morphologic features yield low diagnostic accuracy to distinguish between diseased and normal lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to compare diseased lymphomatous and normal lymph nodes using global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC) histogram parameters derived from whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI). Methods: 1.5 Tesla WB-DWI of 23 lymphoma patients and 20 healthy volunteers performed between 09/2010 and 07/2015 were retrospectively reviewed. All diseased nodal groups in the lymphoma cohort and all nodes visible on b900 images in healthy volunteers were segmented from neck to groin to generate a total diffusion volume (tDV). A connected component-labelling algorithm separated spatially distinct nodes. Mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, minimum, maximum, interquartile range (IQR), standard deviation (SD), 10th and 90th centile of the gADC distribution were derived from the tDV of each patient/volunteer and from spatially distinct nodes. gADC and regional nodal ADC parameters were compared between malignant and normal nodes using t-tests and ROC curve analyses. A P value ≤0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Results: Mean, median, IQR, 10th and 90th centiles of gADC and regional nodal ADC values were significantly lower in diseased compared with normal lymph nodes. Skewness, kurtosis and tDV were significantly higher in lymphoma. The SD, min and max gADC showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.128). The diagnostic accuracies of gADC parameters by AUC from highest to lowest were: 10th centile, mean, median, 90th centile, skewness, kurtosis and IQR. A 10th centile gADC threshold of 0.68×10-3 mm2/s identified diseased lymphomatous nodes with 91% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Conclusions: WB-DWI derived gADC histogram parameters can distinguish between malignant lymph nodes of lymphoma patients and normal lymph nodes of healthy individuals.

16.
Blood Adv ; 5(20): 4073-4082, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464973

RESUMO

Relapsed or refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma (rrPCNSL) confers a poor prognosis with no accepted standard of care. Very few prospective studies have been conducted in this patient group. This study was a multicenter phase 1/2 study that investigated thiotepa in combination with ifosfamide, etoposide, and rituximab (TIER) for the treatment of PCNSL relapsed or refractory to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy. A 3 + 3 design investigated the recommended phase 2 dose of thiotepa for a single-stage phase 2 cohort by assessing the activity of 2 cycles of TIER against rrPCNSL. The primary outcome was overall response rate. The dose-finding study demonstrated that 50 mg/m2 of thiotepa could be safely delivered within the TIER regimen. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered in phase 1, and TIER was well-tolerated by the 27 patients treated in phase 2. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities were neutropenia (56% of patients) and thrombocytopenia (39%). An overall response was confirmed in 14 patients (52%), which met the prespecified threshold for clinically relevant activity. The median progression-free survival was 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 6 months) and overall survival 5 months (95% CI, 3 to 9 months). Exploratory analyses suggest a greater benefit for thiotepa-naïve patients. Six patients successfully completed autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) consolidation, with 4 experiencing durable remissions after a median follow-up of 50 months. The TIER regimen can be delivered safely and is active against rrPCNSL. When it is followed by ASCT, it can provide durable remission and long-term survival. However, for the majority of patients, prognosis remains poor, and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search as EudraCT 2014-000227-24 and ISRCTN 12857473.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Tiotepa/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo
17.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(10): 1159-1167, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recurrence is the driving factor for reduced long-term survival in patients following resected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Extensive research efforts have been conducted to understand the molecular processes precipitating disease recurrence. Modern genomic techniques have identified two distinct mechanisms for recurrent HCC (RHCC): Intrahepatic metastasis (IM-HCC); and multicentric origin (MO-HCC). Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane library were methodically searched for primary research articles in English with the aim of appraising existing literature on the identification of clonal origin of RHCC and its potential clinical utility. AREAS COVERED: Molecular and next-generation sequencing techniques, when applied to clonal origin identification, yield superior accuracy than traditional clinicopathological criteria. Despite various treatment modalities, no optimal therapy has yet been identified for treating clonally differentiated RHCC. Patients with MO-HCC appear to experience improved long-term survival following re-treatment compared to their IM-HCC counterparts (91.7% vs 22.9% 5-year survival, p < 0.001). However, cautious interpretation is advised as heterogeneous classification criteria and small sample sizes restrict the generalizability of such findings. EXPERT OPINION: Improved identification of clonal origin in RHCC may facilitate further research on RHCC treatment strategies and enable the development of novel therapeutic targets, potentially leading to individualized treatment approaches in the future.

18.
Pharmacogenomics ; 22(11): 703-726, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120461

RESUMO

Advanced esophago-gastric (OG) adenocarcinomas have a high mortality rate and new therapeutic options are urgently required. Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular characteristics of OG cancers, tumor heterogeneity poses a challenge in developing new therapeutics capable of improving patient outcomes. Consequently, chemotherapy remains the mainstay of systemic treatment, with the HER2 being the only predictive biomarker routinely targeted in clinical practice. Recent data indicate that immunotherapy will be incorporated into first-line chemotherapy, but further research is required to refine patient selection. This review will summarize the clinical strategies being evaluated to utilize our knowledge of predictive biomarkers with reference to novel therapeutics, and discuss the barriers to implementing precision oncology in OG adenocarcinoma.

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