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2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(13): 7694-7703, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145597

RESUMO

Current diets of most nations either do not meet the nutrition recommendations or transgress environmental planetary boundaries or both. Transitioning toward sustainable diets that are nutritionally adequate and low in environmental impact is key in achieving the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. However, designing region-specific sustainable diets that are culturally acceptable is a formidable challenge. Recent studies have suggested that optimization algorithms offer a potential solution to the above challenge, but the evidence is mostly based on case studies from high-income nations using widely varying constraints and algorithms. Here, we employ nonlinear optimization modeling with a consistent study design to identify diets for 152 countries that meet four cultural acceptability constraints, five food-related per capita environmental planetary boundaries (carbon emissions, water, land, nitrogen, and phosphorus use), and the daily recommended levels for 29 nutrients. The results show that a considerable departure from current dietary behavior is required for all countries. The required changes in intake amounts of 221 food items are highly country-specific but in general point toward a need to reduce the intake of meat, dairy, rice, and sugar and an increase in fruits, vegetables, pulses, nuts, and other grains. The constraints for fiber, vitamin B12, vitamin E, and saturated fats and the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions and nitrogen application were the most difficult to meet, suggesting the need to pay special attention to them. The analysis demonstrates that nonlinear optimization is a powerful tool to design diets achieving multiple objectives.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Algoritmos , Carne , Verduras
3.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995719

RESUMO

Demand side interventions, such as dietary change, can significantly contribute towards the achievement of 2030 national sustainable development goals. However, most previous studies analysing the consequences of dietary change focus on a single dimension of sustainability (e.g., environment) using a limited number of indicators and dietary scenarios. A multi-dimension and multi-indicator analysis can identify the potential trade-offs. Here, starting from the current food consumption data (year 2011), we first designed nine alternative dietary scenarios (healthy Swiss diet, healthy global diet, vegetarian, vegan, pescatarian, flexitarian, protein-oriented and meat-oriented diets and a food greenhouse gas tax diet). Next we calculated three nutritional quality (nutrient balance score, disqualifying nutrient score, percent population with adequate nutrition), five environmental (greenhouse gas, water, land, nitrogen and phosphorus use), one economic (daily food expenditure) and one human health indicator (DALYs) for current and alternative diets. We found that transition towards a healthy diet following the guidelines of Swiss society of nutrition is the most sustainable option and is projected to result in 36% lesser environmental footprint, 33% lesser expenditure and 2.67% lower adverse health outcome (DALYs) compared with the current diet. On the other extreme, transition towards a meat or protein oriented diet can lead to large increases in diet related adverse health outcomes, environmental footprint, daily food expenditure and a reduction in intakes of essential nutrients (for Vitamin C, Fibre, Potassium and Calcium). We found that shifting to the vegetarian and vegan diet scenarios might lead to a reduction in intakes of certain micronutrients currently supplied primarily by animal-sourced foods (Vitamin B12, Choline and Calcium). Results show that achieving a sustainable diet would entail a high reduction in the intake of meat and vegetable oils and a moderate reduction in cereals, roots and fish products and at the same time increased intake of legumes, nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables. We identify several current data and research gaps that need to be filled in order to get more accurate results. Overall, our analysis underscores the need to consider multiple indicators while assessing the dietary sustainability and provides a template to conduct such studies in other countries and settings. Future efforts should focus on assessing the potential of different interventions and policies that can help transition the population from current to sustainable dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Nível de Saúde , Valor Nutritivo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Dieta/economia , Dieta/normas , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Suíça , Impostos
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(9): 5094-5104, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648805

RESUMO

The UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative recently recommended use of the countryside species-area relationship (SAR) model to calculate the characterization factors (CFs; potential species loss per m2) for projecting the biodiversity impact of land use associated with a products' life cycle. However, CFs based on this approach are to date available for only six broad land use types without differentiating between their management intensities and have large uncertainties that limit their practical applicability. Here we derive updated CFs for projecting potential species losses of five taxa resulting from five broad land use types (managed forests, plantations, pasture, cropland, urban) under three intensity levels (minimal, light, and intense use) in each of the 804 terrestrial ecoregions. We utilize recent global land use intensity maps and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) habitat classification scheme to parametrize the SAR model. As a case study, we compare the biodiversity impacts of 1 m3 of wood produced under four different forest management regimes in India and demonstrate that the new land use intensity-specific CFs have smaller uncertainty intervals and are able to discern the impacts of intensively managed land uses from the low intensity regimes, which has not been possible through previous CFs.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Índia , Madeira
6.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659497

RESUMO

Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS), respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta. Results showed that partial replacement of refined wheat flour with yellow pea flour increased the NBS of pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta by 11%, 70%, and 18%, and decreased the life cycle carbon footprint (kg CO2 eq/kg) by 4%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. The cultivation stage of wheat and yellow peas, and the electricity used during the manufacturing stage of food production, were the hotspots in the life cycle. The nutritional and greenhouse gas (GHG) data were combined as the nutrition carbon footprint score (NCFS) (NBS/g CO2 per serving), a novel indicator that reflects product-level nutritional quality per unit environmental impact. Results showed that yellow pea flour increased the NCFS by 15% for pan bread, 90% for breakfast cereal, and 35% for pasta. The results and framework of this study are relevant for food industry, consumers, as well as global and national policy-makers evaluating the effect of dietary change and food reformulation on nutritional and climate change targets.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Manipulação de Alimentos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas , Canadá , Pegada de Carbono , Análise de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 848, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487286

RESUMO

Food systems are at the heart of at least 12 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The wide scope of the SDGs call for holistic approaches that integrate previously "siloed" food sustainability assessments. Here we present a first global-scale analysis quantifying the status of national food system performance of 156 countries, employing 25 sustainability indicators across 7 domains as follows: nutrition, environment, food affordability and availability, sociocultural well-being, resilience, food safety, and waste. The results show that different countries have widely varying patterns of performance with unique priorities for improvement. High-income nations score well on most indicators, but poorly on environmental, food waste, and health-sensitive nutrient-intake indicators. Transitioning from animal foods toward plant-based foods would improve indicator scores for most countries. Our nation-specific quantitative results can help policy-makers to set improvement targets on specific areas and adopt new practices, while keeping track of the other aspects of sustainability.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
8.
J Theor Biol ; 438: 151-155, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146280

RESUMO

The extinction of species at the present leads to the loss of 'phylogenetic diversity' (PD) from the evolutionary tree in which these species lie. Prior to extinction, the total PD present can be divided up among the species in various ways using measures of evolutionary isolation (such as 'fair proportion' and 'equal splits'). However, the loss of PD when certain combinations of species become extinct can be either larger or smaller than the cumulative loss of the isolation values associated with the extinct species. In this paper, we show that for trees generated under neutral evolutionary models, the loss of PD under a null model of random extinction at the present can be predicted from the loss of the cumulative isolation values, by applying a non-linear transformation that is independent of the tree. Moreover, the error in the prediction provably converges to zero as the size of the tree grows, with simulations showing good agreement even for moderate sized trees (n=64).


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Extinção Biológica , Filogenia , Modelos Biológicos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 586: 985-994, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222925

RESUMO

Identifying the global hotspots of forestry driven species, ecosystem services losses and informing the consuming nations of their environmental footprint domestically and abroad is essential to design demand side interventions and induce sustainable production methods. Here we first use countryside species area relationship model to project species extinctions of four vertebrate taxa (mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles) due to forest land use in 174 countries. We combine the projected extinctions with a global database on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by different biomes and with bilateral trade data of wood products to calculate species extinctions and ecosystem services losses inflicted by national wood consumption and international wood trade. Results show that globally a total of 485 species are projected to go extinct due to current forest land use. About 32% of this projected loss can be attributed to land use devoted for export production. However, under the counterfactual scenario with the same consumption levels but no international trade of wood products, an additional 334 species are projected to go extinct. Globally, we find that losses of ecosystem services worth $1.5trillion/year are embodied in the timber trade. Compared to high-income nations, tropical countries such as Philippines, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Gambia and Bolivia presented the highest net ecosystem services losses (>3000US$/ha/year) that could not be compensated through current land rents, indicating underpriced exports. Small tropical countries also gained much lower rents per species extinction suffered. These results can help internalize these costs into the global trade through financial compensation mechanisms such as REDD+ or through price premiums on wood sourced from these countries. Overall the results can provide valuable insights for devising national strategies to meet several of the global Aichi 2020 biodiversity targets and can also be useful for life cycle assessment and product labelling schemes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Comércio , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Madeira , Animais , Bolívia , Gâmbia , Nicarágua , Filipinas , Sri Lanka
10.
Water Res ; 108: 301-311, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836170

RESUMO

Model uncertainty estimation and risk assessment is essential to environmental management and informed decision making on pollution mitigation strategies. In this study, we apply a probabilistic methodology, which combines Bayesian Monte Carlo simulation and Maximum Likelihood estimation (BMCML) to calibrate a lake oxygen recovery model. We first derive an analytical solution of the differential equation governing lake-averaged oxygen dynamics as a function of time-variable wind speed. Statistical inferences on model parameters and predictive uncertainty are then drawn by Bayesian conditioning of the analytical solution on observed daily wind speed and oxygen concentration data obtained from an earlier study during two recovery periods on a eutrophic lake in upper state New York. The model is calibrated using oxygen recovery data for one year and statistical inferences were validated using recovery data for another year. Compared with essentially two-step, regression and optimization approach, the BMCML results are more comprehensive and performed relatively better in predicting the observed temporal dissolved oxygen levels (DO) in the lake. BMCML also produced comparable calibration and validation results with those obtained using popular Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique (MCMC) and is computationally simpler and easier to implement than the MCMC. Next, using the calibrated model, we derive an optimal relationship between liquid film-transfer coefficient for oxygen and wind speed and associated 95% confidence band, which are shown to be consistent with reported measured values at five different lakes. Finally, we illustrate the robustness of the BMCML to solve risk-based water quality management problems, showing that neglecting cross-correlations between parameters could lead to improper required BOD load reduction to achieve the compliance criteria of 5 mg/L.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Incerteza , Lagos , Funções Verossimilhança , Método de Monte Carlo , Oxigênio , Gestão de Riscos
11.
Sci Rep ; 6: 23954, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040604

RESUMO

Forests managed for timber have an important role to play in conserving global biodiversity. We evaluated the most common timber production systems worldwide in terms of their impact on local species richness by conducting a categorical meta-analysis. We reviewed 287 published studies containing 1008 comparisons of species richness in managed and unmanaged forests and derived management, taxon, and continent specific effect sizes. We show that in terms of local species richness loss, forest management types can be ranked, from best to worse, as follows: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. Next, we calculated the economic profitability in terms of the net present value of timber harvesting from 10 hypothetical wood-producing Forest Management Units (FMU) from around the globe. The ranking of management types is altered when the species loss per unit profit generated from the FMU is considered. This is due to differences in yield, timber species prices, rotation cycle length and production costs. We thus conclude that it would be erroneous to dismiss or prioritize timber production regimes, based solely on their ranking of alpha diversity impacts.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/economia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Florestas , Densidade Demográfica
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(7): 3928-36, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914258

RESUMO

Anthropogenic land use to produce commodities for human consumption is the major driver of global biodiversity loss. Synergistic collaboration between producers and consumers in needed to halt this trend. In this study, we calculate species loss on 5 min × 5 min grid level and per country due to global agriculture, pasture and forestry by combining high-resolution land use data with countryside species area relationship for mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Results show that pasture was the primary driver of biodiversity loss in Madagascar, China and Brazil, while forest land use contributed the most to species loss in DR Congo and Indonesia. Combined with the yield data, we quantified the biodiversity impacts of 1 m(3) of roundwood produced in 139 countries, concluding that tropical countries with low timber yield and a large presence of vulnerable species suffer the highest impact. We also calculated impacts per kg for 160 crops grown in different countries and linked it with FAO food trade data to assess the biodiversity impacts embodied in Swiss food imports. We found that more than 95% of Swiss consumption impacts rest abroad with cocoa, coffee and palm oil imports being responsible for majority of damage.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Análise Espacial , Animais , Aves , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos , Geografia , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Suíça
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(16): 9987-95, 2015 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26197362

RESUMO

Habitat degradation and subsequent biodiversity damage often take place far from the place of consumption because of globalization and the increasing level of international trade. Informing consumers and policy makers about the biodiversity impacts "hidden" in the life cycle of imported products is an important step toward achieving sustainable consumption patterns. Spatially explicit methods are needed in life cycle assessment to accurately quantify biodiversity impacts of products and processes. We use the Countryside species-area relationship (SAR) to quantify regional species loss due to land occupation and transformation for five taxa and six land use types in 804 terrestrial ecoregions. Further, we calculate vulnerability scores for each ecoregion based on the fraction of each species' geographic range (endemic richness) hosted by the ecoregion and the IUCN assigned threat level of each species. Vulnerability scores are multiplied with SAR-predicted regional species loss to estimate potential global extinctions per unit of land use. As a case study, we assess the land use biodiversity impacts of 1 kg of bioethanol produced using six different feed stocks in different parts of the world. Results show that the regions with highest biodiversity impacts differed markedly when the vulnerability of species was included.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia , Mamíferos , Especificidade da Espécie , Incerteza
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(53): 10750-3, 2015 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26051389

RESUMO

Nitrogen-doped, PEGylated carbon dots (C-dots) have been synthesized for the detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)). The detection limit was found to be 6.8 nM. However, upon functionalization with dithiothreitol (DTT), it reached to as low as 18 pM. The C-dots-Hg(2+) system was also able to efficiently detect biothiols.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Carbono/química , Ditiotreitol/química , Íons/química , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Polietilenoglicóis/química
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(6): 3584-92, 2015 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25719255

RESUMO

Addressing biodiversity impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) has recently been significantly improved. Advances include the consideration of several taxa, consideration of vulnerability of species and ecosystems, global coverage and spatial differentiation. To allow a comparison of biodiversity impacts of different stressors (e.g., land and water use), consistent approaches for assessing and aggregating biodiversity impacts across taxa are needed. We propose four different options for aggregating impacts across taxa and stressors: equal weight for species, equal weight for taxa and two options with special consideration of species' vulnerability. We apply the aggregation options to a case study of coffee, tea and sugarcane production in Kenya for the production of 1 kg of crop. The ranking between stressors (land vs water use) within each crop and also of the overall impact between crops (coffee>sugarcane>tea) remained the same when applying the different aggregation options. Inclusion of the vulnerability of species had significant influence on the magnitude of results, and potentially also on the spatial distribution of impacts, and should be considered.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Camellia sinensis , Coffea , Produtos Agrícolas , Quênia , Saccharum , Água
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(9): 5039-44, 2015 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25719820

RESUMO

The study presents dithiothreitol (DTT) functionalized anisotropic gold nanoparticles (GNP) based colorimetric sensor for detection of toxic lead ions in water. Our results demonstrate the selectivity and sensitivity of the developed sensor over various heavy metal ions with detection limit of ∼9 nM. The mechanism of sensing is explained on the basis of unique corona formation around the DTT functionalized anisotropic GNP.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Ouro/química , Chumbo/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ditiotreitol/química , Íons/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Metais Pesados/análise , Água/química
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(24): 14607-14, 2014 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25405704

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that negatively affect human health are emitted from wood products used indoors. However, the existing life cycle inventories of these products only document the emissions occurring during production and disposal phases. Consequently, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of indoor wooden products conducted using these inventories neglect the use-phase impacts from exposure to offgassed VOCs and therefore underestimate the product's total environmental impact. This study demonstrates a methodology to calculate the use phase inventory and the corresponding human health impacts resulting from indoor use of any VOC emitting product. For the five most commonly used types of boards used in indoor wood products, the mass of each VOC emitted into the indoor compartment over their service life was calculated by statistically analyzing data from 50 published chamber testing studies. Uncertainty was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated inventory data were used in a case study to calculate and compare the health impacts of five different wooden floorings made of above materials. The results show that the use-phase human-toxicity impacts are an order of magnitude higher than those occurring during the rest of the flooring's life cycle. The factors influencing the offgassing of VOCs from wood products and measures to reduce exposure are discussed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade , Madeira
18.
J Chem Phys ; 141(8): 084707, 2014 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25173030

RESUMO

Among the various surface properties, nanoparticle curvature has a direct effect on the inner root of protein nanoparticle interaction. However, the orientation of adsorbed proteins onto the nanoparticle surface and its binding mechanism still remains elusive because of the lack of in-depth knowledge at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate detail molecular insights of the orientational switching of several serum proteins as a function of nanoparticle curvature using theoretical simulation along with some experimental results. With the variation of binding stability, four distinctly different classes of orientation were observed for human serum albumin, whereas only two unique classes of conformations were observed for ubiquitin, insulin, and haemoglobin. As a general observation, our data suggested that orientations were exclusively dependent on the specific protein structure and the geometrical fitting onto the nanoparticle surface.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Albumina Sérica/química , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(38): 20471-82, 2014 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25140357

RESUMO

Various properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are found to play crucial roles in their biological activity. Among them, the morphology and surface chemistry are extremely important. This is because of differences in surface energies of various crystal facets arising from a large fraction of edges, corners and vertices. In the present work, we provide a comparative study on the adsorption and binding affinities of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto triangular gold nanoplates (TGNP) and gold nanorods (GNR). The results were compared with similar size of both CTAB and citrate stabilized spherical GNPs. Our data suggested stronger binding of BSA on citrate stabilized spherical GNPs whereas TGNP shows the weakest binding among all the GNPs. A blue shift of approximately 20 nm in tryptophan fluorescence was observed for all CTAB stabilized GNPs, indicating the local dielectric changes surrounding the tryptophan residue. Loss of the secondary structure was also observed for all CTAB stabilized GNPs. No spectral shift was observed for citrate stabilized spherical GNPs though maximum quenching of fluorescence and minimum structural loss was observed. With the help of molecular simulation recently developed by our group, a binding model is proposed to explain all the above experimental results.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/ultraestrutura , Adsorção , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(13): 10231-7, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24926791

RESUMO

Selective staining of human serum albumin protein in gel electrophoresis over wide range of other protein(s) is extremely important because it contains more than 60% volume of serum fluid in human body. Given the nonexistence of suitable dye materials for selective staining of serum albumins in gel electrophoresis, we report a new class of easy synthesizable and low molecular weight staining agents based on 3-amino-N-alkyl-carbazole scaffold for selective staining of serum albumins in solid phase. A detailed structure-efficiency relationship (SER) study enabled us to develop two such potent functional molecular probes which stain both human and bovine serum albumin selectively in gel electrophoresis in the presence of other proteins and enzymes. The present gel staining process was found to be very simple and less time-consuming as compared to the conventional coomassie blue staining which in turn makes these probes a new class of serum albumin-specific staining materials in proteome research. Moreover, these molecular lumino-materials can detect serum albumins at subnanomolar level in the presence of broad spectrum of other proteins/enzymes in aqueous buffer (99.9% water, pH = 7.3) keeping the protein secondary structure intact. Our experimental and the docking simulation results show that these probes bind preferentially at 'binding site I' of both the serum proteins.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Sondas Moleculares , Albumina Sérica/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
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