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1.
Eur J Orthod ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP, OMIM #103580) is a very rare disease (incidence 0.3-1/100,000). Heterozygous inactivating mutations involving the maternal GNAS exons 1-13 that encodes the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) cause inactivating parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTHrP signalling disorder type 2 (iPPSD2 or PHP type 1A), which is characterized by Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and resistance to multiple hormones that act through the Gsα signalling pathway (including PTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone). To date, little information is available on craniofacial features in patients with PHP. The small number of patients studied in previous reports as well as the lack of molecular characterization of the patients may have precluded the detection of specific orofacial manifestations in the different PHP subtypes. MATERIALS/METHODS: We conducted a systematic analysis of dental and craniofacial features in 19 patients with iPPSD2 and maternal GNAS inactivating mutations to assess the frequency and specificity of the anomalies. RESULTS: Facial examinations showed reduced vertical, sagittal, and transverse development of the mid-facial structures. Intraoral and radiographic examinations revealed that 89 per cent of the patients had at least one dental anomaly, including tooth submergence leading to severe infraocclusion in 83 per cent of cases. Craniofacial analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs also showed a significant alteration in the development of the cranial base and maxillary and mandibular structures in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with iPPSD2 and maternal GNAS mutations had specific craniofacial alterations and dental abnormalities. These specific defects should be assessed in order to provide appropriate dental and orthodontic care to these patients. (clinical trial registration: 1920371 v 0, French Nationale Data Processing and Liberties Commission - CNIL).

2.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 15(7): 435-455, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068690

RESUMO

X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common cause of inherited phosphate wasting and is associated with severe complications such as rickets, lower limb deformities, pain, poor mineralization of the teeth and disproportionate short stature in children as well as hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, enthesopathies, osteoarthritis and pseudofractures in adults. The characteristics and severity of XLH vary between patients. Because of its rarity, the diagnosis and specific treatment of XLH are frequently delayed, which has a detrimental effect on patient outcomes. In this Evidence-Based Guideline, we recommend that the diagnosis of XLH is based on signs of rickets and/or osteomalacia in association with hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting in the absence of vitamin D or calcium deficiency. Whenever possible, the diagnosis should be confirmed by molecular genetic analysis or measurement of levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) before treatment. Owing to the multisystemic nature of the disease, patients should be seen regularly by multidisciplinary teams organized by a metabolic bone disease expert. In this article, we summarize the current evidence and provide recommendations on features of the disease, including new treatment modalities, to improve knowledge and provide guidance for diagnosis and multidisciplinary care.

4.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 8(8): 844-857, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016898

RESUMO

The craniofacial area is prone to trauma or pathologies often resulting in large bone damages. One potential treatment option is the grafting of a tissue-engineered construct seeded with adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The dental pulp appears as a relevant source of MSCs, as dental pulp stem cells display strong osteogenic properties and are efficient at bone formation and repair. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and/or hypoxia primings were shown to boost the angiogenesis potential of dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Based on these findings, we hypothesized here that these primings would also improve bone formation in the context of craniofacial bone repair. We found that both hypoxic and FGF-2 primings enhanced SHED proliferation and osteogenic differentiation into plastically compressed collagen hydrogels, with a much stronger effect observed with the FGF-2 priming. After implantation in immunodeficient mice, the tissue-engineered constructs seeded with FGF-2 primed SHED mediated faster intramembranous bone formation into critical size calvarial defects than the other groups (no priming and hypoxia priming). The results of this study highlight the interest of FGF-2 priming in tissue engineering for craniofacial bone repair. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:844&857.

5.
Stem Cells ; 37(5): 701-711, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674073

RESUMO

Stem cells endowed with skeletogenic potentials seeded in specific scaffolds are considered attractive tissue engineering strategies for treating large bone defects. In the context of craniofacial bone, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells derived from the dental pulp (DPSCs) have demonstrated significant osteogenic properties. Their neural crest embryonic origin further makes them a potential accessible therapeutic tool to repair craniofacial bone. The stem cells' direct involvement in the repair process versus a paracrine effect is however still discussed. To clarify this question, we have followed the fate of fluorescent murine DPSCs derived from PN3 Wnt1-CRE- RosaTomato mouse molar (T-mDPSCs) during the repair process of calvaria bone defects. Two symmetrical critical defects created on each parietal region were filled with (a) dense collagen scaffolds seeded with T-mDPSCs, (b) noncellularized scaffolds, or (c) no scaffold. Mice were imaged over a 3-month period by microcomputed tomography to evaluate the extent of repair and by biphotonic microscopy to track T-mDPSCs. Histological and immunocytochemical analyses were performed in parallel to characterize the nature of the repaired tissue. We show that T-mDPSCs are present up to 3 months postimplantation in the healing defect and that they rapidly differentiate in chondrocyte-like cells expressing all the expected characteristic markers. T-mDPSCs further maturate into hypertrophic chondrocytes and likely signal to host progenitors that form new bone tissue. This demonstrates that implanted T-mDPSCs are able to survive in the defect microenvironment and to participate directly in repair via an endochondral bone ossification-like process. Stem Cells 2019;37:701-711.

6.
Acta Biomater ; 82: 111-121, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312778

RESUMO

Therapies using stem cells may be applicable to all fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo osteogenic and proangiogenic properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether early angiogenesis investigated by nuclear imaging can predict bone formation within a mouse critical bone defect. Two symmetrical calvarial critical-sized defects were created. Defects were left empty or filled with i) DPSC-containing dense collagen scaffold, ii) 5% hypoxia-primed DPSC-containing dense collagen scaffold, iii) acellular dense collagen scaffold, or iv) left empty. Early angiogenesis assessed by PET using 64Cu-NODAGA-RGD as a tracer was found to be correlated with bone formation determined by micro-CT within the defects from day 30, and to be correlated to the late calcium apposition observed at day 90 using 18F-Na PET. These results suggest that nuclear imaging of angiogenesis, a technique applicable in clinical practice, is a promising approach for early prediction of bone grafting outcome, thus potentially allowing to anticipate alternative regenerative strategies. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Bone defects are a major concern in medicine. As life expectancy increases, the number of bone lesions grows, and occurring complications lead to a delay or even lack of consolidation. Therefore, to be able to predict healing or the absence of scarring at early times would be very interesting. This would not "waste time" for the patient. We report here that early nuclear imaging of angiogenesis, using 64Cu-NODAGA-RGD as a tracer, associated with nuclear imaging of mineralization, using 18F-Na as a tracer, is correlated to late bone healing objectivized by classical histology and microtomography. This nuclear imaging represents a promising approach for early prediction of bone grafting outcome in clinical practice, thus potentially allowing to anticipate alternative regenerative strategies.

7.
Stem Cell Rev ; 14(6): 812-822, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267203

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, destruction of pulmonary alveolar architecture and vascular remodeling. Apart pirfenidone or nintendanib that only slow down the fibrotic process, there is no curative treatment other than lung transplantation. Because cell therapy approaches have been proposed in IPF, we hypothesized that injection of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), the vasculogenic subtype of endothelial progenitor cells, could modulate fibrosis in a Nude mouse model of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis. Mice were injected with ECFCs isolated from cord blood and from peripheral blood of adult IPF patients at two time-points: during the development of the fibrosis or once the fibrosis was constituted. We assessed morbidity, weight variation, collagen deposition, lung imaging by microCT, Fulton score and microvascular density. Neither ECFCs isolated from cord blood nor from IPF patients were able to modulate fibrosis or vascular density during fibrogenesis or when fibrosis was constituted. These findings indicate that human ECFCs do not promote an adaptive regenerative response in the lung upon fibrosis or angiogenic process in the setting of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in Nude mice.

8.
Nature ; 558(7711): 540-546, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899452

RESUMO

CLOVES syndrome (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal naevi, scoliosis/skeletal and spinal syndrome) is a genetic disorder that results from somatic, mosaic gain-of-function mutations of the PIK3CA gene, and belongs to the spectrum of PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndromes (PROS). This rare condition has no specific treatment and a poor survival rate. Here, we describe a postnatal mouse model of PROS/CLOVES that partially recapitulates the human disease, and demonstrate the efficacy of BYL719, an inhibitor of PIK3CA, in preventing and improving organ dysfunction. On the basis of these results, we used BYL719 to treat nineteen patients with PROS. The drug improved the disease symptoms in all patients. Previously intractable vascular tumours became smaller, congestive heart failure was improved, hemihypertrophy was reduced, and scoliosis was attenuated. The treatment was not associated with any substantial side effects. In conclusion, this study provides the first direct evidence supporting PIK3CA inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PROS.

9.
Connect Tissue Res ; 59(sup1): 91-96, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745817

RESUMO

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disorder arising from mutations in the PHEX gene, transmitted in most cases as an X-linked dominant trait. PHEX deficiency leads to renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia, as well as impaired mineralization of bone and dentin, resulting in severe skeletal and dental complications. Dentin mineralization defects appear as characteristic, large interglobular spaces resulting from the lack of fusion of calculospherites in the circumpulpal region during the mineralization process. Here, we examined changes in the composition and structure of dentin using Raman spectroscopy on XLH human teeth, and using transmission electron microscopy on the dentin of Hyp mice (the murine model of XLH). The dentin of patients with XLH showed changes in the quality of the apatitic mineral, with greater carbonate substitution and lower crystallinity compared to the dentin of age-matched control teeth. In addition, ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed a major disorganization of the peri- and intertubular structure of the dentin, with odontoblast processes residing within an unmineralized matrix sheath in the Hyp mouse. Taken together, these results indicate that like for bone and tooth cementum, there are impaired mineral quality and matrix changes in XLH dentin reflecting high sensitivity to systemic serum phosphate levels and possibly other local changes in the dentin matrix.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663268

RESUMO

Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are rare genetic disorders of glycogen metabolism where the liver, kidneys, respiratory and cardiac muscles, as well as the immune and skeletal systems can be affected. Oral manifestations can also be present, but the specificity and frequency of these manifestations in the different forms of GSD are unknown. Analysis of a case series of 60 patients presenting four types of GSD (Ia, Ib, III, and IX) showed that the different types of GSDs have common and specific oral manifestations. In none of the GSD types studied, the prevalence of caries was higher than in the general population, especially in patients benefiting from current nutritional therapy, while in all GSD types the prevalence of delayed tooth eruption, agenesis, and tooth shape abnormalities was increased compared to the general population. Severe periodontitis prevalence was increased in patients with GSD Ib and neutropenia. Our results show that GSDs have oral manifestations and suggest some specificity depending on the type of GSDs.

11.
J Cell Physiol ; 233(9): 7402-7414, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663373

RESUMO

In bone remodeling, osteoclasts are recruited via increased production of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) and migrate to the bone surface, aided by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the NAD+ salvage pathway, increases during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Alveolar bone loss, due to disturbance of the remodeling process, is a major feature of periodontitis. Thus, we investigated the role of NAMPT in a synchronized alveolar bone remodeling rat model. NAMPT expression increased in osteogenic cells during the remodeling activation phase, in parallel with RANKL and MMP-2 expression. Inhibition of NAMPT activity, by systemic delivery of its selective inhibitor FK866, decreased the recruitment of osteoclasts, but not their activity. In vitro, NAMPT mRNA, and protein expression also increased during osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial osteoblast cultures. Recombinant NAMPT and NMN, its direct metabolite, dose-dependently increased bone marker expression, including that of sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC), whereas their expression was inhibited by FK866 treatment. Recombinant NAMPT did not regulate MMP-2, -9, MMP-13, or RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in osteoblasts. Our data suggest that de novo NAMPT synthesis in osteoblasts controls cell differentiation through osteoclast recruitment during the activation of bone remodeling.

12.
Front Physiol ; 9: 55, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472869

RESUMO

The Leucine Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) is a product of alternative splicing of the amelogenin gene. As full length amelogenin, LRAP has been shown, in precipitation experiments, to regulate hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal formation depending on its phosphorylation status. However, very few studies have questioned the impact of its phosphorylation status on enamel mineralization in biological models. Therefore, we have analyzed the effect of phosphorylated (+P) or non-phosphorylated (-P) LRAP on enamel formation in ameloblast-like cell lines and ex vivo cultures of murine postnatal day 1 molar germs. To this end, the mineral formed was analyzed by micro-computed tomography, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Selected Area Electon Diffraction imaging. Amelogenin gene transcription was evaluated by qPCR analysis. Our data show that, in both cells and germ cultures, LRAP is able to induce an up-regulation of amelogenin transcription independently of its phosphorylation status. Mineral formation is promoted by LRAP(+P) in all models, while LRAP(-P) essentially affects HAP crystal formation through an increase in crystal length and organization in ameloblast-like cells. Altogether, these data suggest a differential effect of LRAP depending on its phosphorylation status and on the ameloblast stage at the time of treatment. Therefore, LRAP isoforms can be envisioned as potential candidates for treatment of enamel lesions or defects and their action should be further evaluated in pathological models.

13.
Genet Med ; 20(2): 190-201, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771254

RESUMO

PurposeWe aimed to identify the genetic cause to a clinical syndrome encompassing hypohidrosis, electrolyte imbalance, lacrimal gland dysfunction, ichthyosis, and xerostomia (HELIX syndrome), and to comprehensively delineate the phenotype.MethodsWe performed homozygosity mapping, whole-genome sequencing, gene sequencing, expression studies, functional tests, protein bioinformatics, and histological characterization in two unrelated families with HELIX syndrome.ResultsWe identified biallelic missense mutations (c.386C>T, p.S131L and c.2T>C, p.M1T) in CLDN10B in six patients from two unrelated families. CLDN10B encodes Claudin-10b, an integral tight junction (TJ) membrane-spanning protein expressed in the kidney, skin, and salivary glands. All patients had hypohidrosis, renal loss of NaCl with secondary hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemia, as well as hypolacrymia, ichthyosis, xerostomia, and severe enamel wear. Functional testing revealed that patients had a decreased NaCl absorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and a severely decreased secretion of saliva. Both mutations resulted in reduced or absent Claudin-10 at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells.ConclusionCLDN10 mutations cause a dysfunction in TJs in several tissues and, subsequently, abnormalities in renal ion transport, ectodermal gland homeostasis, and epidermal integrity.


Assuntos
Claudinas/genética , Epitélio/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Claudinas/química , Clonagem Molecular , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Síndrome
14.
Front Physiol ; 8: 927, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184512

RESUMO

Bone exhibits a great ability for endogenous self-healing. Nevertheless, impaired bone regeneration and healing is on the rise due to population aging, increasing incidence of bone trauma and the clinical need for the development of alternative options to autologous bone grafts. Current strategies, including several biomolecules, cellular therapies, biomaterials, and different permutations of these, are now developed to facilitate the vascularization and the engraftment of the constructs, to recreate ultimately a bone tissue with the same properties and characteristics of the native bone. In this review, we browse the existing strategies that are currently developed, using biomolecules, cells and biomaterials, to induce, direct and potentiate bone healing after injury and further discuss the biological processes associated with this repair.

15.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 26: 35-42, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050019

RESUMO

Similar to coronal caries, root caries results from a disequilibrium of the de-remineralization balance in favor of the demineralization process. It mainly involves a bacterial shift in favor of an increase in the proportion of acidogenic and aciduric bacteria. This process permanently damages the dental mineralized tissues, namely the dental cementum and dentin. In addition to the demineralization and exposure of the dentin or the cementum organic matrix, acid production by cariogenic bacteria induces the activation of endogenous (host-derived) enzymes within the dentin and saliva. These enzymes include matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins. Once activated, these potent proteolytic enzymes collectively have the capacity to degrade all the components of the exposed organic dentin and cementum matrices. In this chapter, the description of the healthy cement and dentin organic matrices and their endogenous proteases will be followed by the role of these proteases in the root caries process.

16.
Stem Cells Dev ; 26(23): 1682-1694, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922973

RESUMO

Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory, multipotent population giving rise to numerous lineages in the embryo. Their plasticity renders attractive their use in tissue engineering-based therapies, but further knowledge on their in vivo behavior is required before clinical transfer may be envisioned. We here describe the isolation and characterization of a new mouse embryonic stem (ES) line derived from Wnt1-CRE-R26 RosaTomatoTdv blastocyst and show that it displays the characteristics of typical ES cells. Further, these cells can be efficiently directed toward an NC stem cell-like phenotype as attested by concomitant expression of NC marker genes and Tomato fluorescence. As native NC progenitors, they are capable of differentiating toward typical derivative phenotypes and interacting with embryonic tissues to participate in the formation of neo-structures. Their specific fluorescence allows purification and tracking in vivo. This cellular tool should facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms driving NC fate specification and help identify the key interactions developed within a tissue after in vivo implantation. Altogether, this novel model may provide important knowledge to optimize NC stem cell graft conditions, which are required for efficient tissue repair.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Crista Neural/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/transplante , Integrases/genética , Integrases/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Crista Neural/embriologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Proteína Wnt1/genética , Proteína Wnt1/metabolismo
17.
Bone ; 103: 334-346, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764922

RESUMO

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a dento-osseous disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene, leading to renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia, and impaired mineralization of bones and teeth. In the oral cavity, recent reports suggest a higher susceptibility of XLH patients to periodontitis, where patients present with impaired tooth cementum - a bone-like tissue involved in tooth attachment to the jaw bones and post-eruption tooth positioning - and a higher frequency of intrabony defects. In the present study, the pathobiology of alveolar bone and tooth cementum was investigated in the Hyp mouse, the murine analog of XLH. PHEX deficiency in XLH/Hyp dramatically alters the periodontal phenotype, with hypoplasia of tooth root cementum associated with a lack of periodontal ligament attachment and the presence of an immature apatitic mineral phase of all periodontal mineralized tissues. Challenging the Hyp periodontium in two surgical experimental models - ligature-induced periodontal breakdown and repair, and a model of tooth movement adaptation inducing cementum formation - we show that bone and cementum formation, and their healing, are altered. Bone and cementum mineralization appear similarly disturbed, where hypomineralized pericellular matrix surrounds cells, and where the protein osteopontin (OPN, a mineralization inhibitor) accumulates in a tissue-specific manner, most notably in the perilacunar matrix surrounding osteocytes. Although the pathobiology is different between XLH/Hyp bone and cementum, our results show a major XLH phenotype in oral mineralized tissues consistent with variations in patient susceptibility to periodontal disorders.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/patologia , Periodonto/patologia , Dente/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Endopeptidase Neutra Reguladora de Fosfato PHEX/genética
18.
Front Physiol ; 8: 326, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28596736

RESUMO

Claudins are a family of proteins that forms paracellular barriers and pores determining tight junctions (TJ) permeability. Claudin-16 and -19 are pore forming TJ proteins allowing calcium and magnesium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL). Loss-of-function mutations in the encoding genes, initially identified to cause Familial Hypomagnesemia with Hypercalciuria and Nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), were recently shown to be also involved in Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI). In addition, both claudins were expressed in the murine tooth germ and Claudin-16 knockout (KO) mice displayed abnormal enamel formation. Claudin-3, an ubiquitous claudin expressed in epithelia including kidney, acts as a barrier-forming tight junction protein. We determined that, similarly to claudin-16 and claudin-19, claudin-3 was expressed in the tooth germ, more precisely in the TJ located at the apical end of secretory ameloblasts. The observation of Claudin-3 KO teeth revealed enamel defects associated to impaired TJ structure at the secretory ends of ameloblasts and accumulation of matrix proteins in the forming enamel. Thus, claudin-3 protein loss-of-function disturbs amelogenesis similarly to claudin-16 loss-of-function, highlighting the importance of claudin proteins for the TJ structure. These findings unravel that loss-of-function of either pore or barrier-forming TJ proteins leads to enamel defects. Hence, the major structural function of claudin proteins appears essential for amelogenesis.

19.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 87(4): 244-253, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inheritable rickets. Rickets treatment is monitored by assessing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, clinical features, and radiographs. Our objectives were to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of XLH and to assess correlations with disease activity. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-seven XLH patients (median age 9.2 years) were included in this prospective single-center observational study. XLH activity was assessed using height, leg bowing, dental abscess history, and serum ALP levels. We looked for correlations between MRI features and markers of disease activity. RESULTS: On MRI, the median maximum width of the physis was 5.6 mm (range 4.8-7.8; normal <1.5), being >1.5 mm in all of the patients. The appearance of the zone of provisional calcification was abnormal on 21 MRI images (78%), Harris lines were present on 24 (89%), and bone marrow signal abnormalities were present on 16 (59%). ALP levels correlated with the maximum physeal widening and with the transverse extent of the widening. CONCLUSIONS: MRI of the knee provides precise rickets patterns that are correlated with ALP, an established biochemical marker of the disease, avoiding X-ray exposure and providing surrogate quantitative markers of disease activity.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Medula Óssea , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Articulação do Joelho , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Criança , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/sangue , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/metabolismo , Masculino
20.
Atherosclerosis ; 259: 60-67, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The arterial wall calcium score and circulating free DNA levels are now used in clinical practice as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Calcium phosphate apatite retention in the arterial wall necessitates precipitation on an anionic platform. Here, we explore the role of tissue-free DNA as such a platform. METHODS: The first step consisted of histological observation of samples from human and rat calcified arteries. Various stains were used to evaluate colocalization of free DNA with calcified tissue (alizarin red, fluorescent Hoechst, DNA immunostaining and TUNEL assay). Sections were treated by EDTA to reveal calcification background. Secondly, a rat model of vascular calcifications induced by intra-aortic infusions of free DNA and elastase + free DNA was developed. Rat aortas underwent a micro-CT for calcium score calculation at 3 weeks. Rat and human calcifications were qualitatively characterized using µFourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (µFTIR) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). RESULTS: Our histological study shows colocalization of calcified arterial plaques with free DNA. In the intra-aortic infusion model, free DNA was able to penetrate into the arterial wall and induce calcifications whereas no microscopic calcification was seen in control aortas. The calcification score in the elastase + free DNA group was significantly higher than in the control groups. Qualitative evaluation with µFTIR and FE-SEM demonstrated typical calcium phosphate retention in human and rat arterial specimens. CONCLUSIONS: This translational study demonstrates that free DNA could be involved in arterial calcification formation by precipitating calcium phosphate apatite crystals in the vessel wall.


Assuntos
Apatitas/metabolismo , Artérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/ultraestrutura , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Cristalização , DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/genética , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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