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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(3): 1809-1816, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292419

RESUMO

An ultralow lattice thermal conductivity of 0.14 W m-1 K-1 along the b[combining right harpoon above] axis of As2Se3 single crystals was obtained at 300 K using first-principles calculations involving density functional theory and the resolution of the Boltzmann transport equation. This ultralow lattice thermal conductivity arises from the combination of two mechanisms: (1) a cascade-like fall of the low-lying optical modes, which results in avoided crossings of these with the acoustic modes, low sound velocities and increased scattering rates of the acoustic phonons; and (2) the repulsion between the lone-pair electrons of the As cations and the valence p orbitals of the Se anions, which leads to an increase in the anharmonicity of the bonds. The physical origins of these mechanisms lie in the nature of the chemical bonding in the material and its strong anisotropy. These results, whose validity has been addressed by comparison with SnSe, for which excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experiments is achieved, point out that As2Se3 could exhibit improved thermoelectric properties.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(23): 15484-15502, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580970

RESUMO

Subnanometric transition-metal (TM) clusters have attracted great attention due to their unexpected physical and chemical properties, leastwise compared to their bulk counterparts. An in-depth understanding of the evolution of the properties as a function of the number of atoms for such systems is a basic prerequisite to leverage countless applications, from catalysis to magnetic storage, as well as to answer fundamental questions related to their intrinsic stability. Here, we reported a systematic density functional study to investigate the structural, electronic properties and stability of all TMn (30 elements) unary clusters as a function of the number of atoms (n = 2-15). We provided the complete structural patterns for all TM periodic table groups, considering the growth evolution as well as the main trends of the structural and electronic properties. The combination of the occupation of the bonding/anti-bonding d-states and the s-d hybridization is found to be the main stabilization mechanism, helping in the understanding of the structural patterns. Most TMn clusters have a magic number of atoms, for which there are peaks in s-d hybridization and null electric dipole moments. Thus, our extensive and comparative study addresses size effects along with the evolution of d-orbital occupation for the TMn gas-phase cluster properties.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 146(16): 164304, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456198

RESUMO

Although several studies have been reported for Pt55 and Au55 nanoclusters, our atomistic understanding of the interplay between the adsorbate-surface interactions and the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the distorted reduced core (DRC) structures, instead of the icosahedron (ICO) structure in gas phase, is still far from satisfactory. Here, we report a density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the role of the adsorption effects of PH3 (one lone pair of electrons) and SH2 (two lone pairs) on the relative stability of the Pt55 and Au55 nanoclusters. In gas phase, we found that the DRC structures with 7 and 9 atoms in the core region are about 5.34 eV (Pt55) and 2.20 eV (Au55) lower in energy than the ICO model with Ih symmetry and 13 atoms in the core region. However, the stability of the ICO structure increases by increasing the number of adsorbed molecules from 1 to 18, in which both DRC and ICO structures are nearly degenerate in energy at the limit of 18 ligands, which can be explained as follows. In gas phase, there is a strong compression of the cationic core region by the anionic surface atoms induced by the attractive Coulomb interactions (core+-surface-), and hence, the strain release is obtained by reducing the number of atoms in the cationic core region, which leads to the 55 atoms distorted reduced core structures. Thus, the Coulomb interactions between the core+ and surface- contribute to break the symmetry in the ICO55 structure. On the other hand, the addition of ligands on the anionic surface reduces the charge transfer between the core and surface, which contributes to decrease the Coulomb interactions and the strain on the core region of the ICO structure, and hence, it stabilizes a compact ICO structure. The same conclusion is obtained by adding van der Waals corrections to the plain DFT calculations. Similar results are obtained by the addition of steric effects, which are considered through the adsorption of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) molecules on Au55, in which the relative stability between ICO and DRC is the same as for PH3 and SH2. However, for Pt55, we found an inversion of stability due to the PPh3 ligand effects, where ICO has higher stability than DRC by 2.40 eV. Our insights are supported by several structural, electronic, and energetic analyses.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(24): 4231-40, 2016 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27269477

RESUMO

Transition-metal (TM) nanoparticles supported on oxides or carbon black have attracted much attention as potential catalysts for ethanol steam reforming reactions for hydrogen production. To improve the performance of nanocatalysts, a fundamental understanding of the interaction mechanism between water and ethanol with finite TM particles is required. In this article, we employed first-principles density functional theory with van der Waals (vdW) corrections to investigate the interaction of ethanol and water with TM13 clusters, where TM = Ni, Cu, Pd, Ag, Pt, and Au. We found that both water and ethanol bind via the anionic O atom to onefold TM sites, while at higher-energy structures, ethanol binds also via the H atom from the CH2 group to the TM sites, which can play an important role at real catalysts. The putative global minimum TM13 configurations are only slightly affected upon the adsorption of water or ethanol; however, for few systems, the compact higher-energy icosahedron structure changes its configuration upon ethanol or water adsorption. That is, those configurations are only shallow local minimums in the phase space. Except few deviations, we found similar trends for the magnitude of the adsorption energies of water and ethanol, that is, Ni13 > Pt13 > Pd13 and Cu13 > Au13 > Ag13, which is enhanced by the addition of the vdW correction (i.e., from 4% to 62%); however, the trend is the same. We found that the magnitude of the adsorption energy increases by shifting the center of gravity of the d-states toward the highest occupied molecular orbital. On the basis of the Mulliken and Hirshfeld charge analysis, as well as electron density differences, we identified the location of the charge redistribution and a tiny charge transfer (from 0.01 e to 0.19 e) from the molecules to the TM13 clusters. Our vibrational analysis indicates the red shifts in the OH modes upon binding of both water and ethanol molecules to the TM13 clusters, suggesting a weakening of the O-H bonding.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 144(5): 054310, 2016 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851924

RESUMO

Several studies have found that the Pt55 nanocluster adopts a distorted reduced core structure, DRC55, in which there are 8-11 atoms in the core and 47-44 atoms in the surface, instead of the compact and high-symmetry icosahedron structure, ICO55, with 13 and 42 atoms in the core and surface, respectively. The DRC structure has also been obtained as the putative global minimum configuration (GMC) for the Zn55 (3d), Cd55 (4d), and Au55 (5d) systems. Thus, the DRC55 structure has been reported only for systems with a large occupation of the d-states, where the effects of the occupation of the valence anti-bonding d-states might play an important role. Can we observe the DRC structure for 55-atom transition-metal systems with non-occupation of the anti-bonding d-states? To address this question, we performed a theoretical investigation of the Y 55, Zr55, Nb55, Mo55, Tc55, and Pt55 nanoclusters, employing density functional theory calculations. For the putative GMCs, we found that the Y 55 adopts the ICO55 structure, while Nb55 and Mo55 adopt a bulk-like fragment based on the hexagonal close-packed structure and Tc55 adopts a face-centered cubic fragment; however, Zr55 adopts a DRC55 structure, like Zn55, Cd55, Pt55, and Au55. Thus we can conclude that the preference for DRC55 structure is not related to the occupation of the anti-bonding d-states, but to a different effect, in fact, a combination of structural and electronic effects. Furthermore, we obtained that the binding energy per atom follows the occupation of the bonding and anti-bonding model, i.e., the stability of the studied systems increases from Y to Tc with a small oscillation for Mo, which also explains the equilibrium bond lengths. We obtained a larger magnetic moment for Y 55 (31 µB) which can be explained by the localization of the d-states in Y at nanoscale, which is not observed for the remaining systems (0-1 µB).

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(47): 11565-73, 2015 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26524466

RESUMO

We report a density functional theory investigation of the adsorption properties of CO, NO, and OH on the Cu13, Pt7Cu6, and Pt13 clusters in the cationic, neutral, and anionic states with the aim to improve our atomistic understanding of the adsorption properties on bimetallic clusters compared with monometallic clusters. The adsorption energy of CO and NO are substantially stronger on Pt13 than on Cu13, and hence, CO and NO bind preferentially on Pt sites on Pt7Cu6. Thus, it can contribute to drive the migration of the Pt atoms from the core to the surface region in large PtCu nanoalloys. The CO and NO adsorption energies on the bimetallic cluster are enhanced by a few percent compared with the energies of the monometallic clusters, which shows that the Pt-Cu interaction can contribute to an increase in the adsorption energy. In contrast with CO and NO trends, the OH adsorption energies on Cu13, Pt7Cu6, and Pt13 deviates only up to 0.31 eV, and hence, there is no clear preference for Cu or Pt sites on Pt7Cu6 or an enhancement of the adsorption energy on the bimetallic systems. We found a reduction of the CO and NO vibrational frequencies upon adsorption, which indicates a weakening of the CO and NO binding energies, and it is supported by a slight increase in the bond lengths. However, the OH vibrational frequency increases upon adsorption, which indicates an enhancement of the OH binding energy, which is supported by a slight decrease in the bond length by about 0.01 Å. It can be explained by the large charge transfer from the clusters to the O atom, which enhances the electrostatic interaction in the O-H bonding.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(45): 10813-21, 2014 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25329243

RESUMO

In general, because of the high computational demand, most theoretical studies addressing cationic and anionic clusters assume structural relaxation from the ground state neutral geometries. Such approach has its limits as some clusters could undergo a drastic structural deformation upon gaining or losing one electron. By engaging symmetry-unrestricted density functional calculations with an extensive search among various structures for each size and state of charge, we addressed the investigation of the technologically relevant Cu(n) and Pt(n) clusters for n = 2-14 atoms in the cationic, neutral, and anionic states to analyze the behavior of the structural, electronic, and energetic properties as a function of size and charge state. Moreover, we considered potentially high-energy isomers allowing foresight comparison with experimental results. Considering fixed cluster sizes, we found that distinct charge states lead to different structural geometries, revealing a clear tendency of decreasing average coordination as the electron density is increased. This behavior prompts significant changes in all considered properties, namely, energy gaps between occupied and unoccupied states, magnetic moment, detachment energy, ionization potential, center of gravity and "bandwidth" of occupied d-states, stability function, binding energy, electric dipole moment and sd hybridization. Furthermore, we identified a strong correlation between magic Pt clusters with peaks in sd hybridization index, allowing us to conclude that sd hybridization is one of the mechanisms for stabilization for Pt(n) clusters. Our results form a well-established basis upon which a deeper understanding of the stability and reactivity of metal clusters can be built, as well as the possibility to tune and exploit cluster properties as a function of size and charge.

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