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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 24, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing medicines availability and affordability is a key goal of Brazilian health policies. "Farmácia Popular" (FP) Program is one of the government's key strategies to achieve this goal. Under FP, antihypertension (HTN) and antiglycemic (DM) medicines have been provided at subsidized prices in private retail settings since 2006, and free of charge since 2011. We aim to assess the impact of sequential changes in FP benefits on patient affordability and government expenditures for HTN and DM treatment under the FP, and examine their implications for public financing mechanisms and program sustainability. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective study using interrupted time series to analyze: HTN and DM treatment coverage; total and per capita expenditure; percentage paid by MoH; and patient cost sharing. Analyzes were conducted in the dispensing database of the FP program (from 2006 to 2012). RESULTS: FP has increased its coverage over time; by December 2012 FP covered on average 13% of DM and 11.5% of HTN utilization, a growth of over 600 and 1500%, respectively. The overall cost per treatment to the MoH declined from R$36.43 (R$ = reais, the Brazilian currency) to 18.74 for HTN and from R$33.07to R$15.05 for DM over the period analyzed, representing a reduction in per capita cost greater than 50%. The amount paid by patients for the medicines covered increased over time until 2011, but then declined to zero. We estimate that to treat all patients in need for HTN and DM in 2012 under FP, the Government would need to expend 97% of the total medicines budget. CONCLUSIONS: FP rapidly increased its coverage in terms of both program reach and proportion of cost subsidized during the period analyzed. Costs of individual HTN and DM treatments in FP were reduced after 2011 for both patients (free) and government (better negotiated prices). However, overall FP expenditures by MoH increased due to markedly increased utilization. The FP is sustainable as a complementary policy but cannot feasibly substitute for the distribution of medicines by the SUS.

3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS: This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS: Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Comércio/tendências , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Brasil , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Longitudinais , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/tendências , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 12: 18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417682

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe changes in the private market for selected originators, branded generics ('similares'), and generic products during the 10 years following passage of the Brazilian Generics Law. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data collected by IQVIA® on quarterly sales by wholesalers to retail pharmacies in Brazil from 1998 through 2010, grouped by originators, branded generics, and generic products in three therapeutic classes (antibiotics, antidiabetics, and antihypertensives). Outcomes included market share (proportion of the total private market volume), sales volume per capita, prices and number of manufacturers by group. Results: In the private market share, generics became dominant in each therapeutic class but the speed of uptake varied. Originators consistently lost most market share while branded generics varied over time. By the end of the study period, generics were the most sold product type in all classes, followed by branded generics. The number of generic manufacturers increased in all classes, while branded generics increased just after the policy but then decreased slowly through the end of 2010. For approximately 50% of the antibiotics analyzed, branded generics and generics had lower prices than originators. For antidiabetics, branded generic and generic prices were quite similar during the period analyzed. Price trends for the various subclasses of antihypertensive exhibited very different patterns over time. Conclusion: Sales of branded generics and originators decreased substantially in the three therapeutic classes analysed following the introduction of the generics policy in Brazil, but the time to market dominance of generics varied by class.

6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 94, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043318

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.

7.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 29(1): e290107, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012770

RESUMO

Resumo O desabastecimento de medicamentos já é considerado um problema de saúde pública e representa um obstáculo importante para a garantia do acesso a eles e, consequentemente, do direito à saúde. Sendo assim, com o intuito de compreender melhor esse fenômeno, este artigo buscou identificar, descrever e caracterizar as publicações científicas da saúde que versam sobre o tema de desabastecimento de medicamentos e identificar as lacunas de pesquisa. Para tanto, realizou-se revisão narrativa da literatura científica na base de dados PubMed. Os resultados foram selecionados de acordo com o título e resumo, e os dados foram extraídos do texto completo. Além de uma análise quantitativa, também foi realizada uma síntese qualitativa dos estudos, explicitando as principais causas, estratégias de enfrentamento, discussões conceituais e a descrição do problema contido nas publicações incluídas. Foram analisados 98 artigos, a maioria foi publicada a partir do ano de 2011, nos EUA, citando diversos medicamentos e com o foco na descrição do problema. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem a contemporaneidade do problema, o uso da literatura científica como denúncia e a falta de estudos sobre o tema em países de baixa e média renda e que se voltem a compreender suas causas.


Abstract The shortage of medicines is already considered a public health problem that affects several regions worlwide and is a major obstacle to ensure access to medicines and, consequently, the right to health. Thus, in order to better understand this phenomenon, this article sought to identify, describe and characterize the medical scientific publications that deal with the issue of medicines shortages and to identify the gaps on this theme. For that, a narrative review of the medical scientific literature was carried out in the PubMed database. The results were selected according to the title and abstract, and the data were extracted from the full text. In addition to quantitative analysis, a qualitative synthesis of the studies was also performed, identifying the mentioned causes, coping strategies, conceptual discussions and problem description. We analyzed 98 papers, most of them published since the year 2011, in the United States, citing various drugs and with a focus on describing the problem. The results of this study suggest the contemporaneous of the problem, the use of scientific literature as drug shortages denunciation, the lack of studies in low- and middle-income settings, and a gap in studies that investigates the causes of medicines shortages.


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/provisão & distribução , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
8.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e017308, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 'Farmácia Popular' (FP) programme was launched in 2004, expanded in 2006 and changed the cost sharing for oral hypoglycaemic (OH) and antihypertensive (AH) medicines in 2009 and in 2011. This paper describes patterns of usage and continuity of coverage for OH and AH medicines following changes in patient cost sharing in the FP. STUDY DESIGN: Interrupted time series study using retrospective administrative data. METHODS: Monthly programme participation (PP) and proportion of days covered (PDC) were the two outcome measures. The open cohort included all patients with two or more dispensings for a given study medicine in 2008-2012. The interventions were an increase in patient cost sharing in 2009 and zero patient cost sharing for key medicines in 2011. RESULTS: A total of 3.6 and 9.5 million patients receiving treatment for diabetes and hypertension, respectively, qualified for the study. Before the interventions, PP was growing by 7.3% per month; median PDC varied by medicine from 50% to 75%. After patient cost sharing increased in 2009, PP reduced by 56.5% and PDC decreased for most medicines (median 60.3%). After the 2011 free medicine programme, PP surged by 121 000 new dispensings per month and PDC increased for all covered medicines (80.7%). CONCLUSION: Cost sharing was found to be a barrier to continuity of treatment in Brazil's private sector FP programme. Making essential medicines free to patients appear to increase participation and continuity of treatment to clinically beneficial levels (PDC >80%).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(8): 2501-2512, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793067

RESUMO

This paper aims to analyse changes in the retail pharmaceutical market following policy changes in the Farmácia Popular Program (FP), a medicines subsidy program in Brazil. The retrospective longitudinal analyses focus on therapeutic class of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. Data obtained from QuintilesIMS (formerly IMS Health) included private retail pharmacy sales volume (pharmaceutical units) and sales values from 2002 to 2013. Analyses evaluated changes in market share following key FP policy changes. The therapeutic class was selected due to its relevance to hypertension treatment. Market share was analysed by therapeutic sub-classes and by individual company. Losartan as a single product accounted for the highest market share among angiotensin II antagonists. National companies had higher sales volume during the study period, while multinational companies had higher sales value. Changes in pharmaceutical market share coincided with the inclusion of specific products in the list of medicines covered by FP and with increases in or exemption from patient copayment.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Brasil , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Longitudinais , Losartan/economia , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2501-2512, Ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890425

RESUMO

Abstract This paper aims to analyse changes in the retail pharmaceutical market following policy changes in the Farmácia Popular Program (FP), a medicines subsidy program in Brazil. The retrospective longitudinal analyses focus on therapeutic class of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. Data obtained from QuintilesIMS (formerly IMS Health) included private retail pharmacy sales volume (pharmaceutical units) and sales values from 2002 to 2013. Analyses evaluated changes in market share following key FP policy changes. The therapeutic class was selected due to its relevance to hypertension treatment. Market share was analysed by therapeutic sub-classes and by individual company. Losartan as a single product accounted for the highest market share among angiotensin II antagonists. National companies had higher sales volume during the study period, while multinational companies had higher sales value. Changes in pharmaceutical market share coincided with the inclusion of specific products in the list of medicines covered by FP and with increases in or exemption from patient copayment.


Resumo Este artigo visa analisar as mudanças no mercado de varejo farmacêutico, seguindo as alterações de diretiva no Programa Farmácia Popular (FP), que realiza subvenção de medicamentos no Brasil, em parceria pública privada. Foi realizada análise longitudinal retrospectiva dos medicamentos da classe terapêutica dos agentes que atuam sobre o sistema renina-angiotensina. Os dados obtidos do QuintilesIMS incluíram o varejo farmacêutico em termos do volume e valores de vendas de 2002 a 2013. Análises realizadas consideraram intervenções e reformas ocorridas no FP e seu impacto no mercado farmacêutico da classe terapêutica selecionada, devido a sua relevância para o tratamento da hipertensão. Também se examinou o comportamento do mercado tomando por base as empresas farmacêuticas produtoras. Losartan monodroga representou a maior fatia de mercado entre os antagonistas de angiotensina II. Empresas nacionais obtiveram maior volume de vendas durante o período de estudo, enquanto as empresas multinacionais exibiram maior valor de vendas. Mudanças no mercado farmacêutico coincidiram com a inclusão de produtos específicos na lista de medicamentos abrangidos pelo FP e com aumentos ou isenção de copagamento pelos pacientes.

11.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 83 p. tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-782429

RESUMO

O acesso a medicamentos é peça fundamental para a garantia do direito à saúde e mensurá-lo é um desafio, uma vez que este só se concretiza em seu uso. A aplicação de indicadores relacionados ao uso de serviços e resultados em saúde como medida de desfecho é relevante, porém apresenta dificuldades metodológicas importantes. Objetivos: Este estudo buscou identificar, descrever e analisar a adequação do uso de indicadores de uso de serviços e de resultados em saúde como desfechos do acesso a medicamentos e sua factibilidade de utilização no cenário brasileiro. Metodologia: Realizada revisão sistemática da literatura científica. A seleção das referências foi realizada em pares e de maneira cega. Os critérios de inclusão foram: estudos de avaliação de intervenção em co-pagamento para medicamentos e o uso de indicadores relacionados a uso de serviços de saúde/ou resultados em saúde. Foram excluídos apresentações de congresso, teses, dissertações e relatórios de pesquisa. A extração e análise dos dados foi realizada também em pares e revisada com uma especialista no tema. A análise da adequação dos indicadores foi pautada pelos atributos propostos pela Rede Interagencial de Informações para a Saúde (RIPSA). Resultados: Foram incluídas 16 das 260 referências analisadas, sendo encontrados 7 indicadores de resultados em saúde e 33 de uso de serviços de saúde. Todos os estudos retidos foram realizados em países de alta renda. Dos indicadores de uso de serviços de saúde, os mais frequentes relacionavam-se a avaliar o uso de hospitalização, de emergência e de consultas ambulatoriais como desfechos de mudanças no co-pagamento. No geral, é importante ressaltar a falta de informações sobre os indicadores utilizados, seja sobre sua definição ou até sobre sua fórmula de cálculo...


Assuntos
Humanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Indicadores e Reagentes , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução
12.
Hum Resour Health ; 12: 34, 2014 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Distance learning methods have been widely used because of their advantages to continuing professional development processes. The Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy which has been implemented in order to improve the efficiency of health systems. Due to the need for access to medicines and technologies regardless of the strengthening of health systems, a new approach that better integrates both pharmaceutical services and health systems has been implemented. CASE DESCRIPTION: This is a case study which consists of describing the process of restructuring, developing and implementing the second version of the Virtual Course on Primary Health Care-based Pharmaceutical Services for managers (CVSERVFAPS-12). The main objective is to strengthen the capacity of managers in pharmaceutical services, based on PHC at different levels of the health system, in order to support the restructuring and empowering of these services and, consequently, the health systems in the American region. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: Many evaluation tools were applied to identify the achievement/improvement of planned competencies. The intervention proposals were collectively built and intended to be more than an academic exercise, looking forward to being implemented as a strategic intervention to promote changes in the pharmaceutical services of the American region. The main strengths identified for the second version of the course were related to the quality of the didactic material and content. Additionally, the tutors' support was commented upon as a positive aspect. The main challenges faced in this rebuilding process related to the due dates of the activities and lectures as well as the time to capture and assimilate the content. CONCLUSIONS: The CVSERVFAPS-Pilot was reformulated and CVSERVFAPS-12 is consistent with the issues raised in the pilot course's evaluation in 2011, which were successfully implemented. The use of the distance learning strategy, through a virtual environment, for the application of the Virtual Course on PHC- based pharmaceutical services for managers, is appropriate and confirmed its role in public policy promotion through effective retention and distribution of health workers.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Assistência à Saúde , Educação Continuada , Educação a Distância , Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Américas , Humanos , Competência Profissional
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