Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114049, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766758

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The family Lecythidaceae has about 25 genera and 400 identified species, which are distributed especially in the pantropical region, mostly found in the tropics of Central and South America, Southeast Asia and Africa. The third most abundant family in Amazonian forests and the genus Eschweilera, with the large number of species in Lecythidaceae. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review compiles information since the 1934s about of ethnopharmacology, and chemical constituents of species of Lecythidaceae, as well as a summary of the bioactivities shown by the extracts, fractions, and secondary metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All relevant information on ethnopharmacology, and chemical constituents of species of Lecythidaceae were gathered from electronic databases including Web of Science, Science Direct, Elsevier, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. Information was also obtained from local books, PhD. and MSc. Dissertations. RESULTS: The phytochemical diversity of the family was demonstrated with 180 different metabolites that have been reported from 25 species, most of them being triterpenes or flavonoids. The pharmacological studies carried out with the extracts, fractions and compounds showed promising antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: The present review provides an insight into ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of species of Lecythidaceae. Based on the pharmacological studies it has been found that different plant species of Lecythidaceae possess a wide range of bioactivities such as anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal. These activities are due to the presence of bioactive compounds including triterpenoids and their glycosides derivatives, flavonoids, steroids, sesquiterpenoids, alkaloids, and other compounds. However, there are many plants, which have not been assessed pharmacologically and hence warrant further studies.

2.
Toxicon ; 194: 37-43, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610630

RESUMO

Chemical compounds from skin secretions from toads of Bufonidae family have been long-studied. In the search for new molecules with pharmacological action, the 3ß-OH groups of bufadienolides are commonly derivatised using acetyl groups. This work described the isolation and/or structural elucidation of isolated and derivatised compounds from the venom of the Brazilian anuran Rhinella marina, and their evaluation in in vitro assays. In the methanolic extract of the R. marina venom, compound cholesterol (1) was isolated from the CRV-52 fraction by classic column chromatography, dehydrobufotenine (2) by Sephadex LH-20 from the CRV-28 fraction, and a mix of suberoyl arginine (3) and compound 2 was obtained from the CRV-6-33 fraction. The compounds marinobufagin (4), telocionbufagin (5) and bufalin (6) were isolated by classic column chromatography, followed by separation via HPLC in the CRV-70 fraction, and the compound marinobufotoxin (9) was isolated by classic column chromatography in the CRV-6 fraction, here being isolated for the first time in R. marina specimens. Compounds 4 and 5 were submitted for acetylation with acetic anhydride, in the presence of pyridine and 4-dimethyilaminopiridine (DMAP), in order to obtain the compounds 3-acetyl-marinobufagin (7) and 3-acetyl-telocinobufogin (8). The isolated and derivatised compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR, and their molecular mass confirmed by mass spectrometry. All compounds (except 1 and 3) were tested in cytotoxic assays by the MTT method and presented cytotoxic potential against human cancer cell lines, as well as against non-tumoral human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. With the exception of compound 2, all molecules presented IC50 values < 4 µM, and none caused hemolysis of human erythrocytes, demonstrating a promising cytotoxic potential of natural and chemically-modified bufadienolides. This study presents a detailed contribution of bioactive chemicals from Brazilian Amazon Rhinella species, and indicates promising areas for further studies and pharmaceutical investments.

3.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(10): 399-417, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494643

RESUMO

Combretum leprosum Mart. (Combretaceae), a shrub popularly known as mofumbo, is used in folk medicine for treatment of uterine bleeding, pertussis, gastric pain, and as a sedative. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the phytochemical profile,(2) identify chemical constituents and (3) examine antioxidant and cytogenotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts and fractions of stem bark and leaves. The plant material (leaf and stem bark) was submitted to extraction with ethanol, followed by partition using hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. It was possible to identify and quantify the epicatechin in the ethanolic stem bark extract (0.065 mg/g extract) and rutin in the leaf extract (3.33 mg/g extract). Based upon in vitro tests a significant relationship was noted between findings from antioxidant tests and levels of total phenolic and flavonoid. Comparing all samples (extracts and fractions), the ethyl acetate fractions of stem bark (411.40 ± 15.38 GAE/g) and leaves (225.49 ± 9.47 GAE/g) exhibited higher phenolic content, whereas hexanic fraction of stem bark (124.28 ± 56 mg/g sample) and ethyl acetate fraction of leaves (238.91 ± 1.73 mg/g sample) demonstrated a higher content of flavonoids. Among the antioxidant tests, the intermediate fraction of stem bark (28.5 ± 0.60 µg/ml) and ethyl acetate fraction of leaves (40 ± 0.56 µg/ml) displayed a higher % inhibition of free radical DPPH activity, whereas intermediate fraction of stem bark (27.5 ± 0.9 µg/ml) and hydromethanol fraction of leaves (81 ± 1.4 µg/ml) demonstrated inhibition of the free radical ABTS. In biological tests (Allium cepa and micronucleus in peripheral blood), data showed that none of the tested concentrations of ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark produced significant cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenic activity.Abbreviations AA%: percentage of antioxidant activity; ABTS: 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); CEUA: Ethics Committee in the Use of Animals; TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; EEB: ethanol extract of the stem bark; HFB: Hexanic fraction of stem bark; IFB: Intermediate fraction of stem bark; CFB: Chloroform fraction of stem bark; EAFB: Ethyl acetate fraction of stem bark; HMFB: Hydromethanol fraction of the stem bark; EEL: Ethanol extract from leaves; HFL: Hexane fraction of leaves; CFL: Chloroform fraction of leaves; EAFL: Ethyl acetate fraction of leaves; HMFL: Hydromethanol fraction of leaves; GAE: Gallic Acid Equivalent; IC50: 50% inhibition concentration; HCOOH: Formic acid; HCl: hydrochloric acid; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; MN: micronucleus; WHO: World Health Organization; UFLC: Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography; UESPI: State University of Piauí.

4.
Toxicon ; 192: 32-39, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465357

RESUMO

Toad skin secretions are sources of complex mixtures of bioactive compounds, such as proteins and peptides. Rhinella jimi species is a common toad in the Brazilian northeast, considered by only a few known studies. The experimental design was applied to optimize the protein extraction method from R. jimi parotoid gland secretions. The optimum condition was using 100 mmol L-1 Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.2 under vortexing for 5 min. The FTIR analysis combined with PCA revealed high-protein purity of the extracts, confirming the success of the proposed extraction method. The total protein concentration by the Bradford method was 102.4 and 66.5 mg g-1 on toad poisons from Teresina and Picos, respectively. The comparative proteomic analysis using HPLC-SEC-DAD and 1D SDS-PAGE revealed significant differences in protein abundance. HMW biomolecules showed greater abundance in toads from Teresina, while LMW protein species were more abundant in toads from Picos. The significant difference in amphibian proteome can be attributed to the edaphoclimatic conditions of their habitat. The cytotoxicity of the protein extract from Teresina was higher on the tumor cell lines 4T1 and CT26.WT. These new findings are fundamental for future studies the on identity and biological activity of biomolecules from this noble sample.

5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200073, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154769

RESUMO

Abstract Background: The resistance against antimalarial drugs represents a global challenge in the fight and control of malaria. The Brazilian biodiversity can be an important tool for research and development of new medicinal products. In this context, toxinology is a multidisciplinary approach on the development of new drugs, including the isolation, purification, and evaluation of the pharmacological activities of natural toxins. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity, as well as the antimalarial activity in silico and in vitro of four compounds isolated from Rhinella marina venom as potential oral drug prototypes. Methods: Four compounds were challenged against 35 target proteins from P. falciparum and screened to evaluate their physicochemical properties using docking assay in Brazilian Malaria Molecular Targets (BraMMT) software and in silico assay in OCTOPUS® software. The in vitro antimalarial activity of the compounds against the 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clones were assessed using the SYBR Green I based assay (IC50). For the cytotoxic tests, the LD50 was determined in human pulmonary fibroblast cell line using the [3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. Results: All compounds presented a ligand-receptor interaction with ten Plasmodium falciparum-related protein targets, as well as antimalarial activity against chloroquine resistant strain (IC50 = 3.44 μM to 19.11 μM). Three of them (dehydrobufotenine, marinobufagin, and bufalin) showed adequate conditions for oral drug prototypes, with satisfactory prediction of absorption, permeability, and absence of toxicity. In the cell viability assay, only dehydrobufotenin was selective for the parasite. Conclusions: Dehydrobufotenin revealed to be a potential oral drug prototype presenting adequate antimalarial activity and absence of cytotoxicity, therefore should be subjected to further studies.

6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5015-5024, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite being a rare disease, melanoma is considered the most dangerous skin cancer due to its highly invasive and aggressive nature, and still requires for more effective treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of Ephedranthus pisocarpus R.E.Fr. (Annonaceae), a popular Brazilian plant with medicinal properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, the ethanolic extract (EtOH) was obtained from E. pisocarpus leaves and later partitioned using increasing polarity solvents. The anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus was assessed by spectrophotometry and its cytotoxicity determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the EtOH extract and fractions from E. pisocarpus had a moderate photoprotective action (FPS 3.0-5.0) against UVA radiation. Interestingly, the dichloromethane fraction presented higher anti-melanoma activity against B16-F10 (IC50=46.8 µg/ml) and SK-MEL-28 cells (IC50=40.1 µg/ml) and lesser toxicity on normal cells. Additionally, our study reported that spathulenol, one of the major constituents from E. pisocarpus, acts through an apoptosis-dependent mechanism in SK-MEL-28 cells. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus against melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemólise , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
7.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928735

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrated the potential associative effect of combining conventional amphotericin B (Amph B) with gallic acid (GA) and with ellagic acid (EA) in topical formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Preliminary stability tests of the formulations and in vitro drug release studies with Amph B, GA, Amph B plus GA, EA, and Amph B plus EA were carried out, as well as assessment of the in vivo treatment of BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major After 40 days of infection, the animals were divided into 6 groups and treated twice a day for 21 days with a gel containing Amph B, GA, Amph B plus GA, EA, or Amph B plus EA, and the negative-control group was treated with the vehicle. In the animals that received treatment, there was reduction of the lesion size and reduction of the parasitic load. Histopathological analysis of the treatments with GA, EA, and combinations with Amph B showed circumscribed lesions with the presence of fibroblasts, granulation tissue, and collagen deposition, as well as the presence of activated macrophages. The formulations containing GA and EA activated macrophages in all evaluated parameters, resulting in the activation of cells of the innate immune response, which can generate healing and protection. GA and EA produced an associative effect with Amph B, which makes them promising for use with conventional Amph B in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

8.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 83(13-14): 525-545, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568625

RESUMO

Caatinga flora which are found in a poor Brazilian region contain a substantial number of endemic taxa with biomedical and social importance for regional communities. This study examined the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of 35 samples (extracts/fractions) from 12 Caatinga species and determined the antiproliferative and genotoxic action of dichloromethane fraction from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia stem bark (DC-Mca) on human and vegetal cells. Samples were assessed for chemopreventive ability, toxic effects on Artemia salina shrimp as well as cytotoxicity on tumor cell lines and erythrocytes. DC-Mca was also tested with respect to antiproliferative and genotoxic effects upon normal leukocytes and meristematic cells from A. cepa roots. Some extracts reduced free radical levels >95% and 7 samples exhibited a lethal concentration (LC) 50 < 100 µg/ml upon Artemia salina larvae. Eight samples displayed in vitro antitumor effects and three produced hemolysis. Data also demonstrated the pharmacological significance of bioactive extracts from Brazilian semi-arid region. There was no significant relationship between antioxidant, toxic, and antiproliferative activities, and that these properties were dependent upon the extractant. DC-Mca contained betulinic acid as main compound (approximately 70%), which showed higher (1) cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines and dividing leukocytes, (2) reduced mitotic index of Allium cepa roots, and (3) induced cell cycle arrest and chromosomal bridges, thereby providing native promising sources for phytotherapy development. ABBREVIATIONS: ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); AcOH: ethyl acetate; ANOVA: analysis of variance; SUS: Brazilian Unified Health System; DC-Mca: dichloromethane fraction from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia stem bark; DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; EC50: effective concentration 50%; EtOAc: ethyl acetate; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; GC-Qms: gas chromatograph quadrupole mass spectrometer; GI: genotoxic index; HCT-116: colon carcinoma line; HL-60: promyelocytic leukemia line; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; HRAPCIMS: high resolution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrum; IC50: inhibitory concentration 50%; LC50: lethal concentration 50%; MeOH = methyl alcohol; MI: mitotic index; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide; MutI: mutagenic index; OVCAR-8 = ovarian carcinoma line; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; RPMI-1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium; SF-295: glioblastoma line; TEAC: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; TLC: thin-layer chromatography; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid.

9.
Steroids ; 152: 108490, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499071

RESUMO

Bufadienolide compounds have been used for growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in tumor cells. Those families of cardiotonic steroids can bind the Na,K-ATPase, causing its inhibition. The use of bufadienolides is widely described in the literature as an anticancer function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bufadienolides and alkaloid isolated from venom samples from R. marina on tumor cells. We performed cytotoxicity assay in MDA-MB-231 and TOV-21G cells and evaluated the activity of Caspases (3 and 9), Na, K-ATPase, PMCA and SERCA. Four compounds were extrated from the venom of R. marina. The compound 1 showed higher cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231cells. Compound 1 also showed activation of Caspase 3 and 9. This compound caused an inhibition of the activity and expression of Na, K-ATPase, and also showed activation of both caspase-9 and caspase-3 in MDA-MB-231 cells. We also observed that Compound 1 had a direct effect on some ATPases, such as Na, K-ATPase, PMCA and SERCA. Compound 1 was able to inhibit the activity of the purified Na, K-ATPase enzyme from the concentration of 5 µM. It also caused inhibition of PMCA at all concentrations tested (1 nM-30 µM). However, the compound 1 led to an increase of the activity of purified SERCA between the concentrations of 7.5-30 µM. Thus, we present a Na, K-ATPase and PMCA inhibitor, which may lead to the activation of caspases 3 and 9, causing the cells to enter into apoptosis. Our study suggests that compound 1 may be an interesting molecule as an anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Bufanolídeos/química , Bufanolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Bufo marinus , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Talanta ; 205: 120100, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450412

RESUMO

An extraction method based on a multivariate analytical approach was developed for enhancement of the phenolic compounds in cashew nut extracts. The different extractor solvents (acetone, water, ethanol, and methanol) and their binary, ternary, and quaternary combinations were evaluated using a simplex-centroid design and surface response methodology. The special cubic model exhibits no lack of fit and explains 89.2% of the variance. The total phenolic measurements by the Folin-Ciocalteu method revealed the highest values for ethanol (5.93 mg GAE g-1) and acetone-methanol-ethanol ternary mixture (5.92 mg GAE g-1) extracts. ESI (-)-Q/TOFMS analyses combined with PCA and HCA revealed the presence of fatty acids, phospholipids, and sugars in the ternary mixture cashew extract, while for the ethanol extract only phenolic compounds, such as anacardic acids and derivatives, were found. The proposed approach was adequate to reach the optimal extractor which ethanol, a low-toxicity solvent, enabled the selective extraction of a high content of phenolic compounds from cashew nuts.


Assuntos
Ácidos Anacárdicos/análise , Anacardium/química , Nozes/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Acetona/química , Ácidos Anacárdicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Etanol/química , Metanol/química , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
11.
Acta amaz ; 49(2): 145-151, abr. - jun. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119166

RESUMO

The skin secretion from toads of the Bufonidae family has great potential in the search for new active compounds to be used as drug candidates in treating some diseases, among them cancer. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic activity of the parotoid gland secretion extracts of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus, as well as biochemically analyze transaminases and serum creatinine for liver and renal damage, respectively. Cytotoxicity was performed by the colorimetric method based on MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) with different concentrations of the extracts in Walker or splenic tumor cell cultures from rats and mice. The micronucleus test was performed with male Swiss mice treated orally with the extracts for 15 days, and then intraperitoneally with N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (50 mg kg-1). Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were evaluated in bone marrow. The extracts showed cytotoxic activity in the evaluated cells. There was a significant reduction in the frequency of MNPCE (R. marina = 56% and R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0.001), indicating antimutagenic potential of the extracts. The groups treated only with extract showed an increase in MNPCE frequency, evidencing mutagenic potential. Biochemical analyzes showed no significant difference between treatments. Thus, under our experimental conditions, the extracts of R. marina and R. guttatus skin secretions presented chemopreventive potential for cancer. (AU)


Assuntos
Anuros , Testes para Micronúcleos , Quimioprevenção , Genotoxicidade , Bioprospecção
12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(11): 3104-3114, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Simaba ferruginea A.St.-Hil. Popularly known as "calunga," is a typical Brazilian cerrado plant whose rhizomes are popular for treating diarrhea. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the spasmolytic activity and the antidiarrheal effect of the ethanolic extract obtained from S. ferruginea (Sf-EtOH). METHODS: Ileal segments (1-2 cm) from male Wistar rats were mounted in isolated organ baths and connected to a force transducer, and then to an amplifier which was connected to a computer (AVS Projetos/São Paulo-SP). After stabilization for 60 min, under tension (1 gf), two submaximal contractions were induced with KCl 40 mM or carbachol 10-6 M on ileal segments. During the third tonic and sustained contraction, Sf-EtOH was added in cumulative concentrations to the organ bath. Incubations with L-NAME (10-4 M), ODQ (10-5 M), TEA+ (5 or 1 mM), glibenclamide (10-5 M), or apamine (100 nM) were prepared (n = 5), separately and used to verify the involvement of the nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase, and potassium channels in the relaxing effect. The results were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean and were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, when necessary *p < 0.05. RESULTS: Sf-EtOH promotes relaxation on rat isolated ileum pre-contracted with CCh and KCl in a concentration-dependent manner. Sf-EtOH also inhibited ileum contractions against cumulative concentrations of carbachol (CCh), KCl, and CaCl2, shifting the curves to the right in a non-parallel manner with an Emax reduction. In the presence of potassium channel blockers, Sf-EtOH shifted the curves to the right with a reduction of Emax, suggesting the involvement of BKCa, KATP, and SKCa in its spasmolytic effect. In the presence of L-NAME or ODQ, the relaxation curves were shifted to the right, suggesting the involvement of this pathway in Sf-EtOH spasmolytic effect. CONCLUSIONS: Sf-EtOH acts in a concentration-dependent manner, involving the positive modulation of K+ channels and NO pathway.


Assuntos
Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Simaroubaceae , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Relaxantes Musculares Centrais/isolamento & purificação , Relaxantes Musculares Centrais/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 1860-1866, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551441

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported the anti-obesity effects of α, ß-Amyrin in high fat-fed mice. This study aimed to evaluate whether α, ß-Amyrin has an anti-adipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in a medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Cytotoxicity of α, ß-Amyrin was assessed by MTT assay. Lipid content in adipocytes was determined by Oil-Red O staining. In addition, the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha (C/EBPα), beta (C/EBPß), and delta (C/EBPδ) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Oil-Red O staining revealed markedly reduced fat accumulation by α, ß-Amyrin (6.25-50 µg/mL) without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, our results indicate that α, ß-Amyrin can significantly suppress the adipocyte differentiation by downregulating the expression levels of adipogenesis-related key transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα, but not C/EBPß or C/EPBδ. In addition, the protein expression of membrane GLUT4 in 3T3- L1 adipocytes treated with α, ß-Amyrin was significantly higher than in control cells, indicating that α, ß-Amyrin augments glucose uptake. These findings suggest that α, ß-Amyrin exerts an anti-adipogenic effect principally via modulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in 3T3-L1cells. The present in vitro findings, taken together with our earlier observation of the anti-obesity effect in vivo, suggest that α, ß-Amyrin can be developed as a new therapeutic agent for treatment and prevention of obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17754, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039063

RESUMO

The study evaluated the vasorelaxant effect induced by the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (EEtOH-Zr/leaves). Wistar rats were treated with the leaf extract containing a single dose of 2,000 mg / kg, v.o. After 14 days, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent analysis of the biochemical parameters; they were then euthanized (sodium pentobarbital-100 mg/kg, i.p.) for the removal and morphological analysis of the heart, lung, liver and kidney. The vasorelaxation activity the and vascular reactivity of EEtOH-Zr/leaves were evaluated on artery mesenteric rings isolated from rats. The extract showed no signs of toxicity and no significant difference in the values of the biochemical parameters between the control group and the group of treated animals. In the evaluation of pharmacological activity in the smooth muscle, the EEtOH-Zr/leaves caused vasorelaxant effect on the tonic contraction induced by phenylephrine in mesenteric artery preparations in the presence (pD2=2.17±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=99.8±5.2%) and absence (pD2=2.14±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=95.3±6.4%) of the vascular endothelium. Oral administration of EEtOH-Zr/leaves reduced the contraction induced by the cumulative addition of PHE. It is concluded that the EEtOH-Zr/leaves promote vasorelaxation and reduce vascular reactivity of adrenergic alpha-1 agonist in the mesenteric artery. The results did not show toxic effects of the extract.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Toxicidade Aguda/análise , Zanthoxylum/toxicidade , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(3): 2679-2689, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043906

RESUMO

Gold (Au0) and silver (Ag0) nanoparticles were synthesized using tannic acid (TA) as both reducing and stabilizer. Nanoparticles formation, stability, and interaction with TA were compared to citrate-coated nanoparticles and monitored by UV-Vis, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. TA coating resulted in a red-shift and broadening of bands compared to citrate-coated nanoparticles (NPs-Cit). AgNPs-TA and AuNPs-TA are negatively charged with mean surface charge of -29.4 mV and -29.6 mV, respectively. TEM images showed polydispersety of AuNPs-TA (6-42 nm) and aggregation of AgNPs-TA (12-71 nm). In vitro assays of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes showed an increment of antileishmanial activity for AgNPs-TA in relation to AgNPs-Cit, while AuNPs-TA and AuNPs-Cit did not affect the protozoas at tested concentrations. CC50 value for AgNPs-TA suggested that TA attenuates nanosilver toxicity comparatively to its precursor (Ag+). This investigation can contribute to the development of new, green, and fast produced drugs aiming at leishmaniasis treatment.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Compostos de Ouro/farmacologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Taninos/farmacologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Compostos de Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Compostos de Prata/química , Taninos/química , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 285: 121-131, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287997

RESUMO

Skin toad secretion present physiologically active molecules to protect them against microorganisms, predators and infections. This work detailed the antiproliferative action of marinobufagin on tumor and normal lines, investigate its mechanism on HL-60 leukemia cells and its toxic effects on Allium cepa meristematic cells. Initially, cytotoxic action was assessed by colorimetric assays. Next, HL-60 cells were analyzed by morphological and flow cytometry techniques and growing A. cepa roots were examined after 72 h exposure. Marinobufagin presented high antiproliferative action against all human tumor lines [IC50 values ranging from 0.15 (leukemia) to 7.35 (larynx) µM] and it failed against human erythrocytes and murine lines. Human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were up to 72.5-fold less sensitive [IC50: 10.88 µM] to marinobufagin than HL-60 line, but DNA strand breaks were no detected. Leukemia treaded cells exhibited cell viability reduction, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, binucleation, nuclear condensation and cytoplasmic vacuoles. Marinobufagin also reduced the growth of A. cepa roots (EC50: 7.5 µM) and mitotic index, caused cell cycle arrest and chromosomal alterations (micronuclei, delays and C-metaphases) in meristematic cells. So, to find out partially targeted natural molecules on human leukemia cells, like marinobufagin, is an amazing and stimulating way to continue the battle against cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bufanolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Bufanolídeos/toxicidade , Bufonidae/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HL-60 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/citologia , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/genética , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Cebolas/citologia , Cebolas/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852412

RESUMO

Platonia insignis Mart., popularly known as "bacurizeiro," is used in traditional medical practices based on its diverse biological properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the antileishmanial effects of the ethanol extract (EtOH-Ext), hexane fraction (Hex-F), and its main isolated Lupeol obtained from stem barks of P. insignis against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. The EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigote forms at IC50 of 174.24, 45.23, and 39.06 µg/mL, respectively, as well as L. amazonensis axenic amastigote forms at IC50 of 40.58, 35.87, and 44.10 µg/mL, respectively. The mean cytotoxic concentrations for macrophages (CC50) were higher than those for amastigotes (341.95, 71.65, and 144.0 µg/mL, resp.), indicating a selective cytotoxicity towards the parasite rather than the macrophages. Interestingly, all treatments promoted antileishmanial effect against macrophage-internalized amastigotes at concentrations lower than CC50. Furthermore, increases of lysosomal volume of macrophages treated with EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol were observed. On the other hand, only Lupeol stimulated increase of phagocytic capability of macrophages, suggesting this compound might be characterized as the biomarker for the antileishmanial effect of P. insignis stem bark, as well as the involvement of immunomodulatory mechanisms in this effect.

18.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 390(10): 1029-1039, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717838

RESUMO

To characterize the protective effects of the triterpenoid mixture alpha, beta-amyrin (AMY, 20 mg/kg, during 15 days) on the reactivity of isolated aorta of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male Swiss mice were fed with HFD or normal diet (ND) for 15 weeks. Contractions of thoracic aorta in response to KCl or phenylephrine (PHE) and relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were analyzed. HFD-fed mice developed hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and significant body weight gain, parameters prevented by AMY treatment. Whereas aortic contractility did not differ in response to KCl, contractions induced by PHE (1 µM) as well as relaxation induced by ACh (1-30 µM) or SNP (1 nM-0.1 mM) on PHE-contracted aorta were decreased (p < 0.05) in tissues of HFD compared to ND mice, phenomenon significantly (p < 0.05) diminished in HFD mice treated with AMY. The relaxant actions of ACh and SNP were inhibited (p < 0.05) by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5 mM), apamin (0.1 µM), and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 3 mM) in aortae from ND group, but not from HFD. Treatment of HFD mice with AMY rescued the inhibitory effect of TEA (p < 0.05) on vasorelaxant actions of ACh and SNP. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) inhibited similarly the relaxant effects of SNP in all groups. 8-Br-cGMP relaxed with similar profile aortae of all groups. By preventing HFD-induced obesity in mice, AMY rescued the blunted contractile response to PHE, and the attenuated vasorelaxation and K+ channel activation (opening) induced by ACh and SNP in isolated aorta.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
19.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 390(9): 893-903, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643086

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a complex of parasitic protozoan diseases caused by more than 20 different species of parasites from Leishmania genus. Conventional treatments are high costly, and promote a sort of side effects. Besides, protozoan resistance to treatments has been reported. Natural products have been investigated as a source of new therapeutic alternatives, not only acting directly against the parasite but also being able to synergistically act on the host immune system in order to control parasitemia. Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) are plant-derived phenolic compounds which are able to induce antiinflammatory, gastroprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities. Therefore, the antileishmania, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory activities of GA and EA were evaluated in this study. Both GA and EA were able to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes (effective concentration (EC50) values 16.4 and 9.8 µg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxicity against BALB/c murine macrophages for GA and EA was also assessed (CC50 values 126.6 and 23.8 µg/mL, respectively). Interestingly, GA and EA also significantly reduced the infection and infectivity of macrophages infected by L. major (EC50 values 5.0 and 0.9 µg/mL, respectively), with selectivity index higher than 20. Furthermore, both GA and EA induced high immunomodulatory activity evidenced by the increase of phagocytic capability, lysosomal volume, nitrite release, and intracellular calcium [Ca2+i] in macrophages. Further investigations are reinforced in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of GA and EA in in vivo experimental infection model of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Elágico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ácido Gálico/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania major/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
20.
Planta Med ; 83(3-04): 285-291, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525508

RESUMO

Obesity remains a global problem. In search of phytochemicals that have antiobesity potential, this study evaluated α,ß-amyrin, a triterpenoid mixture from Protium heptaphyllum, on high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Groups of mice (n = 8) were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet, and were orally treated or not treated with either α,ß-amyrin (10 or 20 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks. Variables measured at termination were body weight, visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte surface area, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and lipoprotein lipase expressions in adipose tissue, the levels of plasma glucose and insulin, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase, and the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, interleukin-6, and MCP-1. Results showed that α,ß-amyrin treatment resulted in lower high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight, visceral fat content, adipocyte surface area, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and lipoprotein lipase expressions, and blood glucose and insulin levels. Additionally, the markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in the high-fat diet-fed control mice were significantly modulated by α,ß-amyrin treatment. Furthermore, α,ß-amyrin decreased serum TNF-α and MCP-1. These results suggest that α,ß-amyrin could be beneficial in reducing high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated disorders via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal, and inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Burseraceae/química , Ciclobutanos/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Grelina/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Resistina/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...