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1.
Gut ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer with limited treatment options. Cabozantinib, an orally bioavailable multikinase inhibitor is now approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for HCC patients. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of cabozantinib, either alone or in combination, in vitro and in vivo. DESIGN: Human HCC cell lines and HCC mouse models were used to assess the therapeutic efficacy and targeted molecular pathways of cabozantinib, either alone or in combination with the pan-mTOR inhibitor MLN0128 or the checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-L1 antibody. RESULTS: Cabozantinib treatment led to stable disease in c-Met/ß-catenin and Akt/c-Met mouse HCC while possessing limited efficacy on Akt/Ras and c-Myc liver tumours. Importantly, cabozantinib effectively inhibited c-MET and ERK activity, leading to decreased PKM2 and increased p21 expression in HCC cells and in c-Met/ß-catenin and Akt/c-Met HCC. However, cabozantinib was ineffective in inhibiting the Akt/mTOR cascade. Intriguingly, a strong inhibition of angiogenesis by cabozantinib occurred regardless of the oncogenic drivers. However, cabozantinib had limited impact on other tumour microenvironment parameters, including tumour infiltrating T cells, and did not induce programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Combining cabozantinib with MLN0128 led to tumour regression in c-Met/ß-catenin mice. In contrast, combined treatment with cabozantinib and the checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-L1 antibody did not provide any additional therapeutic benefit in the four mouse HCC models tested. CONCLUSION: c-MET/ERK/p21/PKM2 cascade and VEGFR2-induced angiogenesis are the primary targets of cabozantinib in HCC treatment. Combination therapies with cabozantinib and mTOR inhibitors may be effective against human HCC.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187130

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver malignancy with limited treatment options. Amplification and/or overexpression of c-MYC is one of the most frequent genetic events in human HCC. The mammalian target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major functional axis regulating various aspects of cellular growth and metabolism. Recently, we demonstrated that mTORC1 is necessary for c-Myc driven hepatocarcinogenesis as well as for HCC cell growth in vitro. Among the pivotal downstream effectors of mTORC1, upregulation of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) and its mediated de novo lipogenesis is a hallmark of human HCC. Here, we investigated the importance of FASN on c-Myc-dependent hepatocarcinogenesis using in vitro and in vivo approaches. In mouse and human HCC cells, we found that FASN suppression by either gene silencing or soluble inhibitors more effectively suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in the presence of high c-MYC expression. In c-Myc/Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) mouse liver tumor lesions, FASN expression was markedly upregulated. Most importantly, genetic ablation of Fasn profoundly delayed (without abolishing) c-Myc/MCL1 induced HCC formation. Liver tumors developing in c-Myc/MCL1 mice depleted of Fasn showed a reduction in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis when compared with corresponding lesions from c-Myc/MCL1 mice with an intact Fasn gene. In human HCC samples, a significant correlation between the levels of c-MYC transcriptional activity and the expression of FASN mRNA was detected. Altogether, our study indicates that FASN is an important effector downstream of mTORC1 in c-MYC induced HCC. Targeting FASN may be helpful for the treatment of human HCC, at least in the tumor subset displaying c-MYC amplification or activation.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 9086-9092, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047964

RESUMO

Airglow is a well-known phenomenon in the Earth's upper atmosphere, which arises from the emissions of energetic atoms and molecules. The Meinel band emission from high vibrationally excited OH(X) radicals is one of the more important contributors to the airglow from the mesosphere/lower thermosphere. The H + O3 reaction has long been regarded as the dominant source of these OH(X, high v) radicals. Here we demonstrate that vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor at λ ∼ 112.8 nm represents another source of exceptionally highly vibrationally excited OH(X) radicals, with a nascent vibrational state population distribution that maximizes at v = 9 and extends to at least the v = 15 level. Atmospheric chemistry modeling indicates that OH(X, high v) radicals from H2O photolysis might be detectable in the OH Meinel band dayglow in the upper atmosphere of Earth and should dominate the corresponding emission from the Martian atmosphere. VUV photolysis of H2O also produces electronically excited OH(A) radicals, and simultaneous detection of emissions from OH(X, high v) and OH(A) is shown to offer a route to identifying high-oxygen exoplanetary atmospheres.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 7617-7623, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830973

RESUMO

The fragmentation dynamics of water in a superexcited state play an important role in the ionosphere of the planets and in the photodissociation region (PDR) of the planetary nebula. In this Letter, we experimentally study the fragmentation dynamics of H2O with the energy above its ionization potential initiated by vacuum ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses. The experimental results indicate that the binary fragmentation channels H + OH and the triple channels O + 2H both present at 96.4 nm photolysis. Electronically excited OH super-rotors (v = 0, N ≥ 36, or v = 1, N ≥ 34), with the internal energy just above the OH (A) dissociation energy, are observed for the first time, which are only supported by the large centrifugal barriers. An absolute cross section of these super-rotors is estimated to be 0.7(±0.3) × 10-18 cm2. The tunnelling rates of these extremely rotationally excited states are also analyzed. This work shows a spectacular example of energy transfer from a photon to fragment rotation through photodissociation.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630786

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Olympic No. 1 (OLP-01) has been shown in previous animal experiments to improve exercise endurance performance, but this effect has not been confirmed in humans, or more particularly, in athletes. Toward this end, the current study combined OLP-01 supplementation with regular exercise training in well-trained middle- and long-distance runners at the National Taiwan Sport University. The study was designed as a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment. Twenty-one subjects (14 males and seven females aged 20-30 years) were evenly distributed according to total distance (meters) traveled in 12 min to one of the following two groups: a placebo group (seven males and three females) and an OLP-01 (1.5 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU)/day) group (seven males and four females). All the participants received placebo or OLP-01 supplements for five consecutive weeks consisting of three weeks of regular training and two weeks of de-training. Before and after the experiment, the participants were tested for 12-min running/walking distance, and body composition, blood/serum, and fecal samples were analyzed. The results showed that OLP-01 significantly increased the change in the 12-min Cooper's test running distance and the abundance of gut microbiota. Although no significant change in body composition was found, OLP-01 caused no adverse reactions or harm to the participants' bodies. In summary, OLP-01 can be used as a sports nutrition supplement, especially for athletes, to improve exercise performance.

6.
Am J Pathol ; 190(7): 1414-1426, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275903

RESUMO

Cholestatic liver injury may lead to a series of hepatobiliary syndromes, which can progress to cirrhosis and impaired liver regeneration, eventually resulting in liver-related death. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a major regulator of liver metabolism and tumor development. However, the role of mTORC2 signaling in cholestatic liver injury has not been characterized to date. In this study, we generated liver-specific Rictor knockout mice to block the mTORC2 signaling pathway. Mice were treated with 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) to induce cholestatic liver injury. DDC feeding induced cholestatic liver injury and ductular reaction as well as activation of the mTORC2/Akt signaling pathway in wild-type mice. Loss of mTORC2 led to significantly decreased oval cell expansion after DDC feeding. Mechanistically, this phenotype was independent of mTORC1/fatty acid synthase cascade (Fasn) or yes-associated protein (Yap) signaling. Notch pathway was instead strongly inhibited during DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury in liver-specific Rictor knockout mice. Furthermore, mTORC2 deficiency in adult hepatocytes did not inhibit ductular reaction in this cholestatic live injury mouse model. Our results indicated that mTORC2 signaling effectively regulates liver regeneration by inducing oval cell proliferation. Liver progenitor cells or bile duct cells, rather than mature hepatocytes, would be the major source of ductular reaction in DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Regeneração Hepática/fisiologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129384

RESUMO

State-to-state photodissociation of carbon dioxide (CO2) via the 3p1Πu Rydberg state was investigated by the time-sliced velocity map ion imaging technique (TSVMI) using a tunable vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV FEL) source. Raw images of the O(1S) products resulting from the O(1S) + CO(X1Σ+) channel were acquired at the photolysis wavelengths between 107.37 and 108.84 nm. From the vibrational resolved O(1S) images, the product total kinetic energy releases and the vibrational state distributions of the CO(X1Σ+) co-products were obtained, respectively. It is found that vibrationally excited CO co-products populate at as high as v = 6 or 7 while peaking at v = 1 and v = 4, and most of the individual vibrational peaks present a bimodal rotational structure. Furthermore, the angular distributions at all studied photolysis wavelengths have also been determined. The associated vibrational-state specific anisotropy parameters (ß) exhibit a photolysis wavelength-dependent feature, in which the ß-values observed at 108.01 nm and 108.27 nm are more positive than those at 107.37 nm and 107.52 nm, while the ß-values have almost isotropic behaviour at 108.84 nm. These experimental results indicate that the initially prepared CO2 molecules around 108 nm should decay to the 41A' state via non-adiabatic coupling, and dissociate in the 41A' state to produce O(1S) + CO(X1Σ+) products with different dissociation time scales.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 91, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019910

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major type of primary liver cancer. Genomic studies have revealed that HCC is a heterogeneous disease with multiple subtypes. BRG1, encoded by the SMARCA4 gene, is a key component of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Based on TCGA studies, somatic mutations of SMARCA4 occur in ~3% of human HCC samples. Additional studies suggest that BRG1 is overexpressed in human HCC specimens and may promote HCC growth and invasion. However, the precise functional roles of BRG1 in HCC remain poorly delineated. Here, we analyzed BRG1 in human HCC samples as well as in mouse models. We found that BRG1 is overexpressed in most of human HCC samples, especially in those associated with poorer prognosis. BRG1 expression levels positively correlate with cell cycle and negatively with metabolic pathways in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) human HCC data set. In a murine HCC model induced by c-MYC overexpression, ablation of the Brg1 gene completely repressed HCC formation. In striking contrast, however, we discovered that concomitant deletion of Brg1 and overexpression of c-Met or mutant NRas (NRASV12) triggered HCC formation in mice. Altogether, the present data indicate that BRG1 possesses both oncogenic and tumor-suppressing roles depending on the oncogenic stimuli during hepatocarcinogenesis.

9.
Am J Pathol ; 190(4): 817-829, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035060

RESUMO

Liver regeneration is a fundamental biological process required for sustaining body homeostasis and restoring liver function after injury. Emerging evidence demonstrates that cytokines, growth factors, and multiple signaling pathways contribute to liver regeneration. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates cell metabolism, proliferation and survival. The major substrates for mTORC2 are the AGC family members of kinases, including AKT, SGK, and PKC-α. We investigated the functional roles of mTORC2 during liver regeneration. Partial hepatectomy (PHx) was performed in liver-specific Rictor (the pivotal unit of mTORC2 complex) knockout (RictorLKO) and wild-type (Rictorfl/fl) mice. Rictor-deficient mice were found to be more intolerant to PHx and displayed higher mortality after PHx. Mechanistically, loss of Rictor resulted in decreased Akt phosphorylation, leading to a delay in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid droplets formation along liver regeneration. Overall, these results indicate an essential role of the mTORC2 signaling pathway during liver regeneration.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Hepatectomia , Regeneração Hepática , Fígado/citologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteína Companheira de mTOR Insensível à Rapamicina/fisiologia , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/cirurgia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904071

RESUMO

Photodissociation dynamics of H2O and D2O via the D[combining tilde] state by one-photon excitation have been investigated using the H/D atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. The TOF spectra of the H/D-atom product in both parallel and perpendicular polarizations have been measured. Product translational energy distributions and angular distributions have been derived from TOF spectra. By simulating these distributions, quantum state distributions of the OH/OD product as well as the state-resolved angular anisotropy parameters were determined. The most important pathway of H2O/D2O dissociation via the D[combining tilde] state leads to highly rotationally excited OH/OD(X, v = 0) products, while vibrationally excited OH/OD products with v ≥ 1 comprise only one third of the total OH/OD(X) population. The branching ratios of OH(A)/OH(X) and OD(A)/OD(X) have also been determined, 1.0/3.0 for H2O at 122.12 nm and 1.0/2.2 for D2O at 121.95 nm, which are reasonably consistent with the values predicted by the previous theory.

11.
Gut ; 69(1): 177-186, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis have been independently described in many tumour types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DESIGN: We investigated the functional contribution of fatty acid synthase (Fasn)-mediated de novo FA synthesis in a murine HCC model induced by loss of Pten and overexpression of c-Met (sgPten/c-Met) using liver-specific Fasn knockout mice. Expression arrays and lipidomic analysis were performed to characterise the global gene expression and lipid profiles, respectively, of sgPten/c-Met HCC from wild-type and Fasn knockout mice. Human HCC cell lines were used for in vitro studies. RESULTS: Ablation of Fasn significantly delayed sgPten/c-Met-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. However, eventually, HCC emerged in Fasn knockout mice. Comparative genomic and lipidomic analyses revealed the upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, as well as decreased triglyceride levels and increased cholesterol esters, in HCC from these mice. Mechanistically, loss of Fasn promoted nuclear localisation and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (Srebp2), which triggered cholesterogenesis. Blocking cholesterol synthesis via the dominant negative form of Srebp2 (dnSrebp2) completely prevented sgPten/c-Met-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in Fasn knockout mice. Similarly, silencing of FASN resulted in increased SREBP2 activation and hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR) expression in human HCC cell lines. Concomitant inhibition of FASN-mediated FA synthesis and HMGCR-driven cholesterol production was highly detrimental for HCC cell growth in culture. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovers a novel functional crosstalk between aberrant lipogenesis and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis, whose concomitant inhibition might represent a therapeutic option for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Colesterol/biossíntese , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Genômica , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 89: 66-71, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine blood Brucella DNA loads between brucellosis patients and those without brucellosis. METHODS: The patient group included 350 brucellosis patients. The control was composed of 200 subjects without brucellosis. The extracted DNA from blood was tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cutoff value was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A portion of the brucellosis patients were monitored by qPCR during therapy. RESULTS: The detection limit of qPCR was between 1E+01cfu/µL and 1E+08cfu/µL. The standard curve R2 reached 0.998. The cutoff value was 4E+01cfu/µL, which was determined by comparison of the patient group and the control. The qPCR assay had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.14%. The monitoring results showed that the Brucella DNA load decreased in most patients during the first 4 weeks of treatment. One patient with bad treatment compliance showed a rebound. CONCLUSIONS: The qPCR results were in accordance with the course of brucellosis in the clinic. The DNA load often reflects the situation of the Brucella-infected patient. The cutoff value provides an important reference of infection. This qPCR-based method can be used to assist in the diagnosis of brucellosis and to adjust the therapy.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/diagnóstico , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Adulto , Testes de Aglutinação , Medula Óssea/microbiologia , Brucella/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Cancer Res ; 79(21): 5563-5574, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383647

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and has limited treatment options. Snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1) is a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been implicated in HCC initiation and progression. However, the precise role of SNAI1 and the way it contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis have not been investigated in depth, especially in vivo. Here, we analyzed the functional relevance of SNAI1 in promoting hepatocarcinogenesis in the context of the AKT/c-Met-driven mouse liver tumor model (AKT/c-Met/SNAI1). Overexpression of SNAI1 did not accelerate AKT/c-Met-induced HCC development or induce metastasis in mice. Elevated SNAI1 expression rather led to the formation of cholangiocellular (CCA) lesions in the mouse liver, a phenotype that was paralleled by increased activation of Yap and Notch. Ablation of Yap strongly inhibited AKT/c-Met/SNAI-induced HCC and CCA development, whereas inhibition of the Notch pathway specifically blocked the CCA-like phenotype in mice. Intriguingly, overexpression of SNAI1 failed to induce EMT, indicated by strong E-cadherin expression and lack of vimentin expression by AKT/c-Met/SNAI tumor cells. SNAI1 mRNA levels strongly correlated with the expression of CCA markers, including SOX9, CK19, and EPCAM, but not with EMT markers such as E-CADHERIN and ZO-1, in human HCC samples. Overall, our findings suggest SNAI1 regulates the CCA-like phenotype in hepatocarcinogenesis via regulation of Yap and Notch. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings report a new function of SNAI1 to promote cholangiocellular transdifferentiation instead of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(7)2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277283

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer histotype, characterized by high biological aggressiveness and scarce treatment options. Recently, we have established a clinically relevant murine HCC model by co-expressing activated forms of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and oncogene c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition (c-Met) proto-oncogenes in the mouse liver via hydrodynamic tail vein injection (AKT/c-MET mice). Tumor cells from these mice demonstrated high activity of the AKT/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Ras/ Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, two pathways frequently co-induced in human HCC. Methods: Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of sorafenib, regorafenib, the MEK inhibitor PD901 as well as the pan-mTOR inhibitor MLN0128 in the AKT/c-Met preclinical HCC model. Results: In these mice, neither sorafenib nor regorafenib demonstrated any efficacy. In contrast, administration of PD901 inhibited cell cycle progression of HCC cells in vitro. Combined PD901 and MLN0128 administration resulted in a pronounced growth constraint of HCC cell lines. In vivo, treatment with PD901 or MLN0128 alone moderately slowed HCC growth in AKT/c-MET mice. Importantly, the simultaneous administration of the two drugs led to a stable disease with limited tumor progression in mice. Mechanistically, combined mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) and mTOR inhibition resulted in a stronger cell cycle inhibition and growth arrest both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: Our study indicates that combination of MEK and mTOR inhibitors might represent an effective therapeutic approach against human HCC.

15.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2121-2127, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269247

RESUMO

The effects of thermal oxidation at 65 °C for 24 days on oxidation indices, fatty acid positional distribution, thermal properties, vitamin E composition and sterol composition of kenaf seed oil are investigated. The results showed that total oxidation value (TOTOX) of the oil increased from initial 8.83 to 130.74 at the end of 24 days storage. Linoleic acid at sn-1, 3 positon of kenaf seed oil was less stable than the one at sn-2 positon. Oxidative degradation changed the melting profile of kenaf seed oil, the value of endothermic enthalpy reduced from 58.17 to 20.25 J/g after 24 days of storage. Moreover, the content of vitamin E and total sterol decreased by 84.26% and 38.47%, respectively. Tocotrienols were more stable than tocopherols during the accelerated storage. Correlation analysis indicated vitamin E content was significantly related to p-anisidine value, while sterol content was significantly related to peroxide value. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Kenaf seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive compounds. Heating process and long-term storage cause oil oxidation and bioactive compounds degradation. The oxidation process of kenaf seed oil is simulated with accelerated storage. The study evaluates fatty acid composition and distribution, vitamin E and sterol content, melting thermal characteristics of kenaf seed oil at different oxidation levels. The research shows the stability of fatty acid is related with its type and position in backbone of triacylglycerol molecule. There are good correlation among oxidation level, vitamin E and sterol content, and melting enthalpy value of kenaf seed oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibiscus/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Oxirredução , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocotrienóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Vitamina E/análise
16.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181709

RESUMO

Protection of polymeric materials from the atomic oxygen erosion in low-earth orbit spacecrafts has become one of the most important research topics in aerospace science. In the current research, a series of novel organic/inorganic nanocomposite films with excellent atomic oxygen (AO) resistance are prepared from the phosphorous-containing polyimide (FPI) matrix and trisilanolphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (TSP-POSS) additive. The PI matrix derived from 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and 2,5-bis[(4-amino- phenoxy)phenyl]diphenylphosphine oxide (BADPO) itself possesses the self-healing feature in AO environment. Incorporation of TSP-POSS further enhances the AO resistance of the FPI/TSP composite films via a Si-P synergic effect. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of the pristine film is maintained. The FPI-25 composite film with a 25 wt % loading of TSP-POSS in the FPI matrix exhibits an AO erosion yield of 3.1 × 10-26 cm3/atom after an AO attack of 4.0 × 1020 atoms/cm2, which is only 5.8% and 1.0% that of pristine FPI-0 film (6FDA-BADPO) and PI-ref (PMDA-ODA) film derived from 1,2,4,5-pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA) and 4,4'-oxydianline (ODA), respectively. Inert phosphorous and silicon-containing passivation layers are observed at the surface of films during AO exposure.

17.
J Hepatol ; 71(4): 742-752, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) is recognized as a tumor suppressor in many cancer types due to its ability to promote the degradation of numerous oncogenic target proteins. Herein, we aimed to elucidate its role in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). METHODS: Herein, we first confirmed that FBXW7 gene expression was reduced in human iCCA specimens. To identify the molecular mechanisms by which FBXW7 dysfunction promotes cholangiocarcinogenesis, we generated a mouse model by hydrodynamic tail vein injection of Fbxw7ΔF, a dominant negative form of Fbxw7, either alone or in association with an activated/myristylated form of AKT (myr-AKT). We then confirmed the role of c-MYC in human iCCA cell lines and its relationship to FBXW7 expression in human iCCA specimens. RESULTS: FBXW7 mRNA expression is almost ubiquitously downregulated in human iCCA specimens. While forced overexpression of Fbxw7ΔF alone did not induce any appreciable abnormality in the mouse liver, co-expression with AKT triggered cholangiocarcinogenesis and mice had to be euthanized by 15 weeks post-injection. At the molecular level, a strong induction of Fbxw7 canonical targets, including Yap, Notch2, and c-Myc oncoproteins, was detected. However, only c-MYC was consistently confirmed as a FBXW7 target in human CCA cell lines. Most importantly, selected ablation of c-Myc completely impaired iCCA formation in AKT/Fbxw7ΔF mice, whereas deletion of either Yap or Notch2 only delayed tumorigenesis in the same model. In human iCCA specimens, an inverse correlation between the expression levels of FBXW7 and c-MYC transcriptional activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of FBXW7 is ubiquitous in human iCCA and cooperates with AKT to induce cholangiocarcinogenesis in mice via c-Myc-dependent mechanisms. Targeting c-MYC might represent an innovative therapy against iCCA exhibiting low FBXW7 expression. LAY SUMMARY: There is mounting evidence that FBXW7 functions as a tumor suppressor in many cancer types, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, through its ability to promote the degradation of numerous oncoproteins. Herein, we have shown that the low expression of FBXW7 is ubiquitous in human cholangiocarcinoma specimens. This low expression is correlated with increased c-MYC activity, leading to tumorigenesis. Our findings suggest that targeting c-MYC might be an effective treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 50-59, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials on multiple sclerosis with repeated injections of monoclonal antibodies depleting CD4+ T cells have not resulted in much success as a disease therapy. Here, we developed an immunotherapy for EAE in mice by combining a transient depletion of T cells together with the administration of neuron derived peptides. METHODS: EAE was induced in SJL and C57BL/6 mice, by proteolipid protein peptide PLP139-151 (pPLP) and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG35-55 (pMOG) peptides, respectively. Anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibody were injected intraperitoneally before or after peptide immunization. EAE scores were evaluated and histology data from brain and spinal cord were analyzed. Splenocytes were isolated and CD4+, CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ T cells were purified and cultured in the presence of either specific peptides or anti-CD3 antibody and proliferation of T cells as well as cytokines in supernatant were assessed. FINDINGS: This experimental treatment exhibited therapeutic effects on mice with established EAE in pPLP-susceptible SJL mice and pMOG-susceptible C57BL/6 mice. Mechanistically, we revealed that antibody-induced apoptotic T cells triggered macrophages to produce TGFß, and together with administered auto-antigenic peptides, generated antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in vivo. INTERPRETATION: We successfully developed a specific immunotherapy to EAE by generating autoantigen-specific Treg cells. These findings have overcome the drawbacks of long and repeated depletion of CD4+ T cells, but also obtained long-term immune tolerance, which should have clinical implications for the development of a new effective therapy for multiple sclerosis. FUND: This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NIDCR.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Autoantígenos/administração & dosagem , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Tolerância Imunológica , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Fagócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Hepatology ; 70(5): 1600-1613, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062368

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver cancer with limited treatment options. The c-Myc transcription factor is a pivotal player in hepatocarcinogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying c-Myc oncogenic activity in the liver remain poorly delineated. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been implicated in cancer by regulating multiple AGC kinases, especially AKT proteins. In the liver, AKT1 and AKT2 are widely expressed. While AKT2 is the major isoform downstream of activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase and loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced HCC, the precise function of AKT1 in hepatocarcinogenesis is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that mTORC2 is activated in c-Myc-driven mouse HCC, leading to phosphorylation/activation of Akt1 but not Akt2. Ablation of Rictor inhibited c-Myc-induced HCC formation in vivo. Mechanistically, we discovered that loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, completely prevented c-Myc HCC formation in mice. Silencing of Rictor or Akt1 in c-Myc HCC cell lines inhibited phosphorylated forkhead box o1 expression and strongly suppressed cell growth in vitro. In human HCC samples, c-MYC activation is strongly correlated with phosphorylated AKT1 expression. Higher expression of RICTOR and AKT1, but not AKT2, is associated with poor survival of patients with HCC. In c-Myc mice, while rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, had limited efficacy at preventing c-Myc-driven HCC progression, the dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitor MLN0128 effectively promoted tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusion: Our study indicates the functional contribution of mTORC2/Akt1 along c-Myc-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, with AKT1 and AKT2 having distinct roles in HCC development and progression; targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 may be required for effective treatment of human HCC displaying c-Myc amplification or overexpression.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027374

RESUMO

As the size of the radar hardware platform becomes smaller and smaller, the cost becomes lower and lower. The application of indoor radar-based human motion recognition has become a reality, which can be realized in a low-cost device with simple architecture. Compared with narrow-band radar (such as continuous wave radar, etc.), the human motion echo signal of the carrier-free ultra-wideband (UWB) radar contains more abundant characteristic information of human motion, which is helpful for identifying different types of human motion. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method by two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) algorithm is proposed. And it is used for extracting the primary features of human motion. The 2D-VMD algorithm is an adaptive non-recursive multiscale decomposition method for nonlinear and nonstationary signals. Firstly, the original 2D radar echo signals are decomposed by the 2D-VMD algorithm to capture several 2D intrinsic mode function (BIMFs) which represent different groups of central frequency components of a certain type of human motion. Secondly, original echo signals are reconstructed according to the several BIMFs, which not only have a certain inhibitory effect on the clutter in the echo signal, but can also further demonstrate that the BIMFs obtained by the 2D-VMD algorithm can represent the original 2D echo signal well. Finally, based on the measured ten different types of UWB radar human motion 2D echo analysis signals, the characteristics of these different types of human motion are extracted and the original echo signal are reconstructed. Then, the three indicators of the PCC, UQI, and PSNR between the original echo signals and extraction/reconstruction 2D signals are analyzed, which illustrate the effectiveness of 2D-VMD algorithm to extract feature of human motion 2D echo signals of the carrier-free UWB radar. Experimental results show that BIMFs by 2D-VMD algorithm can well represent the echo signal characteristics of this type of human motion, which is a very effective tool for human motion radar echo signal feature extraction.


Assuntos
Movimento (Física) , Radar , Algoritmos , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
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