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1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869193

RESUMO

Efforts to improve cancer care primarily come from two fields: improvement science and implementation science. The two fields have developed independently, yet they have potential for synergy. Leveraging that synergy to enhance alignment could both reduce duplication and, more importantly, enhance the potential of both fields to improve care. To better understand potential for alignment, we examined 20 highly cited cancer-related improvement science and implementation science studies published in the past 5 years, characterizing and comparing their objectives, methods, and approaches to practice change. We categorized studies as improvement science or implementation science based on authors' descriptions when possible; otherwise, we categorized studies as improvement science if they evaluated efforts to improve the quality, value, or safety of care, or implementation science if they evaluated efforts to promote the implementation of evidence-based interventions into practice. All implementation studies (10/10) and most improvement science studies (6/10) sought to improve uptake of evidence-based interventions. Improvement science and implementation science studies employed similar approaches to change practice. For example, training was employed in 8/10 implementation science studies and 4/10 improvement science studies. However, improvement science and implementation science studies used different terminology to describe similar concepts and emphasized different methodological aspects in reporting. Only 4/20 studies (2 from each category) described using a formal theory or conceptual framework to guide program development. Most studies were multi-site (10/10 implementation science and 6/10 improvement science) and a minority (2 from each category) used a randomized design. Based on our review, cancer-related improvement science and implementation science studies use different terminology and emphasize different methodological aspects in reporting but share similarities in purpose, scope, and methods, and are at similar levels of scientific development. The fields are well-positioned for alignment. We propose that next steps include harmonizing language and cross-fertilizing methods of program development and evaluation.

2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation methods of risk-stratified cancer screening guidance throughout a health care system remains understudied. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a preliminary analysis of the implementation of a risk-stratified prostate cancer screening algorithm in a single health care system. DESIGN: Comparison of men seen pre-implementation (2/1/2016-2/1/2017) vs. post-implementation (2/2/2017-2/21/2018). PARTICIPANTS: Men, aged 40-75 years, without a history of prostate cancer, who were seen by a primary care provider. INTERVENTIONS: The algorithm was integrated into two components in the electronic health record (EHR): in Health Maintenance as a personalized screening reminder and in tailored messages to providers that accompanied prostate-specific antigen (PSA) results. MAIN MEASURES: Primary outcomes: percent of men who met screening algorithm criteria; percent of men with a PSA result. Logistic repeated measures mixed models were used to test for differences in the proportion of individuals that met screening criteria in the pre- and post-implementation periods with age, race, family history, and PSA level included as covariates. KEY RESULTS: During the pre- and post-implementation periods, 49,053 and 49,980 men, respectively, were seen across 26 clinics (20.6% African American). The proportion of men who met screening algorithm criteria increased from 49.3% (pre-implementation) to 68.0% (post-implementation) (p < 0.001); this increase was observed across all races, age groups, and primary care clinics. Importantly, the percent of men who had a PSA did not change: 55.3% pre-implementation, 55.0% post-implementation. The adjusted odds of meeting algorithm-based screening was 6.5-times higher in the post-implementation period than in the pre-implementation period (95% confidence interval, 5.97 to 7.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary analysis, following implementation of an EHR-based algorithm, we observed a rapid change in practice with an increase in screening in higher-risk groups balanced with a decrease in screening in low-risk groups. Future efforts will evaluate costs and downstream outcomes of this strategy.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2016858, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930779

RESUMO

Importance: National efforts to improve safe opioid prescribing focus on preventing misuse, overdose, and opioid use disorder. This approach overlooks opportunities to better prevent other serious opioid-related harms in complex populations, such as older adult survivors of cancer. Little is known about the rates and risk factors for comprehensive opioid-related harms in this population. Objective: To determine rates of multiple opioid-related adverse drug events among older adults who survived breast cancer and estimate the risk of these events associated with opioid use in the year after completing cancer treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used 2007 to 2016 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data from fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with first cancer diagnosis of stage 0 to III breast cancer at age 66 to 90 years from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2015, who completed active breast cancer treatment. Data were analyzed from October 31, 2019, to June 10, 2020. Exposures: Repeated daily measure indicating possession of any prescription opioid supply in Medicare Part D prescription claims. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs), estimated using modified Poisson generalized estimating equation models, for adverse drug events related to substance misuse (ie, diagnosed opioid abuse, dependence, or poisoning), other adverse drug events associated with opioid use (ie, gastrointestinal events, infections, falls and fractures, or cardiovascular events), and all-cause hospitalization associated with opioid supply the prior day, controlling for patient characteristics. Results: Among 38 310 women included in the study (mean [SD] age, 74.3 [6.3] years), there were 0.010 (95% CI, 0.008-0.011) adverse drug events related to substance misuse per 1000 person-days, 0.237 (95% CI, 0.229-0.245) other adverse drug events associated with opioid use per 1000 person-days, and 0.675 (95% CI, 0.662-0.689) all-cause hospitalizations per 1000 person-days. Opioid use was associated with increased risk of adverse drug events related to substance misuse (aRR, 14.62; 95% CI, 9.69-22.05; P < .001), other adverse drug events related to opioid use (aRR, 2.50; 95% CI, 2.11-2.96; P < .001), and all-cause hospitalization (aRR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.55-3.02; P < .001). In a dose-response effect, individuals with high daily opioid doses had consistently higher risks of all study outcomes compared with individuals who had low opioid doses. Compared with days with no opioid exposure, the risk of any adverse drug event related to substance misuse was 3.4-fold higher for individuals with a current opioid supply ≥50 mg morphine equivalent dose per day (aRR, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.47-4.68; P < .001), while the risk was 2.3-fold higher for individuals with 1 to 49 mg morphine equivalent dose per day (aRR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.89-2.77; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that among older adults who survived breast cancer, continued prescription opioid use in the year after completing active cancer treatment was associated with an immediate increased risk of a broad range of serious adverse drug events related to substance misuse and other adverse drug events associated with opioid use. Clinicians should consider the comprehensive risks of managing cancer pain with long-term opioid therapy.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high rates of opioid therapy, evidence about the risk of preventable opioid harms among cancer survivors is underdeveloped. Our objective was to estimate the odds of opioid use disorder (OUD) and overdose following breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer diagnosis among Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2007-2014 SEER-Medicare data for cancer survivors with a first cancer diagnosis of stage 0-III breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer at age 66-89 between 2008-2013. Cancer survivors were matched to up to 2 non-cancer controls on age, sex, and SEER region. Using Firth logistic regression, we estimated adjusted 1-year odds of OUD or non-fatal opioid overdose associated with a cancer diagnosis. We also estimated adjusted odds of OUD and overdose separately and by cancer stage, prior opioid use, and follow-up time. RESULTS: Among 69,889 cancer survivors and 125,007 controls, the unadjusted rates of OUD or non-fatal overdose were 25.2, 27.1, 38.9, and 12.4 events/10,000 patients in the non-cancer, breast, colorectal, and prostate samples, respectively. There was no association between cancer and OUD. Colorectal survivors had 2.3-times higher odds of opioid overdose compared to matched controls (adjusted odds ratio=2.33, 95% CI=1.49 to 3.67). Additionally, overdose risk was greater in those with more advanced disease, no prior opioid use, and pre-existing mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Opioid overdose was a rare, but statistically significant, outcome following stage II-III colorectal cancer diagnosis, particularly among previously opioid-naïve patients. These patients may require heightened screening and intervention to prevent inadvertent adverse opioid harms.

6.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634037

RESUMO

Background: Information routinely collected during a palliative care consultation request may help predict the level of complexity of that patient encounter. Objectives: We examined whether patient and consultation characteristics, as captured in consultation requests, are associated with the number of unmet palliative care needs that emerge during consultation, as an indicator of complexity. Design: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of palliative care consultations. Setting: We analyzed quality-of-care data from specialty palliative care consultations contained in the Quality Data Collection Tool of the Global Palliative Care Quality Alliance from 2012 to 2017. Measurements: Using 13 point-of-care assessments of quality of life, symptoms, advance care planning, and prognosis, we created a complexity score ranging from 0 (not complex) to 13 (highest complexity). Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the relationships of consultation setting and patient characteristics with complexity score. Results: Patients in our cohort (N = 3121) had an average complexity score of 6.7 (standard deviation = 3.7). Female gender, nonwhite race, and neurological (e.g., dementia) and noncancer primary diagnosis were associated with increased complexity score. The hospital intensive care unit, compared with the general floor, was associated with higher complexity scores. In contrast, outpatient and residence, compared with the general floor, were associated with lower complexity scores. Conclusion: Patient, disease, and care setting factors known at the time of specialty palliative care consultation request are associated with level of complexity, and they may inform teams about the right service provisions, including time and expertise, required to meet patient needs.

7.
J Palliat Med ; 23(4): 568-572, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176563

RESUMO

The field of palliative care (PC) has spent the past decade demonstrating that it improves outcomes for patients, clinicians, and health systems. Forward-thinking organizations preparing for a reimbursement system rooted in value have built robust inpatient PC programs and are rapidly moving toward the outpatient and community settings as well. As PC programs get larger and are increasingly tasked with leading a wide variety of diverse initiatives, population health principles can help to focus programs on high-value activities. This article, written by population health researchers and PC clinicians, seeks to provide PC teams nationally with a variety of population health strategies and tools to guide PC delivery throughout the health system and beyond.

8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 219-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reports suggest that up to 50% of women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) do not complete the recommended 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). We examined the impact of an outreach program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) on adherence and discontinuation of AET among patients who initiated AET. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort of all KPNC patients diagnosed with HR+, stage I-III BC initiating AET before (n = 4287) and after (n = 3580) implementation of the outreach program. We compared adherence proportions and discontinuation rates before and after program implementation, both crude and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and stage. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six Cancer Research Network (CRN) sites that had not implemented programs for improving AET adherence, using identical methods and time periods, to assess possible secular trends. RESULTS: In the pre-outreach period, estimated adherence in years 1, 2, and 3 following AET initiation was 75.2%, 71.0%, and 67.3%; following the outreach program, the estimates were 79.4%, 75.6%, and 72.2% (p-values < .0001 for pairwise comparisons). Results were comparable after adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. The estimated cumulative incidence of discontinuation was 0.22 (0.21-0.24) and 0.18 (0.17-0.19) at 3 years for pre- and post-outreach groups (p-value < .0001). We found no evidence of an increase in adherence between the study periods at the CRN sites with no AET adherence program. CONCLUSION: Adherence and discontinuation after AET initiation improved modestly following implementation of the outreach program.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , California/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Melhoria de Qualidade , Programas Médicos Regionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(7): 765-768, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605134

RESUMO

Guidelines recommend using caution in co-prescribing opioids with benzodiazepines, yet, in practice, the extent of concurrent prescribing is poorly understood. Notably, no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated concurrent prescribing among patients with cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database linked with Medicare claims (2012-2016) for women diagnosed with breast cancer. We used modified Poisson regression to examine predictors of any concurrent prescriptions in the year post-diagnosis and Poisson regression to examine predictors of the number of overlapping days. We found that 13.0% of the 19 267 women in our sample had concurrent prescriptions. Women who underwent more extensive treatment and those with previous use of opioids or benzodiazepines were at increased risk for concurrent prescriptions (adjusted risk ratio of previous benzodiazepine use vs no previous use = 15.05, 95% confidence interval = 13.19 to 17.19). Among women with concurrent prescriptions, overlap was most pronounced among low-income, rural, and Hispanic women (adjusted incidence rate ratio of Hispanic vs non-Hispanic white = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.20 to 1.30). Our results highlight opportunities to reduce patients' unnecessary exposure to this combination.

10.
J Urol ; 203(1): 159-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387606

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Interventions that teach patients cognitive and behavioral strategies for managing cancer pain have demonstrated effectiveness. Systematic reviews of such interventions call for research to inform their implementation in practice, including investigations into which patients are most likely to benefit. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify predictors of response to an evidence-based behavioral intervention for cancer pain, pain coping skills training (PCST). METHODS: We conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of a randomized noninferiority trial comparing in-person to videoconference-based PCST. Using modified Poisson regression, we estimated the adjusted associations of patient characteristics with clinically meaningful reductions (≥30%) in pain severity and pain interference. RESULTS: Of the 178 patients who were randomized, 135 completed at least one follow-up assessment and were included in this analysis. Proportions of patients experiencing reductions in pain severity and pain interference were 34% and 46%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, education level was associated with a reduction in pain severity (adjusted relative risk, some college or technical school vs. college or higher: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93). Patients with colorectal cancer were 61% more likely to experience a reduction in pain interference than patients with breast cancer (95% CI:1.21-2.34). Marital status was also statistically significantly associated with pain interference reduction, with married patients less likely to experience a reduction in pain interference (adjusted relative risk, married vs. not: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98). CONCLUSION: Our findings elucidate several subgroups of patients who may be especially likely to benefit from PCST, informing both targeted implementation efforts and opportunities to improve delivery for diverse patients.

12.
Head Neck ; 41(11): 3948-3959, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer survivors experience difficulty returning to work after treatment. To better understand specific barriers to returning to work, we investigated factors associated with discontinuing employment among older and working-age survivors. METHODS: The sample included 675 oropharyngeal cancer survivors (median: 6 years posttreatment) diagnosed from 2000 to 2013 and employed at diagnosis. Relative risk models were constructed to examine the independent associations of demographic and health factors, and symptom experiences per the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN) with posttreatment employment, overall and by age (<60 years vs ≥60 years at survey). RESULTS: Symptom interference was not statistically significantly associated with posttreatment employment status among respondents ≥60 years. Among working-age respondents <60 years, symptom interference was strongly associated with posttreatment employment. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to assess and lessen symptom burden in working-age survivors should be evaluated as approaches to support regaining core functions needed for continued employment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/complicações , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
13.
Urology ; 124: 107-112, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine intravesical chemotherapy (IVC) use according to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patient disease risk, and the contributions of multilevel factors to variation in proficient use among patients with low-intermediate disease. METHODS: This study included 988 patients diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in an integrated health system in Northern California from 2015-2017. We calculated IVC receipt by disease risk, and among patients with low-intermediate risk disease, assessed the relationship between multilevel factors and IVC receipt using a logistic regression model with random intercepts for provider and service area, and patient-, provider-, and service area-level fixed effects. We further assessed the association of provider- and service area-level factors with IVC use by examining intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Similar proportions of low-intermediate (36%) and high-risk (34%) patients received IVC. In the multivariate analysis, including low-intermediate risk patients, service area volume was strongly and statistically significantly associated with IVC use (adjusted odds ratio, high- vs low-volume: 0.08, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.01-0.58). Provider- and service area-level intraclass correlation coefficients were large, (38%, P = .0009 and 39% P = .03, respectively) indicating that much of the variance in IVC use was explained by factors at these levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight opportunities to improve proficient use of IVC. Future research should assess provider- and practice-level barriers to IVC use among low-intermediate risk patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravesical , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Assistência Perioperatória , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
14.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 57(3): 587-595, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508637

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with cancer commonly experience depression. If not addressed, depression can lead to reduced quality of life and survival. OBJECTIVE: Given the introduction of national initiatives to improve management of psychiatric symptoms among patients with cancer, we examined patterns of depression detection and treatment over time, and with respect to patient characteristics. METHODS: This cross-sectional study linked data from the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2005 and 2013, with data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California's electronic medical record. Pathways participants eligible for this analysis had no known prior depression but reported depressive symptoms at baseline. We used modified Poisson regression to assess the association of cancer diagnosis year and other patient characteristics with receipt of a documented clinician response to depressive symptoms (depression diagnosis, mental health referral, or antidepressant prescription). RESULTS: Of the 725 women in our sample, 34% received a clinician response to depression. We observed no statistically significant association of breast cancer diagnosis year with clinician response. Characteristics associated with clinician response included Asian race (adjusted risk ratio, Asian vs. white: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.68) and depression severity (adjusted risk ratio, mild-moderate vs. severe depression: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.11-1.88). CONCLUSION: Most patients in our sample did not receive a clinician response to their study-reported depression, and rates of response do not appear to have improved over time. Asian women, and those with less severe depression, appeared to be at increased risk of having unmet mental health care needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(5): 1639-1646, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanic women are more likely to report pain, depression, and other mental health concerns. However, little is known about Hispanic women's use of supportive medications, and whether use differs depending on nativity (US- vs. foreign-born). This study's objectives were to examine patterns of supportive medication use and investigate potential differences by ethnicity/nativity among women with breast cancer. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data linked with Medicare claims to identify women diagnosed with incident breast cancer between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. Supportive medication use (opioid pain and non-opioid psychotropic medications) in the 90 days after diagnosis was the primary outcome. We categorized ethnicity/nativity as US-Born non-Hispanic, US-born Hispanic, foreign-born non-Hispanic, and foreign-born Hispanic. Modified Poisson models examined associations between ethnicity/nativity and medication use, adjusting for tumor, treatment, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: We included 23,091 women, of whom 88% were US-born non-Hispanics, 4% US-born Hispanics, 6% foreign-born non-Hispanics, and 2% foreign-born Hispanics. Supportive medication use varied by ethnicity/nativity. Compared to US-born non-Hispanics, foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanics were 5% (95% CI 0.92-0.98) and 10% (95% CI 0.85-0.96) less likely to receive supportive medications, respectively. US-born Hispanics were 5% (95% CI 1.02-1.09) more likely to receive supportive medications. Observed differences persisted when analyses were limited to stage I-III breast cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS: This work highlights potential disparities in the pharmacologic treatment of psychosocial needs of foreign-born breast cancer patients. Future studies should explore if differences observed here are reflective of health disparities or differential patient preferences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , América Latina/etnologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Lung Cancer ; 125: 51-56, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of uniform access to care in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of resection for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by comparing integrated health system member patients to demographically similar non-member patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the California Cancer Registry, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients from four racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander), aged 21-80, with a first primary diagnosis of stage I or II NSCLC between 2004 and 2011, in counties served by Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) at diagnosis. Our cohort included 1565 KPNC member and 4221 non-member patients. To examine the relationship between race/ethnicity and receipt of surgery stratified by KPNC membership, we used modified Poisson regression to calculate risk ratios (RR) adjusted for patient demographic and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Black patients were least likely to receive surgery regardless of access to integrated care (64-65% in both groups). The magnitude of the black-white difference in the likelihood of surgery receipt was similar for members (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73-0.93) and non-members (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). Among members, roughly equal proportions of Hispanic and White patients received surgery; however, among non-members, Hispanic patients were less likely to receive surgery (non-members, RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00; members, RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08). CONCLUSION: Disparities in surgical treatment for NSCLC were not reduced through integrated health system membership, suggesting that factors other than access to care (e.g., patient-provider communication) may underlie disparities. Future research should focus on identifying such modifiable factors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/ética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Grupos Populacionais/ética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(3): 593-603, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Racial/ethnic differences in cancer symptom burden are well documented, but limited research has evaluated modifiable factors underlying these differences. Our objective was to examine the role of patient-provider interactions to help explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and cancer-specific physical well-being (PWB) among women with breast cancer. METHODS: The Pathways Study is a prospective cohort study of 4505 women diagnosed with breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013. Our analysis included white, black, Hispanic, and Asian participants who completed baseline assessments of PWB, measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer, and patient-provider interactions, measured by the Interpersonal Processes of Care Survey (IPC) (N = 4002). Using step-wise linear regression, we examined associations of race/ethnicity with PWB, and changes in associations when IPC domains were added. RESULTS: We observed racial/ethnic differences in PWB, with minorities reporting lower scores than whites (beta, black: - 1.79; beta, Hispanic: - 1.92; beta, Asian: - 1.68; p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). With the addition of health and demographic covariates to the model, associations between race/ethnicity and PWB score became attenuated for blacks and Asians (beta: - 0.63, p = 0.06; beta: - 0.68, p = 0.02, respectively) and, to a lesser extent, for Hispanic women (beta: - 1.06, p = 0.0003). Adjusting for IPC domains did not affect Hispanic-white differences (beta: - 1.08, p = 0.0002), and slightly attenuated black-white differences (beta: - 0.51, p = 0.14). Asian-white differences narrowed substantially (beta: - 0.31, p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: IPC domains, including those capturing perceived discrimination, respect, and clarity of communication, appeared to partly explain PWB differences for black and Asian women. Results highlight opportunities to improve providers' interactions with minority patients, and communication with minority patients about their supportive care needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes , Relações Médico-Paciente , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
19.
Palliat Med ; 31(3): 231-238, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27484674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer who have dependent children are an important population with a life-limiting illness and high levels of psychological distress. Few studies have addressed the experience of being a parent with advanced cancer and their potential palliative needs. AIM: To describe the experience of living with advanced cancer as a parent, including illness experience, parental concerns, and treatment decision making and to explore whether these experiences differ by their functional status. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 42 participants with metastatic cancer and with at least one child under the age of 18 years were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center. 25 participants were rated as having high functional status (the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status Scale = 0-1) and 17 with low functional status (ECOG=2-4). RESULTS: We identified four themes regarding the experience of being a parent with advanced cancer: (1) parental concerns about the impact of their illness and death on their children, (2) "missing out" and losses of parental role and responsibilities, (3) maintaining parental responsibilities despite life-limiting illness, and (4) parental identity influencing decision making about treatment. Parental functional status influenced not only physical responsibilities but also intensified parenting psychological concerns. CONCLUSION: Parents with metastatic cancer may have unique palliative care needs as they experience parenting concerns while managing the psychological and physical demands of advanced cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Psychooncology ; 26(10): 1491-1497, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27228327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision-making about advanced cancer treatment is complex and may be influenced by patients' family context, including the presence of children. We explored how parental values and concerns motivate patients' preferences about aggressiveness of advanced cancer treatment as well as preferences for palliative care and hospice services. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 patients with advanced cancer who had at least one child under 18 years. We created and applied thematic codes. Descriptive analyses were used to report the number of participants who mentioned each code. RESULTS: The majority of participants (29/42) reported that having children influenced their preferences for advanced cancer care. For most parents, extending life to maximize the time they had left to parent their children was important in guiding treatment preferences. Others prioritized preserving their physical condition and parental functioning and remaining physically close to their children. Many parents discussed life extension and parental functioning preservation as competing priorities. Most of the sample expressed interest in palliative care services and hospice, but responses by several participants reflected concerns about dying at home and lack of clarity about the role of early palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Parents in our sample expressed that maximizing time with their children and preserving parental functioning were important concerns underlying their preferences for advanced cancer care. Future research should assess the palliative and end-of-life care needs and preferences of parents with advanced cancer, which may differ from those of non-parents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Neoplasias/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Assistência Terminal
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