*Nat Mater ; 2022 Nov 03.*

##### RESUMO

In the kagome metals AV3Sb5 (A = K, Rb, Cs), three-dimensional charge order is the primary instability that sets the stage for other collective orders to emerge, including unidirectional stripe order, orbital flux order, electronic nematicity and superconductivity. Here, we use high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to determine the microscopic structure of three-dimensional charge order in AV3Sb5 and its interplay with superconductivity. Our approach is based on identifying an unusual splitting of kagome bands induced by three-dimensional charge order, which provides a sensitive way to refine the spatial charge patterns in neighbouring kagome planes. We found a marked dependence of the three-dimensional charge order structure on composition and doping. The observed difference between CsV3Sb5 and the other compounds potentially underpins the double-dome superconductivity in CsV3(Sb,Sn)5 and the suppression of Tc in KV3Sb5 and RbV3Sb5. Our results provide fresh insights into the rich phase diagram of AV3Sb5.

*Sci Adv ; 8(29): eabp9076, 2022 Jul 22.*

##### RESUMO

Nonequilibrium hidden states provide a unique window into thermally inaccessible regimes of strong coupling between microscopic degrees of freedom in quantum materials. Understanding the origin of these states allows the exploration of far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics and the development of optoelectronic devices with on-demand photoresponses. However, mapping the ultrafast formation of a long-lived hidden phase remains a longstanding challenge since the initial state is not recovered rapidly. Here, using state-of-the-art single-shot spectroscopy techniques, we present a direct ultrafast visualization of the photoinduced phase transition to both transient and long-lived hidden states in an electronic crystal, 1T-TaS2, and demonstrate a commonality in their microscopic pathways, driven by the collapse of charge order. We present a theory of fluctuation-dominated process that helps explain the nature of the metastable state. Our results shed light on the origin of this elusive state and pave the way for the discovery of other exotic phases of matter.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5345, 2021 Sep 15.*

##### RESUMO

The kagome lattice has long been regarded as a theoretical framework that connects lattice geometry to unusual singularities in electronic structure. Transition metal kagome compounds have been recently identified as a promising material platform to investigate the long-sought electronic flat band. Here we report the signature of a two-dimensional flat band at the surface of antiferromagnetic kagome metal FeSn by means of planar tunneling spectroscopy. Employing a Schottky heterointerface of FeSn and an n-type semiconductor Nb-doped SrTiO3, we observe an anomalous enhancement in tunneling conductance within a finite energy range of FeSn. Our first-principles calculations show this is consistent with a spin-polarized flat band localized at the ferromagnetic kagome layer at the Schottky interface. The spectroscopic capability to characterize the electronic structure of a kagome compound at a thin film heterointerface will provide a unique opportunity to probe flat band induced phenomena in an energy-resolved fashion with simultaneous electrical tuning of its properties. Furthermore, the exotic surface state discussed herein is expected to manifest as peculiar spin-orbit torque signals in heterostructure-based spintronic devices.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4004, 2020 Aug 10.*

##### RESUMO

Electronic flat bands in momentum space, arising from strong localization of electrons in real space, are an ideal stage to realize strongly-correlated phenomena. Theoretically, the flat bands can naturally arise in certain geometrically frustrated lattices, often with nontrivial topology if combined with spin-orbit coupling. Here, we report the observation of topological flat bands in frustrated kagome metal CoSn, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and band structure calculations. Throughout the entire Brillouin zone, the bandwidth of the flat band is suppressed by an order of magnitude compared to the Dirac bands originating from the same orbitals. The frustration-driven nature of the flat band is directly confirmed by the chiral d-orbital texture of the corresponding real-space Wannier functions. Spin-orbit coupling opens a large gap of 80 meV at the quadratic touching point between the Dirac and flat bands, endowing a nonzero Z2 invariant to the flat band. These findings demonstrate that kagome-derived flat bands are a promising platform for novel emergent phases of matter at the confluence of strong correlation and topology.

*Nat Mater ; 19(2): 163-169, 2020 Feb.*

##### RESUMO

A kagome lattice of 3d transition metal ions is a versatile platform for correlated topological phases hosting symmetry-protected electronic excitations and magnetic ground states. However, the paradigmatic states of the idealized two-dimensional kagome lattice-Dirac fermions and flat bands-have not been simultaneously observed. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillations to reveal coexisting surface and bulk Dirac fermions as well as flat bands in the antiferromagnetic kagome metal FeSn, which has spatially decoupled kagome planes. Our band structure calculations and matrix element simulations demonstrate that the bulk Dirac bands arise from in-plane localized Fe-3d orbitals, and evidence that the coexisting Dirac surface state realizes a rare example of fully spin-polarized two-dimensional Dirac fermions due to spin-layer locking in FeSn. The prospect to harness these prototypical excitations in a kagome lattice is a frontier of great promise at the confluence of topology, magnetism and strongly correlated physics.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4870, 2019 10 25.*

##### RESUMO

Primarily considered a medium of geometric frustration, there has been a growing recognition of the kagome network as a harbor of lattice-borne topological electronic phases. In this study we report the observation of magnetoquantum de Haas-van Alphen oscillations of the ferromagnetic kagome lattice metal Fe3Sn2. We observe a pair of quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces arising from bulk massive Dirac states and show that these band areas and effective masses are systematically modulated by the rotation of the ferromagnetic moment. Combined with measurements of Berry curvature induced Hall conductivity, our observations suggest that the ferromagnetic Dirac fermions in Fe3Sn2 are subject to intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the d electron sector which is likely of Kane-Mele type. Our results provide insights for spintronic manipulation of magnetic topological electronic states and pathways to realizing further highly correlated topological materials from the lattice perspective.

*Sci Adv ; 4(10): eaau5501, 2018 10.*

##### RESUMO

Domain walls (DWs) are singularities in an ordered medium that often host exotic phenomena such as charge ordering, insulator-metal transition, or superconductivity. The ability to locally write and erase DWs is highly desirable, as it allows one to design material functionality by patterning DWs in specific configurations. We demonstrate such capability at room temperature in a charge density wave (CDW), a macroscopic condensate of electrons and phonons, in ultrathin 1T-TaS2. A single femtosecond light pulse is shown to locally inject or remove mirror DWs in the CDW condensate, with probabilities tunable by pulse energy and temperature. Using time-resolved electron diffraction, we are able to simultaneously track anti-synchronized CDW amplitude oscillations from both the lattice and the condensate, where photoinjected DWs lead to a red-shifted frequency. Our demonstration of reversible DW manipulation may pave new ways for engineering correlated material systems with light.

*Nature ; 555(7698): 638-642, 2018 03 29.*

##### RESUMO

The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states that could lead to topological and Chern insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3Sn2, which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we observe a pair of quasi-two-dimensional Dirac cones near the Fermi level with a mass gap of 30 millielectronvolts, which correspond to massive Dirac fermions that generate Berry-curvature-induced Hall conductivity. We show that this behaviour is a consequence of the underlying symmetry properties of the bilayer kagome lattice in the ferromagnetic state and the atomic spin-orbit coupling. This work provides evidence for a ferromagnetic kagome metal and an example of emergent topological electronic properties in a correlated electron system. Our results provide insight into the recent discoveries of exotic electronic behaviour in kagome-lattice antiferromagnets and may enable lattice-model realizations of fractional topological quantum states.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(16): 166403, 2013 Oct 18.*

##### RESUMO

Optical excitations of BiTeI with large Rashba spin splitting have been studied in an external magnetic field (B) applied parallel to the polar axis. A sequence of transitions between the Landau levels (LLs), whose energies are in proportion to âB were observed, being characteristic of massless Dirac electrons. The large separation energy between the LLs makes it possible to detect the strongest cyclotron resonance even at room temperature in moderate fields. Unlike in 2D Dirac systems, the magnetic field induced rearrangement of the conductivity spectrum is directly observed.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 100(20): 206801, 2008 May 23.*

##### RESUMO

The fate of the charge-neutral Dirac point in graphene in a high magnetic field H has been investigated at low temperatures (T approximately 0.3 K). In samples with small gate-voltage offset V0, the resistance R0 at the Dirac point diverges steeply with H, signaling a crossover to a state with a very large R0. The approach to this state is highly unusual. Despite the steep divergence in R0, the profile of R0 vs T in fixed H saturates to a T-independent value below 2 K, consistent with gapless charge-carrying excitations.