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1.
Environ Res ; : 111116, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823195

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and biomass smoke are the two main environmental risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worldwide. However, it remains unclear why these exposures result in two different disease phenotypes. In this study, we assessed the lung deposition from biomass and cigarette smoke exposures and examined whether differences due to inherently different particle size distributions and inhalation conditions may contribute to the differences between biomass- and tobacco-related COPD phenotypes. Using high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid-particle dynamics in a representative upper airway geometry, coupled to one-dimensional models of the lower airways, we computed total deposited doses and examined regional deposition patterns based on exposure data from a randomized control trial in Peru and from the literature for biomass and mainstream cigarette smoke, respectively. Our results showed that intrathoracic deposition was higher in cigarette smoking, with 36.8% of inhaled biomass smoke particles and 57.7% of cigarette smoke particles depositing in the intrathoracic airways. We observed higher fractions of cigarette smoke particles in the last few airway generations, which could explain why cigarette smoking is associated with more emphysema than biomass smoke exposure. Mean daily deposited dose was two orders of magnitude higher in cigarette smoking. Lobar distributions of the deposited dose also differed, with the left lower and right upper lobes receiving the highest doses of biomass and cigarette smoke particles, respectively. Our findings suggest that the differences between biomass- and tobacco-related COPD could, at least in part, be due to differences in total and regional lung deposition of biomass and cigarette smoke.

2.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(6): 1506-1513, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812692

RESUMO

Ultrasound Core Laboratories (UCL) are used in multicenter trials to assess imaging biomarkers to define robust phenotypes, to reduce imaging variability and to allow blinded independent review with the purpose of optimizing endpoint measurement precision. The Household Air Pollution Intervention Network, a multicountry randomized controlled trial (Guatemala, Peru, India and Rwanda), evaluates the effects of reducing household air pollution on health outcomes. Field studies using portable ultrasound evaluate fetal, lung and vascular imaging endpoints. The objective of this report is to describe administrative methods and training of a centralized clinical research UCL. A comprehensive administrative protocol and training curriculum included standard operating procedures, didactics, practical scanning and written/practical assessments of general ultrasound principles and specific imaging protocols. After initial online training, 18 sonographers (three or four per country and five from the UCL) participated in a 2 wk on-site training program. Written and practical testing evaluated ultrasound topic knowledge and scanning skills, and surveys evaluated the overall course. The UCL developed comprehensive standard operating procedures for image acquisition with a portable ultrasound system, digital image upload to cloud-based storage, off-line analysis and quality control. Pre- and post-training tests showed significant improvements (fetal ultrasound: 71% ± 13% vs. 93% ± 7%, p < 0.0001; vascular lung ultrasound: 60% ± 8% vs. 84% ± 10%, p < 0.0001). Qualitative and quantitative feedback showed high satisfaction with training (mean, 4.9 ± 0.1; scale: 1 = worst, 5 = best). The UCL oversees all stages: training, standardization, performance monitoring, image quality control and consistency of measurements. Sonographers who failed to meet minimum allowable performance were identified for retraining. In conclusion, a UCL was established to ensure accurate and reproducible ultrasound measurements in clinical research. Standardized operating procedures and training are aimed at reducing variability and enhancing measurement precision from study sites, representing a model for use of portable digital ultrasound for multicenter field studies.

3.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 68, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845785

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has suspended many non-COVID-19 related research activities. Where restarting research activities is permitted, investigators need to evaluate the risks and benefits of resuming data collection and adapt procedures to minimize risk. OBJECTIVES: In the context of the multicountry Household Air Pollution Intervention (HAPIN) trial conducted in rural, low-resource settings, we developed a framework to assess the risk of each trial activity and to guide protective measures. Our goal is to maximize the integrity of reseach aims while minimizing infection risk based on the latest scientific understanding of the virus. METHODS: We drew on a combination of expert consultations, risk assessment frameworks, institutional guidance and literature to develop our framework. We then systematically graded clinical, behavioral, laboratory and field environmental health research activities in four countries for both adult and child subjects using this framework. National and local government recommendations provided the minimum safety guidelines for our work. RESULTS: Our framework assesses risk based on staff proximity to the participant, exposure time between staff and participants, and potential viral aerosolization while performing the activity. For each activity, one of four risk levels, from minimal to unacceptable, is assigned and guidance on protective measures is provided. Those activities that can potentially aerosolize the virus are deemed the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: By applying a systematic, procedure-specific approach to risk assessment for each trial activity, we were able to protect our participants and research team and to uphold our ability to deliver on the research commitments we have made to our staff, participants, local communities, and funders. This framework can be tailored to other research studies conducted in similar settings during the current pandemic, as well as potential future outbreaks with similar transmission dynamics. The trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02944682 on October 26. 2016 .

4.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767392

RESUMO

Hypertension is diagnosed and treated based on blood pressure (BP) readings obtained in the clinic setting. Positive HIV status is associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal diurnal BP patterns, diagnosed with ambulatory BP monitoring rather than the conventional method of BP measurement. Little is known about ambulatory BP profiles in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low-income countries, especially within sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we compared 24-h ambulatory BP profiles of 140 HIV-positive individuals vs. profiles in 166 HIV negative individuals living in rural Uganda. HIV was well-controlled, with all HIV seropositive participants reporting use of anti-retroviral therapy, and ~123 (88%) having undetectable viral load. Most participants reported ART use duration of less than 10 years. Compared to HIV negative participants, HIV positive participants had lower median 24-h systolic BP (110.4 mmHg (IQR: 105.7, 118.7) vs 117.7 mmHg (IQR: 110.8, 129.8), p < 0.001), and 24-h diastolic BP (69.2 mmHg (IQR: 65.0, 74.9) vs. 71.9 mmHg (IQR: 67.2, 78.1), p = 0.004). Adjusted results showed greater percentage systolic nocturnal dipping among PLHIV compared to HIV negative individuals (difference = 2.70 (IQR: 0.94, 4.47), p < 0.05). Results of the adjusted Poisson regression suggested lower prevalence of 24-h and night hypertension among HIV positives compared to HIV negative, but were not statistically significant. Our data suggest that continuous 24-h BP measurements are lower in PLHIV on ART compared to HIV negative individuals.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic ancestry plays a role in asthma health disparities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of ancestry on, and identify genetic variants associated with asthma, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and lung function. METHODS: 436 Peruvian children (9-19 years) with asthma and 291 without asthma were genotyped using the Illumina Multi-Ethnic Global Array. Genome-wide proportions of Indigenous ancestry from continental America (NAT) and European ancestry from Iberian Populations in Spain (IBS) were estimated using ADMIXTURE. We assessed the relationship between ancestry and the phenotypes, and performed a genome-wide association study. RESULTS: Mean ancestry was 84.7% NAT (cases: 84.2%; controls: 85.4%) and 15.3% IBS (15.8%; 14.6%). Adjusting for asthma, NAT was associated with higher IgE (p<0.001) and IBS with lower IgE levels (p<0.001). NAT was associated with higher FEV1 percent-predicted (p=0.001) while IBS was associated with lower FEV1 in the controls but not cases. The HLA-DR/DQ region on chromosome 6 was strongly associated with IgE (rs3135348, p =3.438x10-10), and is independent of an association with the haplotype HLA-DQA1∼HLA-DQB1:04.01∼04.02 (p = 1.55x10-05). For lung function, we identified a locus (rs4410198, p = 5.536x10-11) mapping to chromosome 19, near a cluster of zinc finger interacting genes that co-localizes to the LncRNA CTD-2537I9.5. This novel locus was replicated in an independent sample of pediatric asthma cases with similar admixture from Brazil (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the role of HLA in atopy, and identifies a novel locus mapping to a LncRNA for lung function that may be specific to children with Indigenous ancestry from continental America.

6.
Trials ; 22(1): 213, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death globally, with the majority of morbidity and mortality occurring in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. While tobacco-smoke exposure is the most important risk factor for COPD in high-income settings, household air pollution from biomass smoke combustion is a leading risk factor for COPD in LMICs. Despite the high burden of biomass smoke-related COPD, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in this context. Currently recommended inhaler-based therapy for COPD is neither available nor affordable in most resource-limited settings. Low-dose theophylline is an oral, once-a-day therapy, long used in high-income countries (HICs), which has been proposed for the management of COPD in LMICs in the absence of inhaled steroids and/or bronchodilators. The Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD) trial investigates the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of low-dose theophylline for the management of biomass-related COPD in a low-income setting. METHODS: LODOT-BCOPD is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of low-dose theophylline in improving respiratory symptoms in 110 participants with moderate to severe COPD in Central Uganda. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) age 40 to 80 years, (2) full-time resident of the study area, (3) daily biomass exposure, (4) post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the 5th percentile of the Global Lung Initiative mixed ethnic reference population, and (5) GOLD Grade B-D COPD. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive once daily low-dose theophylline (200 mg ER, Unicontin-E) or placebo for 52 weeks. All participants will receive education about self-management of COPD and rescue salbutamol inhalers. We will measure health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and every 6 months. In addition, we will assess household air pollution levels, serum inflammatory biomarkers (fibrinogen, hs-CRP), and theophylline levels at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in SGRQ score at 12 months. Lastly, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention by calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the EQ-5D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT03984188 . Registered on June 12, 2019 TRIAL ACRONYM: Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD).

7.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest radiography is the standard for diagnosing pediatric lower respiratory infections in low-income and middle-income countries. A method for interpreting pediatric chest radiographs for research endpoints was recently updated by the World Health Organization (WHO) Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies project. Research in India required training local physicians to interpret chest radiographs following the WHO method. OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodology for training Indian physicians and evaluate the training's effectiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine physicians (15 radiologists and 14 pediatricians) from India were trained by two WHO Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies members over 3 days in May 2019. Training materials were adapted from WHO Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies resources. Participants followed WHO methodology to interpret 60 unique chest radiographs before and after the training. Participants needed to correctly classify ≥80% of radiographs for primary endpoint pneumonia on the post-training test to be certified to interpret research images. We analyzed participant performance on both examinations. RESULTS: Twenty-six of 29 participants (89.7%) completed both examinations. The average score increased by 9.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.0-14.1%) between examinations (P<0.001). Participants correctly classifying ≥80% of images for primary endpoint pneumonia increased from 69.2% (18/26) on the pretraining to 92.3% (24/26) on the post-training examination (P=0.003). The mean scores of radiologists and pediatricians on the post-training examination were not statistically different (P=0.43). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate this training approach using revised WHO definitions and tools was successful, and that non-radiologists can learn to apply these methods as effectively as radiologists. Such capacity strengthening is important for enabling research to support national policy decision-making in these settings. We recommend future research incorporating WHO chest radiograph methodology to consider modelling trainings after this approach.

8.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749948

RESUMO

Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass stoves is a leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary outcomes; however, its toxicity pathways and relationship with inflammation markers are poorly understood. Among 180 adult women in rural Peru, we examined the cross-sectional exposure-response relationship between biomass HAP and markers of inflammation in blood using baseline measurements from a randomized trial. We measured markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) with dried blood spots, 48-h kitchen area concentrations and personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and 48-h kitchen concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) in a subset of 97 participants. We conducted an exposure-response analysis between quintiles of HAP levels and markers of inflammation. Markers of inflammation were more strongly associated with kitchen area concentrations of BC than PM2.5 . As expected, kitchen area BC concentrations were positively associated with TNF-α (pro-inflammatory) concentrations and negatively associated with IL-10, an anti-inflammatory marker, controlling for confounders in single- and multi-pollutant models. However, contrary to expectations, kitchen area BC and NO2 concentrations were negatively associated with IL-1ß, a pro-inflammatory marker. No associations were identified for IL-6 or CRP, or for any marker in relation to personal exposures.

9.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598392

RESUMO

Introduction: The association between HIV status and hypertension is not well described within sub-Saharan Africa. We examined prevalence and risk factors for hypertension among HIV positive and negative individuals living in a rural district of Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in two concurrent cohorts of 600 HIV negative and 721 HIV seropositive individuals aged ≥35 years. Results: Of the 721 HIV positive participants, 59.8% were women and the median age was 44.3 years, while for HIV negative individuals, 55% were women and the median age was 47.8 years. Over 90% of HIV positive individuals were on antiretroviral treatment. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/≥90 mmHg) was 33.5% in HIV negative individuals and 23.9% in HIV positive individuals. Age (adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and BMI (adjusted OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12) were associated with higher odds of hypertension. Having HIV was associated with lower odds of hypertension (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88), lower systolic blood pressure (-5.1 mmHg, 95% CI: -7.4 to -2.4) and lower diastolic blood pressure (-4.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.6 to -2.5). We did not observe differences in the odds of hypertension by CD4 count, viral load or ART among HIV positive individuals in this sample. Conclusions: Hypertension was prevalent in one third of HIV negative individuals and in one fourth of HIV positive patients. While access to health information among individuals attending HIV clinics may explain observed differences, more research is needed to understand plausible biological and social mechanisms that could explain lower blood pressure among people living with HIV in Uganda.

10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534774

RESUMO

Management of patients with severe or critical COVID-19 is mainly modeled after care for patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes, and these recommendations are based on evidence that often originates from investigations in resource-rich intensive care units located in high-income countries. Often, it is impractical to apply these recommendations to resource-restricted settings, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We report on a set of pragmatic recommendations for acute respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation management in patients with severe/critical COVID-19 in LMICs. We suggest starting supplementary oxygen when SpO2 is persistently lower than 94%. We recommend supplemental oxygen to keep SpO2 at 88-95% and suggest higher targets in settings where continuous pulse oximetry is not available but intermittent pulse oximetry is. We suggest a trial of awake prone positioning in patients who remain hypoxemic; however, this requires close monitoring, and clear failure and escalation criteria. In places with an adequate number and trained staff, the strategy seems safe. We recommend to intubate based on signs of respiratory distress more than on refractory hypoxemia alone, and we recommend close monitoring for respiratory worsening and early intubation if worsening occurs. We recommend low-tidal volume ventilation combined with FiO2 and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) management based on a high FiO2/low PEEP table. We recommend against using routine recruitment maneuvers, unless as a rescue therapy in refractory hypoxemia, and we recommend using prone positioning for 12-16 hours in case of refractory hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 150 mmHg, FiO2 ≥ 0.6 and PEEP ≥ 10 cmH2O) in intubated patients as standard in ARDS patients. We also recommend against sharing one ventilator for multiple patients. We recommend daily assessments for readiness for weaning by a low-level pressure support and recommend against using a T-piece trial because of aerosolization risk.

11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476252

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The majority of the morbidity and mortality related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the increasing burden of COPD, disease-specific knowledge among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients in LMICs remains limited. COPD knowledge questionnaires are valid and reliable tools to assess COPD knowledge and can be employed in settings with limited health literacy. OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess validity and reliability of a COPD knowledge questionnaire among individuals with COPD in three LMIC settings. METHODS: Twelve questions were generated by an expert team of sixteen researchers, physicians, and public health professionals to create an LMIC-specific COPD knowledge questionnaire. Content was based on previous instruments, clinical guidelines, focus group discussions, and questionnaire piloting. Participants with COPD completed the questionnaire across three diverse LMIC settings before and three months after delivery of a standardized COPD specific education package by a local community health worker (CHW) trained to deliver the education to an appropriate standard. We utilized paired t-tests to assess improvement in knowledge post-intervention. RESULTS: Questionnaire development initially yielded 52 items. Based on community feedback and expertise, items were eliminated and added yielding a final 12-item questionnaire, with a maximum total score of 12. A total of 196 participants with COPD were included this study in Nepal (n=86), Peru (n=35) and Uganda (n=75). Mean (± SD) baseline score was 8.0 ± 2.5 and 3-months post-education the mean score was 10.2 ± 1.7 among participants. The CHW-led COPD educational intervention improved COPD knowledge among community members by 2.2 points (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6, t=10.9, p<0.001). Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0.75. CONCLUSION: The LMIC COPD-KQ demonstrates face and content validity and acceptable internal consistency through development phases, suggesting a reliable and valid COPD education instrument that can be utilized to assess educational interventions across LMIC settings. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03365713).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306939

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Approximately 40% of people worldwide are exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from the burning of biomass fuels. Previous efforts to document health benefits of HAP mitigation have been stymied by an inability to lower emissions to target levels. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if a cleaner energy intervention improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes in adult women living in a resource-poor setting in Peru. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled field trial in 180 women aged 25-64 years living in rural Puno, Peru. Intervention women received a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, continuous fuel delivery for one year, education and behavioral messaging, whereas control women were asked to continue their usual cooking practices. We assessed for stove use adherence using temperature loggers installed in both LPG and biomass stoves of intervention households. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At baseline and at 3-4 visits post-randomization, we measured blood pressure, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and respiratory symptoms using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Intervention women used their LPG stove exclusively for 98% of days. We did not find average differences in post-randomization systolic (intervention - control 0.7 mmHg, 95% CI -2.1 to 3.4) or diastolic blood pressure (0.3 mmHg, -1.5 to 2.0), pre- (0.14 L/sec/m2, -0.02 to 0.29) or post-bronchodilator PEF/height2 (0.11 L/sec/m2, -0.05 to 0.27), or SGRQ total score (-1.4, -3.9 to 1.2) in intention-to-treat analysis. There were no reported harms related to the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of a difference in blood pressure, lung function or respiratory symptoms during the year-long cleaner energy intervention. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02994680.

13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355072

RESUMO

Infection prevention and control measures to control the spread of COVID-19 are challenging to implement in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This is compounded by the fact that most recommendations are based on evidence that mainly originates in high-income countries. There are often availability, affordability, and feasibility barriers to applying such recommendations in LMICs, and therefore, there is a need for developing recommendations that are achievable in LMICs. We used a modified version of the GRADE method to select important questions, searched the literature for relevant evidence, and formulated pragmatic recommendations for safety while caring for patients with COVID-19 in LMICs. We selected five questions related to safety, covering minimal requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE), recommendations for extended use and reuse of PPE, restriction on the number of times healthcare workers enter patients' rooms, hand hygiene, and environmental ventilation. We formulated 21 recommendations that are feasible and affordable in LMICs.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377451

RESUMO

The therapeutic options for COVID-19 patients are currently limited, but numerous randomized controlled trials are being completed, and many are on the way. For COVID-19 patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), we recommend against using remdesivir outside of a clinical trial. We recommend against using hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. We suggest empiric antimicrobial treatment for likely coinfecting pathogens if an alternative infectious cause is likely. We suggest close monitoring without additional empiric antimicrobials if there are no clinical or laboratory signs of other infections. We recommend using oral or intravenous low-dose dexamethasone in adults with COVID-19 disease who require oxygen or mechanical ventilation. We recommend against using dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 who do not require supplemental oxygen. We recommend using alternate equivalent doses of steroids in the event that dexamethasone is unavailable. We also recommend using low-dose corticosteroids in patients with refractory shock requiring vasopressor support. We recommend against the use of convalescent plasma and interleukin-6 inhibitors, such as tocilizumab, for the treatment of COVID-19 in LMICs outside of clinical trials.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1799, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) trial aims to assess health benefits of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cookfuel and stove intervention among women and children across four low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We measured exposure contrasts for women, achievable under alternative conditions of biomass or LPG cookfuel use, at potential HAPIN field sites in India, to aid in site selection for the main trial. METHODS: We recruited participants from potential field sites within Villupuram and Nagapattinam districts in Tamil Nadu, India, that were identified during a feasibility assessment. We performed. (i) cross-sectional measurements on women (N = 79) using either biomass or LPG as their primary cookfuel and (ii) before-and-after measurements on pregnant women (N = 41), once at baseline while using biomass fuel and twice - at 1 and 2 months - after installation of an LPG stove and free fuel intervention. We involved participants to co-design clothing and instrument stands for personal and area sampling. We measured 24 or 48-h personal exposures and kitchen and ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) using gravimetric samplers. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, median (interquartile range, IQR) kitchen PM2.5 concentrations in biomass and LPG using homes were 134 µg/m3 [IQR:71-258] and 27 µg/m3 [IQR:20-47], while corresponding personal exposures were 75 µg/m3 [IQR:55-104] and 36 µg/m3 [IQR:26-46], respectively. In before-and-after analysis, median 48-h personal exposures for pregnant women were 72 µg/m3 [IQR:49-127] at baseline and 25 µg/m3 [IQR:18-35] after the LPG intervention, with a sustained reduction of 93% in mean kitchen PM2.5 concentrations and 78% in mean personal PM2.5 exposures over the 2 month intervention period. Median ambient concentrations were 23 µg/m3 [IQR:19-27). Participant feedback was critical in designing clothing and instrument stands that ensured high compliance. CONCLUSIONS: An LPG stove and fuel intervention in the candidate HAPIN trial field sites in India was deemed suitable for achieving health-relevant exposure reductions. Ambient concentrations indicated limited contributions from other sources. Study results provide critical inputs for the HAPIN trial site selection in India, while also contributing new information on HAP exposures in relation to LPG interventions and among pregnant women in LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.Gov. NCT02944682 ; Prospectively registered on October 17, 2016.

16.
Res Sq ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200126

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has suspended many non-COVID-19 related research activities. Where restarting research activities is permitted, investigators need to evaluate the risks and benefits of resuming data collection and adapt procedures to minimize risk. OBJECTIVES: In the context of the multicountry Household Air Pollution Intervention (HAPIN) trial, we developed a framework to assess the risk of each trial activity and to guide protective measures. Our goal is to maximize integrity of reseach aims while minimizing infection risk based on the latest understanding of the virus. METHODS: We drew on a combination of expert consultations, risk assessment frameworks, institutional guidance and literature to develop our framework. We then systematically graded clinical, behavioral, laboratory and field environmental health research activities in four countries for both adult and child subjects using this framework. RESULTS: Our framework assesses risk based on staff proximity to the participant, exposure time between staff and participants, and potential aerosolization while performing the activity. One of of four risk levels, from minimal to unacceptable, is assigned and guidance on protective measures is provided. Those activities which can potentially aerosolize the virus are deemed the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: By applying a systematic, procedure-specific approach to risk assessment for each trial activity, we can compare trial activities using the same criteria. This approach allows us to protect our participants and research team and to uphold our ability to deliver on the research commitments we have made to our participants, local communities, and funders. The trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02944682).

17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2769-2777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173289

RESUMO

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for >90% of deaths and illness episodes related to COPD; however, this condition is commonly underdiagnosed in these settings. Case-finding instruments for COPD may improve diagnosis and identify individuals that need treatment, but few have been validated in resource-limited settings. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Uganda to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a respiratory symptom, exposure and functional questionnaire in combination with peak expiratory flow for COPD diagnosis using post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score below the 5th percentile as the gold standard. We included locally relevant exposure questions and statistical learning techniques to identify the most important risk factors for COPD. We used 80% of the data to develop the case-finding instrument and validated it in the remaining 20%. We evaluated for calibration and discrimination using standard approaches. The final score, COLA (COPD in LMICs Assessment), included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Results: We analyzed data from 1,173 participants (average age 47 years, 46.9% male, 4.5% with COPD) with acceptable and reproducible spirometry. The seven questions yielded a cross-validated area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.75) with higher scores conferring greater odds of COPD. The inclusion of peak expiratory flow and age improved prediction in a validation sample (AUC=0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88) with a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The final instrument (COLA) included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Conclusion: COLA predicted COPD in urban and rural settings in Uganda has high calibration and discrimination, and could serve as a simple, low-cost screening tool in resource-limited settings.

18.
Environ Int ; 146: 106196, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves have been promoted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a clean energy alternative to biomass burning cookstoves. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize kitchen area concentrations and personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) within a randomized controlled trial in the Peruvian Andes. The intervention included the provision of an LPG stove and continuous fuel distribution with behavioral messaging to maximize compliance. METHODS: We measured 48-hour kitchen area NO2 concentrations at high temporal resolution in homes of 50 intervention participants and 50 control participants longitudinally within a biomass-to-LPG intervention trial. We also collected 48-hour mean personal exposures to NO2 among a subsample of 16 intervention and 9 control participants. We monitored LPG and biomass stove use continuously throughout the trial. RESULTS: In 367 post-intervention 24-hour kitchen area samples of 96 participants' homes, geometric mean (GM) highest hourly NO2 concentration was 138 ppb (geometric standard deviation [GSD] 2.1) in the LPG intervention group and 450 ppb (GSD 3.1) in the biomass control group. Post-intervention 24-hour mean NO2 concentrations were a GM of 43 ppb (GSD 1.7) in the intervention group and 77 ppb (GSD 2.0) in the control group. Kitchen area NO2 concentrations exceeded the WHO indoor hourly guideline an average of 1.3 h per day among LPG intervention participants. GM 48-hour personal exposure to NO2 was 5 ppb (GSD 2.4) among 35 48-hour samples of 16 participants in the intervention group and 16 ppb (GSD 2.3) among 21 samples of 9 participants in the control group. DISCUSSION: In a biomass-to-LPG intervention trial in Peru, kitchen area NO2 concentrations were substantially lower within the LPG intervention group compared to the biomass-using control group. However, within the LPG intervention group, 69% of 24-hour kitchen area samples exceeded WHO indoor annual guidelines and 47% of samples exceeded WHO indoor hourly guidelines. Forty-eight-hour NO2 personal exposure was below WHO indoor annual guidelines for most participants in the LPG intervention group, and we did not measure personal exposure at high temporal resolution to assess exposure to cooking-related indoor concentration peaks. Further research is warranted to understand the potential health risks of LPG-related NO2 emissions and inform current campaigns which promote LPG as a clean-cooking option.

19.
Environ Int ; 145: 105932, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to promote clean cooking through adoption of clean-burning fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are often based on the idea that near-exclusive use of LPG could lead to health improvements. However, benefits beyond health, such as time savings, could be more tangible and meaningful to LPG users. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of an LPG intervention on time spent cooking and collecting fuel, using objective measures of stove temperatures combined with self-reports under conditions of near-exclusive LPG use. We also investigated the perceived value of any time savings and potential economic and quality of life implications. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Cardiopulmonary outcomes and Household Air Pollution trial in Puno, Peru, a randomized controlled trial with 180 participants assessing exposure and health impacts of an LPG stove, fuel, and behavioral intervention. Surveys conducted with 90 intervention women receiving free LPG and 90 control women cooking primarily with biomass assessed time spent cooking and collecting biomass fuel and use of time savings. Cooking time was objectively measured with temperature sensors on all stoves. Qualitative interviews explored perceptions and use of time savings in more depth. RESULTS: Intervention women spent 3.2 fewer hours cooking and 1.9 fewer hours collecting fuel per week compared to control women, but cooked on average 1.0 more meals per day. Participants perceived time saved from LPG positively, reporting more time for household chores, leisure activities, and activities with income-generating potential such as caring for animals and working in fields. DISCUSSION: This paper suggests that the benefits of LPG extend beyond health and the environment. LPG use could also lead to economic and quality of life gains, through increased time for work, rest, and consumption of hot meals, and reduced arduous biomass fuel collection.

20.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines are critical for facilitating cost-effective COPD care. Development and implementation in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) is challenging. To guide future strategy, an overview of current global COPD guidelines is required. RESEARCH QUESTION: We systematically reviewed national COPD guidelines, focusing on worldwide availability and identification of potential development, content, context and quality gaps that may hamper effective implementation. STUDY DESIGN: & Methods: Scoping review of national COPD management guidelines. We assessed: (1) global guideline coverage, (2) guideline information (authors, target audience, dissemination plans), (3) content (prevention, diagnosis, treatments), (4) ethical, legal, socio-economic aspects and (5) compliance with the eight Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline standards. LMICs guidelines were compared to those from high-income countries (HICs). MAIN RESULTS: Of the 61 national COPD guidelines identified, 30 were from LMICs. Guidelines did not cover 1.93 billion (30.2%) people living in LMICs, whereas only 0.02 billion (1.9%) in HICs were without national guidelines. Compared with HICs, LMIC guidelines targeted fewer healthcare professional groups and less often addressed case finding and co-morbidities. Over 90% of all guidelines included smoking cessation advice. Air pollution reduction strategies were less frequently mentioned in both LMICs (47%) and HICs (42%). LMIC guidelines fulfilled on average 3.37 (42%) of IOM standards compared to 5.29 (66%) in HICs (p<0.05). LMICs scored significantly lower compared with HICs regarding conflicts of interest management, updates, articulation of recommendations and funding transparency (all, p<0.05). INTERPRETATION: Several development, content, context and quality gaps exist in COPD guidelines from LMICs that may hamper effective implementation. Overall, COPD guidelines in LMICs should be more widely available and should be transparently developed and updated. Guidelines may be further enhanced by better inclusion of local risk-factors, case finding and co-morbidity management, preferably tailored to available financial and staff resources.

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