Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the normative profile and determinants of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) symmetry in a non-glaucoma, multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged ≥40 years were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study. Participants underwent standardised systemic and ocular examinations. RNFL thickness was obtained using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT). RNFL symmetry (in %) was calculated based on Pearson correlation coefficient between the RNFL thickness profiles of the right and left eyes. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between ocular and systemic factors with RNFL symmetry. RESULTS: 4211 participants (1227 Chinese, 1245 Malays, 1739 Indians) were included. The mean RNFL symmetry was 86.7%±8.5% in Chinese, 84.7%±10.2% in Malays and 84.0%±10.7% in Indians. The fifth percentile limit of RNFL symmetry was 71.2% in Chinese, 65.0% in Malays and 62.0% in Indians. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, intereye absolute differences in intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length and disc area, Malays (ß=-0.9; p=0.03) and Indians (ß=-1.76; p<0.001) were found to have lower RNFL symmetry compared with Chinese. Older age, greater intereye differences in IOP, axial length and disc area were significantly associated with lower RNFL symmetry (all p≤0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In non-glaucoma individuals, intereye RNFL profile is less symmetric in Malays and Indians than that in Chinese. This also suggests that current commercial optical coherence tomography's deployment of a single, universal RNFL symmetry cut-off for glaucoma detection is flawed, and ethnic-specific cut-off is warranted.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to address the eye care needs of the increasing numbers of elderly Chinese globally, there is a need for comprehensive understanding on the longitudinal trends of age-related eye diseases among Chinese. We herein report the key findings from the baseline Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES-1), and describe the rationale and methodology of the 6-year follow-up study (SCES-2). METHODS: 3353 Chinese adults who participated in the baseline SCES-1 (2009-2011) were invited for the 6-year follow-up SCES-2 (2015-2017). Examination procedures for SCES-2 included standardised ocular, systemic examinations and questionnaires identical to SCES-1. SCES-2 further included new examinations such as optical coherence tomography angiography, and questionnaires to evaluate health impact and economic burden of eye diseases. RESULTS: In SCES-1, the age-adjusted prevalence of best-corrected low vision (VA<6/12, better-seeing eye) and blindness (VA<6/60, better-seeing eye) were 3.4% and 0.2%, respectively. The prevalence rates for glaucoma, age related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy (among diabetics) were 3.2%, 6.8%, 26.2%, respectively. Of the 3033 eligible individuals from SCES-1, 2661 participated in SCES-2 (response rate=87.7%). Comparing with those who did not attend SCES-2, those attended were younger, had higher SES (all p<0.001), but less likely to be a current smoker, to have diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia (all p≤0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Building on SCES-1, SCES-2 will be one of the few longitudinal population-based eye studies to report incidence, progression, and risk factors of major age-related eye diseases. Findings from this cohort may offer new insights, and provide useful reference information for other Chinese populations elsewhere.

4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the association between systemic medications and cortical cataract prevalence in an Asian population. METHODS: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study recruited 10 033 Chinese, Malay and Indian residents aged 40+ years living in Singapore. Information on medication use was collected at interview using questionnaires. The presence and severity of cortical cataract were assessed from lens photographs using the modified Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Associations between medications and the presence of cortical cataract were assessed using logistic regression. Associations between medications and greater severity of cortical cataract (none, minimal, early and late) were assessed using ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 8965 participants were included, the mean age was 57.6 (SD=9.8) years, and 4555 (50.8%) were women. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking status, socioeconomic status, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, duration of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, ACE inhibitors (OR=1.27; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.55), fibrates (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.35), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) (OR=1.85; 95% CI 1.13 to 3.02) and insulin (OR=1.80; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.93) were significantly associated with the presence of cortical cataract. Further adjusting for concurrent medication use did not alter these associations. Consistently, the four medications were also associated with a greater severity level of cortical cataract. CONCLUSION: ACE inhibitors, fibrates and AGIs were associated with increased prevalence of cortical cataract in this Asian population, independent of the presence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes, respectively. Whether they contribute to the risk of cortical cataract needs confirmation in longitudinal studies.

5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 1889-1897, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042796

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between sleep (duration and quality) and symptoms of dry eye in Singapore Malay and Indian adults. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 3303 subjects aged 40 years and above from two large population-based cohorts, the Singapore Malay Eye Study-2 (n = 1191, 2011-2013) and the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (n = 2112, 2013-2015), were included. The presence of symptoms of dry eye was defined as having at least one of six symptoms often or all the time. Sleep questionnaires included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, STOP-bang questionnaire, and Insomnia Severity Index. Poor sleep quality was defined as meeting the respective questionnaire thresholds. General health questionnaires (including sleep duration) and standardized ocular and systemic tests were also used. Results: Of 3303 participants, 6.4% had excessive sleepiness, 20.5% had high risk for sleep apnea, 2.7% had clinical insomnia, and 7.8% had <5 hours of sleep. These sleep factors were associated with symptoms of dry eye. After adjusting for relevant demographic, medical, and social factors, the following were associated with higher odds of symptoms of dry eye: excessive sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: odds ratio [OR] = 1.77 [1.15-2.71]), high risk of sleep apnea (Berlin Questionnaire: OR = 1.55 [1.17-2.07], STOP-Bang Questionnaire: OR = 2.66 [1.53-4.61]), clinical insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index: OR = 3.68 [2.17-6.26]) and <5 hours of sleep (OR = 1.73 [1.17-2.57], reference sleep duration 5-9 hours). Sleep apnea, insomnia, and sleep duration were each shown to be independently associated with symptoms of dry eye. Conclusion: Short sleep duration and poor quality are both significantly and independently associated with symptoms of dry eye.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etnologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/etnologia , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etnologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191540, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924904

RESUMO

Importance: The association of diabetic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with mortality in populations is not clear. Objective: To examine the association of DR and DKD separately and jointly with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a multiethnic Asian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted including 2964 adults between the ages of 40 and 80 years with diabetes who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study (baseline, 2004-2011). Data analysis was performed from January to May 2018. Exposures: Diabetic retinopathy ascertained from retinal photographs and DKD from estimated glomerular filtration rate. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and CVD mortality obtained by linkage with the National Registry of Births and Deaths until May 2017. Results: Of the 2964 adults (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [10.0] years; 1464 [49.4%] female; 592 Chinese, 1052 Malay, and 1320 Indian), 29.9% of the participants had DR, while 20.7% had DKD. Over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 8.8 (7.2-11.0) years, 610 deaths occurred (20.6%), of which 267 (9.0%) were due to CVD. In separate models, the multivariable hazard ratios for all-cause and CVD mortality were 1.54 (95% CI, 1.24-1.91) and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.27-2.40), respectively, for DR and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.64-2.56) and 2.29 (95% CI, 1.64-3.19), respectively, for DKD. In models including both DR and DKD, the subgroup with DKD alone (27.1% and 12.6%) followed by DR alone (6.5% and 5.2%) contributed substantially to the excess risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Compared with those with no DR and DKD, the hazard ratios of all-cause and CVD mortality were 1.89 (95% CI, 1.40-2.57) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.42-3.61), respectively, for DKD alone and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.03-1.86) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.06-2.56), respectively, for DR alone. Hazard ratios for all-cause and CVD mortality were 2.76 (95% CI, 2.05-3.72) and 3.41 (95% CI, 2.19-5.32), respectively, for those with both DKD and DR. The relative excess risk associated with the interaction was 0.49 (95% CI, -0.29 to 1.27; P = .20) for all-cause mortality and 0.51 (95% CI, -0.83 to 1.85; P = .50) for CVD mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that risks of all-cause and CVD mortality were significantly higher in those with DKD and DR, but DKD was more strongly associated with excess risk. The findings underscore the importance of early identification and close monitoring and management of patients with DR and DKD to reduce the risk of death.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212590, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) contributes significant morbidity and mortality among Asians; hence interventions should focus on those most at-risk of progression. However, current end stage renal failure (ESRF) risk stratification tools are complex and not validated in multi-ethnic Asians. We hence aimed to develop an ESRF risk prediction model by taking into account ethnic differences within a fairly homogenous socioeconomic setting and using parameters readily accessible to primary care clinicians managing the vast majority of patients with CKD. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 1970 adults with CKD estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73m2 or albuminuria >30 mg/g from the population-based Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study (n = 10,033). Outcome was incident ESRF, ascertained by linkage to the Singapore Renal Registry until 2015. RESULTS: Mean follow up was 8.5 ± 1.8 years and ESRF occurred in 32 individuals (1.6%). ESRF incidence rates were 2.8, 0.8 and 2.6 per 1000 patient years in Malays, Indians and Chinese respectively. The best ESRF prediction model included age, gender, eGFR and albuminuria (calibration χ2 = 0.45, P = 0.93; C-statistic 0.933, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.889-0.978, p = 0.01; AIC 356). Addition of ethnicity improved discrimination marginally (C statistic 0.942, 95% CI 0.903-0.981, p = 0.21). Addition of clinical variables such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia did not improve model performance significantly. CONCLUSION: We affirmed the utility of commonly available clinical information (age, gender, eGFR and UACR) in prognosticating ESRF for multi-ethnic Asians with CKD.

8.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 103(10): 1406-1412, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the distribution and determinants of outer retinal thickness in eyes without retinal diseases, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Participants were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study, a population-based study among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. A total of 5333 participants underwent SD-OCT imaging in which a 6×6 mm2 measurement area centred at the fovea. Outer retinal thickness was defined as the distance from the outer plexiform layer to the retinal pigment epithelium layer boundary. RESULTS: 7444 eyes from 4454 participants were included in final analysis. Of them, mean age was 58.4 years (SD 8.3), and 2294 (51.5%) were women. Women (121.0±8.1 µm) had thinner average outer retinal thickness than men (125.6±8.2 µm) (p<0.001). Malays (121.4±8.7 µm) had thinner average outer retinal thickness than Indians (124.3±8.6 µm) and Chinese (123.7±7.9 µm) (both p<0.001). In multivariable models, thinner average outer retinal thickness was associated with older age (per decade, ß=-1.02, p<0.001), hypertension (ß=-0.59, p=0.029), diabetes (ß=-0.73, p=0.013), chronic kidney disease (ß=-1.25, p=0.017), longer axial length (per mm, ß=-0.76, p<0.001), flatter corneal curvature (per mm, ß=-2.00, p<0.001) and higher signal strength (ß=-1.46, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In this large sample of Asian population, we provided normative SD-OCT data on outer retinal thickness in eyes without retinal diseases. Women had thinner outer retina than men. For the first time, these findings provide fundamental knowledge on normative profile of outer retinal thickness in Asians.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(1): e186647, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646192

RESUMO

Importance: Thicker or thinner central corneas may lead to either overestimation or underestimation of intraocular pressure, which is the most important causal and treatable risk factor for glaucoma. However, the findings on the associations between diabetes, random glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with central corneal thickness (CCT) are conflicting. Objective: To evaluate the associations between diabetes, random glucose, and HbA1c with CCT in a multiethnic Asian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) Study conducted from 2004 to 2011. A total of 10 033 Chinese, Malay, and Indian individuals 40 years or older residing in Singapore were recruited. Participants with incomplete information on diabetes status (448 participants), prior refractive or cataract surgery (1940 eyes), and corneal edema or dystrophy (29 eyes) were excluded. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall association of diabetes with CCT. Exposures: Standardized clinical examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect information about demographic, systemic, and ocular factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Measurement of CCT using ultrasound pachymetry. Results: A total of 8846 adults (mean [SD] age, 57.9 [9.9] years; 4447 women [50.3%]) (17 201 eyes) were included in the final analyses. The CCT profile was similar among participants with and without diabetes (mean [SD] CCT, 545.3 [33.7] µm vs 544.8 [33.9] µm; P = .39). Following adjustments of age, sex, ethnicity, corneal curvature, axial length, and body mass index, CCT was a mean (SD) of 4.9 (0.8) µm (95% CI, 3.3-6.5 µm) thicker in patients with diabetes than those without diabetes. Multivariable analyses also showed that thicker CCT was associated with higher random glucose (per 10 mg/dL [to convert to mmol/L, multiply by 0.0555], ß = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4) and higher HbA1c (per percentage, ß = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1) (all P < .001). These associations were significant in the subgroup with diabetes but not in the subgroup without diabetes. A meta-analysis including 12 previous population- and clinical-based studies showed that CCT was 12.8 µm (95% CI, 8.2-17.5 µm) thicker in eyes of patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that diabetes and hyperglycemia were associated with thicker CCT. This study provides useful information on the interpretation of intraocular pressure in patients with diabetes.

10.
Ophthalmology ; 126(5): 702-711, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529130

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe variations in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness based on spectral-domain (SD) OCT in a multiethnic Asian population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Indian adults older than 48 years without glaucoma who were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. METHODS: All participants underwent standardized systemic and ocular examinations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured using SD OCT. Participants with poor-quality scans were excluded. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of ocular and systemic factors with average RNFL thickness. Generalized estimating equation models were used to account for correlation between both eyes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Average RNFL thickness. RESULTS: Four thousand four hundred seventy-five participants (8178 eyes) consisting of 1371 Chinese, 1303 Malay, and 1801 Indian adults contributed to this analysis. Average RNFL thickness measured was 95.7±9.6 µm in Chinese participants, 94.9±10.6 µm in Malay participants, and 87.3±10.6 µm in Indian participants (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity revealed a reduction in RNFL thickness with increased intraocular pressure and axial length (P < 0.001 for both), as well as a diagnosis of diabetes (P = 0.04); greater RNFL thickness was associated with increased disc area (P < 0.001), signal strength (P < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.02). When these significant variables were taken into account, the average RNFL thickness of Indian participants was significantly thinner compared with Chinese participants (7.45 µm thinner on average [95% confidence interval, 6.75-8.15 µm; P < 0.001]), whereas there was no significant difference in average RNFL thickness between Malay and Chinese participants (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Average and regional RNFL thicknesses were significantly thinner in Indian eyes compared with Chinese and Malay eyes. Results of the study highlight the need to acquire more refined normative data for the comparison of individual patients with others of similar ethnic background while accounting for ocular factors that could influence RNFL thickness. This in turn may improve the sensitivity and specificity of glaucoma detection.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5052, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487518

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 200 genetic loci associated with BP are known. Here, we perform a multi-stage genome-wide association study for BP (max N = 289,038) principally in East Asians and meta-analysis in East Asians and Europeans. We report 19 new genetic loci and ancestry-specific BP variants, conforming to a common ancestry-specific variant association model. At 10 unique loci, distinct non-rare ancestry-specific variants colocalize within the same linkage disequilibrium block despite the significantly discordant effects for the proxy shared variants between the ethnic groups. The genome-wide transethnic correlation of causal-variant effect-sizes is 0.898 and 0.851 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Some of the ancestry-specific association signals are also influenced by a selective sweep. Our results provide new evidence for the role of common ancestry-specific variants and natural selection in ethnic differences in complex traits such as BP.

12.
J Hypertens ; 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reduction in capillary density or rarefaction is a hallmark of essential hypertension. We measured the retinal capillary density using noninvasive optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) in adults with treated systemic hypertension and determined possible correlations with ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and renal parameters. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study consisted of 153 normal eyes from 77 nondiabetic hypertensive adults [mean (SD) age, 58 (9) years; 49% women; 23% poorly controlled BP]. Data on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, serum creatinine, and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (MCR) were collected. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated based on CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation. Retinal capillary density measured with the OCT-A (AngioVue) at superficial (SVP) and deep vascular plexuses (DVP). Linear regression was used to investigate the association of risk factors with capillary density. RESULTS: Retinal capillary density (percentage) at DVP was reduced in patients with poorly controlled BP (SBP = 148 ±â€Š8 mmHg; 27.2 ±â€Š13.0) compared with those with well controlled BP (SBP = 125 ±â€Š9 mmHg; 34.7 ±â€Š11.3). In the multivariable analysis, poorly controlled BP [ß = -6.49, 95% confidence interval (CI), -12.39 to -0.59], higher SBP (ß = -0.23, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.02) and lower eGFR (ß = 6.42, 95% CI 1.25-11.60) were associated with sparser retinal capillary density. Systemic factors were not associated with capillary density at SVP (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In adults with treated systemic hypertension, retinal capillary density reduced with higher BP and poorer eGFR. These findings highlight the potential role of OCT-A to study early microvascular changes because of systemic hypertension.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

13.
Ophthalmology ; 125(12): 1844-1853, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077615

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the 6-year incidence of cataract surgery in an Asian population-based cohort of Malay, Indian, and Chinese persons living in Singapore and factors associated with undergoing cataract surgery over the follow-up period. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: From 2004 through 2011, 10 033 participants (3280 Malays, 3400 Indians, and 3353 Chinese) 40 years of age or older participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Six years later, 6762 participants (78.7% of those eligible, including 1901 Malays [72.1% of eligible], 2200 Indians [75.5% of eligible], and 2661 Chinese [87.7% of eligible]) were re-examined. METHODS: Detailed eye examinations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy were conducted at both visits. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with cataract surgery after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and other risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident cataract surgery. RESULTS: The age-adjusted 6-year incidence of cataract surgery was 11.0% (9.5%, 12.6%, and 11.1% for Malays, Indians, and Chinese, respectively) and was strongly age related (P < 0.001 for trend). After adjustment, baseline factors associated with incident cataract surgery included older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.13 per 1-year increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.14), diabetes (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.54-2.33), myopia (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.44-2.20), and baseline presence of any cataract, including nuclear cataract (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 2.91-4.89), cortical cataract (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.45-3.71), and posterior subcapsular cataract (OR, 5.00; 95% CI, 3.91-6.41). The population attributable risks of cataract surgery related to diabetes and myopia were 17.6% and 19.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: One in 10 Malay, Indian, and Chinese Singaporeans 40 years of age or older underwent cataract surgery in at least 1 eye over 6 years. In Asian populations, diabetes and myopia, 2 well-known factors associated with cataract prevalence, are significant and potentially modifiable factors associated with the need for cataract surgery.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12224, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111785

RESUMO

We evaluated the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) and blindness among Chinese adults in the Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES, 2009-2011), and compared the trends with the Tanjong Pagar Survey, Singapore (TPS), conducted a decade earlier. The SCES comprised of 3,353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years (response rate, 72.8%). Participants underwent standardized examinations, including measurements of presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity (VA). Bilateral VI (VA < 20/40 to ≥20/200) and blindness (VA < 20/200) were defined based on the United States definition (better-seeing eye). Age-standardized prevalence was calculated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese Population Census. Primary causes and factors associated with VI and blindness were evaluated. In SCES, the age-standardized prevalence of presenting bilateral VI and blindness were 17.7% and 0.6%, respectively; the age-standardised prevalence of best-corrected bilateral VI and blindness were 3.4% and 0.2%, respectively. The previous TPS reported similar rates of best-corrected bilateral VI (3.8%) and blindness (0.3%). In SCES, cataract remains the main cause for both best-corrected bilateral VI (76.0%) and blindness (50.0%). Older age, female, lower income, lower educational level, and smaller housing type were associated with presenting bilateral VI or blindness (all P ≤ 0.025). These findings will be useful for the planning of eye care services and resource allocation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005958

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness. We systematically reviewed studies published from Jan 1, 1980, to Jan 7, 2018, assessed the methodological quality, and described variations in incidence of diabetic retinopathy by region with a focus on population-based studies that were conducted after 2000 (n=8, including two unpublished studies). Of these eight studies, five were from Asia, and one each from the North America, Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. The annual incidence of diabetic retinopathy ranged from 2·2% to 12·7% and progression from 3·4% to 12·3%. Progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy was higher in individuals with mild disease compared with those with no disease at baseline. Our Review suggests that more high-quality population-based studies capturing data on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy with stratification by age and sex are needed to consolidate the evidence base. Our data is useful for conceptualisation and development of major public health strategies such as screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7575, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765104

RESUMO

We evaluated the rate and risk factors associated with falls and recurrent falls in a multi-ethnic Asian population. 10,009 participants aged ≥40 years (mean[SD] age = 58.9[10.4] years) underwent clinical examinations and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants who self-reported at least one fall or ≥2 falls in past 12 months were defined as fallers and recurrent fallers, respectively. Age-standardized rates for falls and recurrent falls were 13.8% (95%CI, 13.1-14.6%) and 4.6% (95%CI, 4.2-5.1%), respectively. Multivariable analyses showed older age (OR = 1.20; 95%CI, 1.11-1.30), female gender (OR = 1.79; 95%CI, 1.54-2.07), diabetes (OR = 1.22; 95%CI, 1.07-1.40), cardiovascular disease (CVD, OR = 1.37; 95%CI, 1.14-1.65), ≥3 systemic comorbidities (OR = 1.35; 95%CI, 1.09-1.67), lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) score (OR = 1.36; 95%CI, 1.29-1.44), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.41, 95%CI, 1.11-1.78) and presenting visual impairment (VI, OR = 1.23; 95%CI, 1.02-1.47) were associated with falls. For recurrent falls, female gender (OR = 2.27; 95%CI, 1.75-2.94), diabetes (OR = 1.28; 95%CI, 1.03-1.61), CVD (OR = 2.00; 95%CI, 1.53-2.62), ≥3 systemic comorbidities (OR = 1.69; 95%CI, 1.19-2.39), lower EQ-5D score (OR = 1.47; 95%CI, 1.35-1.59), living in 1-2 room public flat (OR = 1.57; 95%CI, 1.05-2.33), monthly income <2000 Singapore Dollar (OR = 1.62; 95%CI, 1.13-2.31), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.81, 95%CI, 1.23-2.66) and presenting VI (OR = 1.34; 95%CI, 1.01-1.79) were significant risk factors. These findings will be useful for the formulation of fall prevention programs.

17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(5): 2205-2211, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801155

RESUMO

Purpose: The association between diabetes and IOP is controversial; diabetes is associated with thicker central corneal thickness (CCT), and thicker CCT is associated with higher IOP. We therefore aimed to clarify the diabetes-IOP association, considering CCT as a potential mediator. Methods: We included 8636 participants from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) Study. Associations of diabetes, serum glucose, or HbA1c with IOP were assessed using regressions models, with adjustments for potential confounding factors. Regression-based mediation (path) analyses were further performed to evaluate the indirect effects of diabetes on IOP through the mediator (CCT), in addition to the direct effect of diabetes on IOP. Results: Of the 8636 participants, 2524 (29.23%) had diabetes. Diabetes, higher serum glucose, or HbA1c levels were all associated with higher IOP (all P < 0.01). The effect of diabetes on IOP was partially and minimally mediated through CCT; the proportion of mediating effect of CCT was 11.09% of the total effect of diabetes on IOP. Axial length and spherical equivalent were not mediating variables in the diabetes-IOP association. Findings were consistent across three ethnicity groups. Conclusions: Diabetes or higher long-term hyperglycemia was associated with higher IOP. CCT contributed a small proportion of mediating effect to the total effect of diabetes on IOP. We conclude that high IOP observed in diabetes is mainly due to the direct association of diabetes and IOP, and this finding may have pathophysiologic significance with respect to the risk of glaucoma among persons with diabetes.

18.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the biological effect of ageing on intraocular pressure (IOP) and risk factors in a population-based cohort study of Malay and Indian adults. METHODS: Participants aged 40-80 years were recruited for baseline and 6-year follow-up visits between 2004-2009 and 2010-2015, respectively. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with an automatic BP monitor and IOP were obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Main outcome was change in IOP, defined as the difference between the 6-year IOP and the baseline IOP. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association of changes in IOP with risk factors. RESULTS: Participants without a history of glaucoma or cataract surgery at baseline were included (n = 3188; mean age: 54±9 years) . Their average IOP was reduced (-0.5±3.1 mm Hg), except for those who developed hypertension at follow-up (0.0±3.1 mm Hg). After adjusting for covariates, changes in IOP were negatively associated with age (ß=-0.07, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) and positively associated with body mass index, diabetes, hypertension (normotensive as reference group; newly developed hypertensive (ß=0.67, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.95) and chronic hypertensive (ß=0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.70)), baseline systolic BP (SBP) (ß=0.20, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.26) and diastolic BP (DBP) (ß=0.33, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.44), as well as with 6-year increases in SBP (ß=0.27, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.33) and DBP (ß=0.52, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Normal ageing and reduced systemic BP are associated with reduced IOP in Malay and Indian adults. Given that high IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma, our finding highlights the importance of controlling hypertension in older adults, where hypertension and glaucoma incidences are on a rise.

19.
Nutr Diabetes ; 8(1): 16, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549238

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the association of body mass index (BMI) with the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asians. METHODS: We analysed data from 4101 adults (Malay, n = 1901 and Indian, n = 2200) who participated in the baseline (2004-2009) and 6-year follow-up (2011-2015) of two independent population-based studies with similar methodology in Singapore. BMI was categorised into normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). DM was diagnosed as random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥6.5% or self-reported physician diagnosed DM. DR was assessed from retinal photographs graded using a standard protocol. The associations of baseline BMI with incident DM and DR was examined using multivariable poisson regression models adjusting for potential confounders including duration of DM, family history of DM and HbA1c. RESULTS: The incidence of DM was 12.8% and among 1586 participants with DM, the incidence of DR was 17.6% over a median follow-up period of 6.2 years. Compared to those with BMI < 25, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) of incident DM was 1.77 (1.36-2.29) for overweight and 2.01 (1.50-2.71) for obese (p trend < 0.001). Relative risk of DR was 0.80 (0.59-1.09) for overweight and 0.60 (0.39-0.92) for obese (p trend = 0.02). In analyses stratified by ethnicity, similar pattern of associations with DM and DR were observed in both ethnicities. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that, overweight and obesity increased the 6-year risk of DM but decreased the 6-year risk of DR in these Asian populations.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 730, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335432

RESUMO

In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the association of dietary fish intake with varying severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vascular caliber in Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 357 Asians (median age: 58 years; 31% women; 78% Chinese) were recruited from a tertiary eye care institution in Singapore. Fish consumption was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Digital retinal photographs assessed for DR severity and retinal vascular caliber. Ordered logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the association of fish intake with DR severity and vascular caliber. Increasing frequency of fish consumption was significantly associated with lower odds of having severe DR (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84-0.99 per 1-unit increase of fish intake; P = 0.038). Among those with no retinopathy, persons in quartile 4 fish intake had a wider retinal vascular caliber for arteriolar (ß = 22.27 µm, 95% CI: 12.64-31.90; P-trend < 0.001) and venular (ß = 32.00 µm, 95% CI: 17.56-46.43; P-trend < 0.001), than those in quartile 1 fish intake. Persons with higher fish intake had a decreased likelihood of having severe DR. In diabetics without retinopathy, higher fish intake was associated with wider retinal vascular caliber. Future research is needed to reinforce the direction of the casualty.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Vasos Retinianos/anatomia & histologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA