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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3917, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764557

RESUMO

Phosphorene, monolayer or few-layer black phosphorus, exhibits fascinating anisotropic properties and shows interesting semiconducting behavior. The synthesis of phosphorene nanosheets is still a hot topic, including the shaping of its two-dimensional structure into nanoribbons or nanobelts. Here we report electrochemical unzipping of single crystalline black phosphorus into zigzag-phosphorene nanobelts, as well as nanosheets and quantum dots, via an oxygen-driven mechanism. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. The calculation for the unzipping mechanism study suggests that interstitial oxygen-pairs are the critical intermediate species for generating zigzag-phosphorene nanobelts. Although phosphorene oxidation has been reported, lengthwise cutting is hitherto unreported. Our discovery of phosphorene cut upon oxidation represents a previously unknown mechanism for the formation of various dimensions of phosphorene nanostructures, especially zigzag-phosphorene nanobelts. It opens up a way for studying the quantum effects and electronic properties of zigzag-phosphorene nanobelts.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(31): 13582-13589, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693585

RESUMO

Hybrid manganese halides have attracted widespread attention because of their highly emissive optical properties. To understand the underlying structural factors that dictate the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of these materials, we report five new hybrid manganese bromides with the general formula AmMnBr4 [m = 1 or 2, A = dimethylammonium (DMA), 3-methylpiperidinium (3MP), 3-aminomethylpiperidinium (3AMP), heptamethylenimine (HEP), and trimethylphenylammonium (TMPEA)]. By studying the crystal structures and optical properties of these materials and combining our results with the findings from previously reported analogs, we have found a direct correlation between Mn···Mn distance and the PLQY, where high PLQYs are associated with long Mn···Mn distances. This effect can be viewed as a manifestation of the concentration-quenching effect, except these are in stoichiometric compounds with precise interatomic distances rather than random alloys. To gain better separation of the Mn centers and prevent energy transfer, a bulky singly protonated cation that avoids H-bonding is ideal. We have demonstrated this principle in one of our newly reported material, (TMPEA)2MnBr4, where a PLQY of 70.8% for a powder sample and 98% for a large single crystal sample is achieved. Our study reveals a generalized method for improving PLQYs in hybrid manganese bromides and is readily extended to designing all varieties of highly emissive hybrid materials.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558122

RESUMO

This Review examines how the intermarriage of perovskite and metal-organic framework crystals brings new paradigms for material design and functionality. The strategic combination of halide perovskites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has generated a new family of porous composite materials that will enable new applications, including optoelectronic, catalysis, sensing, and data encryption. This Review surveys the current progress of this exciting new area. Fundamental aspects, including perovskite nucleation and growth, heterojunction electron-hole transfer, electronic structure, and luminescence within confined spaces, are highlighted, with suggestions of approaches by which guest confinement within MOFs can be synthetically designed. We further address the underlying principles and discuss the new insights and tools for the manipulation of these composite materials for the development of synthetic microporous semiconducting composites, as well as new strategies for host-guest interfacial engineering.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251548

RESUMO

There has been a great deal of recent interest in extended compounds containing Ru3+ and Ru4+ in light of their range of unusual physical properties. Many of these properties are displayed in compounds with the perovskite and related structures. Here we report an array of structurally diverse hybrid ruthenium halide perovskites and related compounds: MA2 RuX6 (X=Cl or Br), MA2 MRuX6 (M=Na, K or Ag; X=Cl or Br) and MA3 Ru2 X9 (X=Br) based upon the use of methylammonium (MA=CH3 NH3 + ) on the perovskite A site. The compounds MA2 RuX6 with Ru4+ crystallize in the trigonal space group R 3 ‾ m and can be described as vacancy-ordered double-perovskites. The ordered compounds MA2 MRuX6 with M+ and Ru3+ crystallize in a structure related to BaNiO3 with alternating MX6 and RuX6 face-shared octahedra forming linear chains in the trigonal P 3 ‾ m space group. The compound MA3 Ru2 Br9 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group and displays pairs of face-sharing octahedra forming isolated Ru2 Br9 moieties with very short Ru-Ru contacts of 2.789 Å. The structural details, including the role of hydrogen bonding and dimensionality, as well as the optical and magnetic properties of these compounds are described. The magnetic behavior of all three classes of compounds is influenced by spin-orbit coupling and their temperature-dependent behavior has been compared with the predictions of the appropriate Kotani models.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990531

RESUMO

Bismuth trihalides, BiX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, and I), have been thrust into prominence recently because of their close chemical relationship to the halide perovskites of lead, which exhibit remarkable performance as active layers in photovoltaic cells and other optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we have used calculations based on density functional theory to explore the energetics and electronic properties of BiX3 in a variety of known and hypothetical structure types. The results for BiX3 are compared with those obtained for the halides of the later rare earths, represented by YX3 and LuX3. The relative thermodynamic stabilities of the known and hypothetical structures are calculated, along with their band gaps. For the BiX3 systems, we have explored the role of lone-pair effects associated with bismuth(III), and for BiI3, we have compared the predicted structural behavior as a function of pressure with the available experimental data. We have also attempted to synthesize LuF3 in the perovskite-related ReO3-type structure, which is predicted to be only ∼7.7 kJ mol-1 above the convex hull. This attempt was unsuccessful but led to the discovery of a new hydrated phase, (H3O)Lu3F10H2O, which is isomorphous with the known ytterbium analogue.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(48): 19099-19109, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697076

RESUMO

Hybrid halide double perovskites are a class of compounds attracting growing interest because of their richness of structure and property. Two-dimensional (2D) derivatives of hybrid double perovskites are formed by the incorporation of organic spacer cations into three-dimensional (3D) double perovskites. Here, we report a series of seven new layered double perovskite halides with propylammonium (PA), octylammonium (OCA), and 1,4-butyldiammonium (BDA) cations. The general formulas of the compounds are AmMIMIIIX8 (single-layered Ruddlesden-Popper type with m = 4 and A = PA or OCA, and single-layered Dion-Jacobson type with m = 2 and A = BDA, MI = Ag, MIII= In or Bi, X = Cl or Br) and PA2CsMIMIIIBr7 (bilayered, with MI = Ag, MIII = In or Bi). These families of compounds demonstrate great versatility, with tunable layer thickness, the ability to vary the interlayer spacing, and the ability to selectively tune the band gap by varying the MI and MIII cations along with the halide anions. The band gap of the single-layered materials varies from 2.41 eV for PA4AgBiBr8 to 3.96 eV for PA4AgInCl8. Photoluminescent emission spectra of the layered double perovskites at low-temperature (100 K) are reported, and density functional theory electronic structure calculations are presented to understand the nature of the band gap evolution. The development of new structural and compositions in layered double perovskite halides enhances the understanding of structure-property relations in this important family.

7.
Adv Mater ; 31(25): e1901124, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062894

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn)-based compounds are important materials for both energy conversion and energy storage. Unfortunately, it has been a significant challenge to develop highly ordered microporous/mesoporous structures for them to provide more active sites for these applications. In order to do so using the soft-templating method, three conditions have to be met, namely, a strong interaction between the inorganic precursor and the organic templates; eliminating the formation of bulk manganese phosphate; and the preservation of the manganese phosphate framework without it collapsing upon template removal. Herein, a soft-templating approach is reported using an organophosphonic acid (n-hexylphosphonic acid) as both the etching and the templating agent, followed by high-vacuum-assisted annealing. This approach simultaneously satisfies the above conditions. Both microporous and mesoporous manganese phosphates with uniform pore sizes and well-defined pore structures are obtained. The utilization of the organophosphonic acid is shown to be the key in the transformation from bulk manganese oxide into a highly ordered microporous phosphate. A very high surface area of 304.1 m2 g-1 is obtained for the microporous manganese phosphate, which is the highest among the reported values for Mn-based compounds. The ultrafine micropores and high specific surface area of our manganese phosphate promote electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(19): 10070-10074, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049516

RESUMO

The complete 31P NMR chemical shift tensors for 22 inorganic phosphates obtained from ab initio computation are found to correspond closely to experimentally obtained parameters. Further improvement was found when structures determined by diffraction were geometry optimized. Besides aiding in spectral assignment, the cases where correspondence is significantly improved upon geometry optimization point to the crystal structures requiring correction.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1340, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902984

RESUMO

Geometric or electronic confinement of guests inside nanoporous hosts promises to deliver unusual catalytic or opto-electronic functionality from existing materials but is challenging to obtain particularly using metastable hosts, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Reagents (e.g. precursor) may be too large for impregnation and synthesis conditions may also destroy the hosts. Here we use thermodynamic Pourbaix diagrams (favorable redox and pH conditions) to describe a general method for metal-compound guest synthesis by rationally selecting reaction agents and conditions. Specifically we demonstrate a MOF-confined RuO2 catalyst (RuO2@MOF-808-P) with exceptionally high catalytic CO oxidation below 150 °C as compared to the conventionally made SiO2-supported RuO2 (RuO2/SiO2). This can be caused by weaker interactions between CO/O and the MOF-encapsulated RuO2 surface thus avoiding adsorption-induced catalytic surface passivation. We further describe applications of the Pourbaix-enabled guest synthesis (PEGS) strategy with tutorial examples for the general synthesis of arbitrary guests (e.g. metals, oxides, hydroxides, sulfides).

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(26): 3721-3724, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869691

RESUMO

In a search for Pb-free photovoltaic materials, a double perovskite Cs2AgSbBr6 with an indirect optical bandgap of 1.64 eV has been synthesized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction determined the space group as Fm3[combining macron]m with a = 11.1583(7) Å. The black, as-synthesised compound turned brown after heat treatment at 480 K while the symmetry and crystallinity were preserved. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the existence of Sb5+ in the black crystals, suggesting that the dark colour arises from the Sb3+-Sb5+ charge transfer. Furthermore, UV visible spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations have been applied to probe the optical properties and electronic structure.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(20): 2964-2967, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778470

RESUMO

Trivalent metal hypophosphites with the general formula M(H2PO2)3 (M = V, Al, Ga) adopt the ReO3 structure, with each compound displaying two structural polymorphs. High-pressure synchrotron X-ray studies reveal a pressure-driven phase transition in Ga(H2PO2)3 that can be understood on the basis of ab initio thermodynamics.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(5): 5570-5577, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628780

RESUMO

Pure metal-organic framework (MOF) layers deposited on porous supports are important candidates for molecular sieving membranes, but their performance usually deviates from theoretical estimations. Here, we combine step-wise scanning electron microscopy imaging, time-resolved synchrotron X-ray scattering, terahertz infrared spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculation to investigate the ZIF-8 membrane formation on two types (polydopamine and TiO2) of functionalized porous supports. Though molecular sieving of ZIF-8 membranes for smaller gases (He, H2, and CO2) can be achieved with both types of functionalized supports, we unravel that the strong interaction between MOF and polydopamine can disrupt the formation of "perfect" MOF crystals at the interface, leading to a "contracted" MOF structure with partially uncoordinated imidazolate ligands. This further affects the low-frequency dynamical parameters of the framework and inhibits the effective seeded growth. Eventually, it leads to an unexpected loss of selectivity for the bulkier gases (N2 and CH4) for ZIF-8 on polydopamine-functionalized supports. This work links the dynamical aspects of MOFs with their gas transport behavior and highlights the importance of regulating the interfacial weak forces to preserve the ideal molecular sieving efficiency of MOF membranes, which also provides guidance for defect engineering of MOF film fabrication for sensing and electronic devices beyond membranes.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(5): 588-591, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480673

RESUMO

Perovskite-derived hybrid platinum iodides with the general formula A2PtIVI6 (A = formamidinium FA and guanidinium GUA) accommodate excess I2 to yield hydrogen-bond-stabilized compounds where the I2 forms catenates with I- anions on the PtI6 octahedra.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 57(16): 10375-10382, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074384

RESUMO

We describe the solid-state structural evolution in four hybrid hexaiodoplatinate(IV) compounds, demonstrating the increasingly important role that extended hydrogen bonding plays in directing the structure across the series. The compounds are A2PtI6, where A is one of the following amines: ammonium, NH4+; methylammonium, CH3NH3+; formamidinium, CH(NH2)2+; guanidinium, C(NH2)3+. These are closely related in structure and properties to the hybrid halide perovskites of lead(II) that have recently established their prowess in optoelectronics. The first three of these compounds crystallize in the vacancy-ordered double perovskite A2Pt□I6 (□ indicates a vacant site) structure in the K2PtCl6 archetype, despite the relatively large perovskite tolerance factors involved. The last compound, (GUA)2PtI6, crystallizes in a vacancy-ordered variant of the hexagonal CsNiCl3 structure: the K2MnF6 structure. A combination of solid-state 195Pt and 1H NMR spectroscopy and detailed density functional theory calculations helps to reveal structural trends and establish the hydrogen-bonding tendencies. The calculations and measured optical properties support the surprising observation in these iodosalt compounds that, for smaller A cations, the conduction bands are considerably disperse, despite lacking extended I-Pt-I connectivity.

15.
Adv Mater ; 30(43): e1801495, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028547

RESUMO

Membranes are recognized as a key component in many environment and energy-related applications, but conventional membranes are challenged to satisfy the growing demand for ever more energy-efficient processes. Janus membranes, a novel class with asymmetric properties on each side, have recently emerged and represent enticing opportunities to address this challenge. With an inner driving force arising from their asymmetric configuration, Janus membranes are appealing for enhancing energy efficiency in a variety of membrane processes by promoting the desired transport. Here, the fundamental principles to prepare Janus membranes with asymmetric surface wettability and charges are summarized, and how they work in conventional and unconventional membrane processes is demonstrated.

16.
Chemistry ; 24(44): 11309-11313, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920832

RESUMO

Following the recent discovery of a new family of hybrid ABX3 perovskites where X=(H2 POO)- (hypophosphite), this work reports a facile synthesis for mixed X-site formate perovskites of composition [GUA]Mn(HCOO)3-x (H2 POO)x , with two crystallographically distinct, partially ordered intermediate phases with x=0.84 and 1.53, corresponding to ca. 30 and 50 mol % hypophosphite, respectively. These phases are characterised by single-crystal XRD and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and their magnetic properties are reported.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Formiatos/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Óxidos/química , Ácidos Fosfínicos/química , Titânio/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Imãs , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(29): 8932-8936, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845741

RESUMO

The driving forces for the phase transitions of ABX3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have been limited to the octahedral tilting, order-disorder, and displacement. Now, a complex structural phase transition has been explored in a HOIP, [CH3 NH3 ][Mn(N3 )3 ], based on structural characterizations and ab initio lattice dynamics calculations. This unusual first-order phase transition between two ordered phases at about 265 K is primarily driven by changes in the collective atomic vibrations of the whole lattice, along with concurrent molecular displacements and an unusual octahedral tilting. A significant entropy difference (4.35 J K-1 mol-1 ) is observed between the low- and high-temperature structures induced by such atomic vibrations, which plays a main role in driving the transition. This finding offers an alternative pathway for designing new ferroic phase transitions and related physical properties in HOIPs and other hybrid crystals.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(19): 6130-6136, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685030

RESUMO

Three-dimensional carbon-based structures have proven useful for tailoring material properties in structural mechanical and energy storage applications. One approach to obtain them has been by carbonization of selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with catalytic metals, but this is not applicable to most common MOF structures. Here, we present a strategy to transform common MOFs, by guest inclusions and high-temperature MOF-guest interactions, into complex carbon-based, diatom-like, hierarchical structures (named for the morphological similarities with the naturally existing diatomaceous species). As an example, we introduce metal salt guests into HKUST-1-type MOFs to generate a family of carbon-based nano-diatoms with two to four levels of structural hierarchy. We report control of the morphology by simple changes in the chemistry of the MOF and guest, with implications for the formation mechanisms. We demonstrate that one of these structures has unique advantages as a fast-charging lithium-ion battery anode. The tunability of composition should enable further studies of reaction mechanisms and result in the growth of a myriad of unprecedented carbon-based structures from the enormous variety of currently available MOF-guest candidates.

19.
Chem Sci ; 9(6): 1654-1660, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675212

RESUMO

We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im)2; M2+ = Co2+ or Zn2+, im- = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore (op) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca, bulk modulus ∼1.4 GPa) to a closed pore (cp) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P21/c, bulk modulus ∼3.3-4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op-cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M2+ ions (3d10 for Zn2+ and 3d7 for Co2+). Our results present the first examples of op-cp phase transitions (i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(42): 5268-5288, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582028

RESUMO

More than 20 000 MOFs have been reported to date, with different combinations of metal ions/centers and organic linkers, and they can be grown into various 3D, 2D, 1D and 0D morphologies. The flexibility in control over varying length scales from atomic scale up to bulk structure allows access to an almost endless variety of MOF-based and MOF-derived materials. Indeed, MOFs themselves have been studied as a class of useful functional materials. More remarkably, extensive research conducted in recent years has shown that MOFs are exceptionally good precursors for a large variety of nanohybrids as active materials in both electrocatalysis and energy storage. As they already contain both carbon and well-dispersed metal atoms, MOFs can be converted to conductive carbons decorated with active metal species and doping elements through appropriate pyrolysis. Due to the great diversity accessible in the composition, structure, and morphology of MOFs, several types of MOF-derived nanohybrids are now among the best performing materials both for electrocatalysts and electrodes in various energy conversion and storage devices. In addition to mesoporous nano-carbons, both doped and undoped, carbon-metal nanohybrids, and carbon-compound nanohybrids, there are several types of core@shell, encapsulated nanostructures, embedded nanosystems and heterostructures that have been developed from MOFs recently. They can be made in either free-standing forms, nano- or micro-powders, grown on appropriate conducting substrates, or assembled together with other active materials. During the MOF to active material conversion, other active species or precursors can be inserted into the MOF-derived nanostructures or assembled on surfaces, leading to uniquely new porous nanostructures. These MOF-derived active materials for electrocatalysis and energy storage are nanohybrids consisting of more than functional components that are purposely integrated together at desired length scales for much-improved performance. This article reviews the current status of these nanohybrids and concludes with a brief perspective on the future of MOF-derived functional materials.

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