Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 78(6): 761-9, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10916913

RESUMO

There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Gastos em Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , África/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Health Policy Plan ; 12(2): 132-45, 1997 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10168196

RESUMO

This paper reports on a study of the cross-national trends in health status during the economic transition and associated health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The central premise is that before long-run gains in health status are realized, the transition towards a market economy and adoption of democratic forms of government should lead to short-run deterioration as a result of: (i) reduction in real income and widening income disparities; (ii) stress and stress-related behaviour; (iii) lax regulation of environmental and occupational risks; and (iv) breakdown in basic health services. Analysis focused on three broad indicators of health status: life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate and the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 65 years, shown by the notation '50q15'. The study revealed significant new information about health status and the health sector which could not have been obtained without a proper cross-national study. Infant mortality rates in former socialist economies (FSE) follow the global trend, declining as per capita income rises. However, rates are lower than would be predicted given their income levels. Despite declining infant mortality, life expectancy at birth in the former socialist economies decreases as per capita income rises, in marked contrast to global trends. This is because rising income level is associated with greater probability of death between the ages of 15 and 65: the wealthier the society, the less healthy is its population, particularly for its males. Causes of death in the FSE follow global trends: higher death rates due to infectious and parasitic diseases in poorer countries, and higher death rates due to chronic diseases in wealthier countries. However, age-standardized death rates for chronic diseases generally associated with unhealthy lifestyles and environmental risk factors are very high when compared with wealthier established market economies (EME). Policies and procedures which alter the effectiveness of health services have had a demonstrable but mixed impact on health status during the early phase of transition. Effective preventive health strategies must be formulated and implemented to reverse the adverse trends observed in Central and Eastern Europe.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Governo , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 44(2): 157-69, 1997 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9015869

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe , Organização do Financiamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 44(2): 157-69, Jan. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2039

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average, per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2 percent of their GDP on health, with the expenditure divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe , Organização do Financiamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , América Latina , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
6.
Bull E Carib Affairs ; 18(3): 29-48, Sept. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3784
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA