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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(9): 1900-1904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392847

RESUMO

We report sleep phenotypes and polysomnographic findings in two siblings with a novel homozygous variant of the GLRA1 gene causing hereditary hyperekplexia (HH). Both sisters had startles during wakefulness and sleep, sleep terrors, and one had symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Frequent startles were found in NREM sleep associated with NREM parasomnias in deep sleep. In REM sleep, both had motor behaviors and increased phasic/tonic muscle activities confirming RBD. Clonazepam improved startles, motor behaviors, and muscle activities in REM sleep. Impaired glycinergic transmission in human HH could be involved in the pathophysiology of RBD and NREM parasomnias.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184401

RESUMO

The X-linked NLGN3 gene, encoding a postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, was involved in a nonsyndromic monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by the description of one unique missense variant, p.Arg451Cys (Jamain et al. 2003). We investigated here the pathogenicity of additional missense variants identified in two multiplex families with intellectual disability (ID) and ASD: c.1789C>T, p.Arg597Trp, previously reported by our group (Redin et al. 2014) and present in three affected cousins and c.1540C>T, p.Pro514Ser, identified in two affected brothers. Overexpression experiments in HEK293 and HeLa cell lines revealed that both variants affect the level of the mature NLGN3 protein, its localization at the plasma membrane and its presence as a cleaved form in the extracellular environment, even more drastically than what was reported for the initial p.Arg451Cys mutation. The variants also induced an unfolded protein response, probably due to the retention of immature NLGN3 proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In comparison, the c.1894A>G, p.Ala632Thr and c.1022T>C, p.Val341Ala variants, present in males from the general population, have no effect. Our report of two missense variants affecting the normal localization of NLGN3 in a total of five affected individuals reinforces the involvement of the NLGN3 gene in a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by ID and ASD.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2129, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086189

RESUMO

De novo heterozygous missense variants in the γ-tubulin gene TUBG1 have been linked to human malformations of cortical development associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Here, we investigated through in-utero electroporation and in-vivo studies, how four of these variants affect cortical development. We show that TUBG1 mutants affect neuronal positioning, disrupting the locomotion of new-born neurons but without affecting progenitors' proliferation. We further demonstrate that pathogenic TUBG1 variants are linked to reduced microtubule dynamics but without major structural nor functional centrosome defects in subject-derived fibroblasts. Additionally, we developed a knock-in Tubg1Y92C/+ mouse model and assessed consequences of the mutation. Although centrosomal positioning in bipolar neurons is correct, they fail to initiate locomotion. Furthermore, Tubg1Y92C/+ animals show neuroanatomical and behavioral defects and increased epileptic cortical activity. We show that Tubg1Y92C/+ mice partially mimic the human phenotype and therefore represent a relevant model for further investigations of the physiopathology of cortical malformations.


Assuntos
Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Movimento Celular/genética , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/anormalidades , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião de Mamíferos , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(2): 386-391, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847371

RESUMO

Mutations in the sodium-activated potassium channel gene KCNT1 have been associated with nonlesional sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE). We report the co-occurrence of mild malformation of cortical development (mMCD) and KCNT1 mutations in four patients with SHE. Focal cortical dysplasia type I was neuropathologically diagnosed after epilepsy surgery in three unrelated MRI-negative patients, periventricular nodular heterotopia was detected in one patient by MRI. Our findings suggest that KCNT1 epileptogenicity may result not only from dysregulated excitability by controlling Na+K+ transport, but also from mMCD. Therefore, pathogenic variants in KCNT1 may encompass both lesional and nonlesional epilepsies.

8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 407-452, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838594

RESUMO

Rare genetic disorders are often challenging to diagnose. Anomalies of tooth number, shape, size, mineralized tissue structure, eruption, and resorption may exist as isolated symptoms or diseases but are often part of the clinical synopsis of numerous syndromes (Bloch-Zupan A, Sedano H, Scully C. Dento/oro/craniofacial anomalies and genetics, 1st edn. Elsevier, Boston, MA, 2012). Concerning amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), for example, mutations in a number of genes have been reported to cause isolated AI, including AMELX, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20, FAM83H, WDR72, C4orf26, SLC24A4, and LAMB3. In addition, many other genes such as DLX3, CNNM4, ROGDI, FAM20A, STIM1, ORAI1, and LTBP3 have been shown to be involved in developmental syndromes with enamel defects. The clinical presentation of the enamel phenotype (hypoplastic, hypomineralized, hypomature, or a combination of severities) alone does not allow a reliable prediction of possible causative genetic mutations. Understanding the potential genetic cause(s) of rare diseases is critical for overall health management of affected patient. One effective strategy to reach a genetic diagnosis is to sequence a selected gene panel chosen for a determined range of phenotypes. Here we describe a laboratory protocol to set up a specific gene panel for orodental diseases.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Doenças Raras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Amelogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico , Amelogênese Imperfeita/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , DNA/genética , Desenho de Equipamento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico
9.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 765-772, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315939

RESUMO

Mutations in COL4A1 have been reported in schizencephaly and porencephaly combined with microbleeds or calcifications, often associated with ocular and renal abnormalities, myopathy, elevated creatine kinase levels and haemolytic anaemia. In this study, we aimed to clarify the phenotypic spectrum of COL4A1/A2 mutations in the context of cortical malformations that include schizencephaly, polymicrogyria and/or heterotopia. METHODS: We screened for COL4A1/A2 mutations in 9 patients with schizencephaly and/or polymicrogyria suspected to be caused by vascular disruption and leading to a cerebral haemorrhagic ischaemic event. These included 6 cases with asymmetrical or unilateral schizencephaly and/or polymicrogyria and 3 cases with bilateral schizencephaly. RESULTS: One de novo missense COL4A1 mutation (c.3715 G > A, p.(Gly1239Arg)) and two COL4A2 mutations were found, respectively in one familial case (c.4129G > A, p.(Gly1377Arg)) and one sporadic patient (c.1776+1G > A). In three other cases, COL4A1 variants of unknown significance were identified. None of our patients demonstrated neuromuscular or hematological anomalies. Brain malformations included a combination of schizencephaly, mainly asymmetrical, with porencephaly or ventriculomegaly (3/3 mutated patients). We did not observe microbleeds or microcalcifications in any of our cases, hence we do not believe that they represent a distinctive feature of COL4A1/A2 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study further emphasizes the need to search for both COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations in children presenting with uni- or bilateral polymicrogyria with schizencephaly, even in the absence of intracranial microbleeds, calcification or associated systemic features.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants. RESULTS: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g., hypermotor or frontal lobe seizures in 50%), with a mean age at onset of 4.4 years, often sleep-related and drug-resistant (54%), and associated with focal cortical dysplasia (20%). Infantile spasms were reported in 10% of the probands. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurred in 10% of the families. Novel classification framework of all 140 epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants (including the variants of this study) revealed that 68% are loss-of-function pathogenic, 14% are likely pathogenic, 15% are variants of uncertain significance and 3% are likely benign. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the increasingly important role of GATOR1 genes in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies (>180 probands to date). The GATOR1 phenotypic spectrum ranges from sporadic early-onset epilepsies with cognitive impairment comorbidities to familial focal epilepsies, and SUDEP.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1093-1101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013181

RESUMO

Neuronal migration defects, including pachygyria, are among the most severe developmental brain defects in humans. Here, we identify biallelic truncating mutations in CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, in patients with a distinct recessive form of pachygyria. CTNNA2 was expressed in human cerebral cortex, and its loss in neurons led to defects in neurite stability and migration. The αN-catenin paralog, αE-catenin, acts as a switch regulating the balance between ß-catenin and Arp2/3 actin filament activities1. Loss of αN-catenin did not affect ß-catenin signaling, but recombinant αN-catenin interacted with purified actin and repressed ARP2/3 actin-branching activity. The actin-binding domain of αN-catenin or ARP2/3 inhibitors rescued the neuronal phenotype associated with CTNNA2 loss, suggesting ARP2/3 de-repression as a potential disease mechanism. Our findings identify CTNNA2 as the first catenin family member with biallelic mutations in humans, causing a new pachygyria syndrome linked to actin regulation, and uncover a key factor involved in ARP2/3 repression in neurons.

15.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(10): 1234-1245, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913018

RESUMO

Importance: Movement disorders are characterized by a marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity, complicating diagnostic work in clinical practice and molecular diagnosis. Objective: To develop and evaluate a targeted sequencing approach using a customized panel of genes involved in movement disorders. Design, Setting and Participants: We selected 127 genes associated with movement disorders to create a customized enrichment in solution capture array. Targeted high-coverage sequencing was applied to DNA samples taken from 378 eligible patients at 1 Luxembourgian, 1 Algerian, and 25 French tertiary movement disorder centers between September 2014 and July 2016. Patients were suspected of having inherited movement disorders because of early onset, family history, and/or complex phenotypes. They were divided in 5 main movement disorder groups: parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, paroxysmal movement disorder, and myoclonus. To compare approaches, 23 additional patients suspected of having inherited cerebellar ataxia were included, on whom whole-exome sequencing (WES) was done. Data analysis occurred from November 2015 to October 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percentages of individuals with positive diagnosis, variants of unknown significance, and negative cases; mutational frequencies and clinical phenotyping of genes associated with movement disorders. Results: Of the 378 patients (of whom 208 were male [55.0%]), and with a median (range) age at disease onset of 31 (0-84) years, probable pathogenic variants were identified in 83 cases (22.0%): 46 patients with parkinsonism (55% of 83 patients), 21 patients (25.3%) with dystonia, 7 patients (8.4%) with chorea, 7 patients (8.4%) with paroxysmal movement disorders, and 2 patients (2.4%) with myoclonus as the predominant phenotype. Some genes were mutated in several cases in the cohort. Patients with pathogenic variants were significantly younger (median age, 27 years; interquartile range [IQR], 5-36 years]) than the patients without diagnosis (median age, 35 years; IQR, 15-46 years; P = .04). Diagnostic yield was significantly lower in patients with dystonia (21 of 135; 15.6%; P = .03) than in the overall cohort. Unexpected genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with pathogenic variants deviating from the classic phenotype were highlighted, and 49 novel probable pathogenic variants were identified. The WES analysis of the cohort of 23 patients with cerebellar ataxia led to an overall diagnostic yield of 26%, similar to panel analysis but at a cost 6 to 7 times greater. Conclusions and Relevance: High-coverage sequencing panel for the delineation of genes associated with movement disorders was efficient and provided a cost-effective diagnostic alternative to whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing.

16.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007281, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738522

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a malformation of cortical development commonly associated with epilepsy. We exome sequenced 202 individuals with sporadic PVNH to identify novel genetic risk loci. We first performed a trio-based analysis and identified 219 de novo variants. Although no novel genes were implicated in this initial analysis, PVNH cases were found overall to have a significant excess of nonsynonymous de novo variants in intolerant genes (p = 3.27x10-7), suggesting a role for rare new alleles in genes yet to be associated with the condition. Using a gene-level collapsing analysis comparing cases and controls, we identified a genome-wide significant signal driven by four ultra-rare loss-of-function heterozygous variants in MAP1B, including one de novo variant. In at least one instance, the MAP1B variant was inherited from a parent with previously undiagnosed PVNH. The PVNH was frontally predominant and associated with perisylvian polymicrogyria. These results implicate MAP1B in PVNH. More broadly, our findings suggest that detrimental mutations likely arising in immediately preceding generations with incomplete penetrance may also be responsible for some apparently sporadic diseases.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(12): 2138-2153, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659809

RESUMO

The aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24 bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c.428_451dup24 duplication (Arxdup24/0) that we characterized at the behavior, neurological and molecular level. Arxdup24/0 males presented with hyperactivity, enhanced stereotypies and altered contextual fear memory. In addition, Arxdup24/0 males had fine motor defects with alteration of reaching and grasping abilities. Transcriptome analysis of Arxdup24/0 forebrains at E15.5 showed a down-regulation of genes specific to interneurons and an up-regulation of genes normally not expressed in this cell type, suggesting abnormal interneuron development. Accordingly, interneuron migration was altered in the cortex and striatum between E15.5 and P0 with consequences in adults, illustrated by the defect in the inhibitory/excitatory balance in Arxdup24/0 basolateral amygdala. Altogether, we showed that the c.428_451dup24 mutation disrupts Arx function with a direct consequence on interneuron development, leading to hyperactivity and defects in precise motor movement control and associative memory. Interestingly, we highlighted striking similarities between the mouse phenotype and a cohort of 33 male patients with ARX c.428_451dup24, suggesting that this new mutant mouse line is a good model for understanding the pathophysiology and evaluation of treatment.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(4): 527-536, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422660

RESUMO

Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by intellectual disability, microcephaly, severe growth failure, sensory impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and cutaneous sensitivity. This rare disease is linked to disease-causing variations in the ERCC6 (CSB) and ERCC8 (CSA) genes. Various degrees of severity have been described according to age at onset and survival, without any clear genotype-phenotype correlation. All types of nucleotide changes have been observed in CS genes, including splice variations mainly affecting the splice site consensus sequences. We report here the case of two brothers from a consanguineous family presenting a severe but long-term survival phenotype of Cockayne syndrome. We identified in the patients a homozygous deep intronic nucleotide variation causing the insertion of a cryptic exon in the ERCC8 (CSA) transcript, by modifying intronic regulatory elements important for exon definition. The pathogenesis of the nucleotide variant NG_009289.1(NM_000082.3):c.173+1119G>C was validated in vitro with a reporter minigene system. To our knowledge, these are the first Cockayne patients described with this kind of disease-causing variation, though molecular mechanism underlying early onset symptoms and unexpected slow raise of progression of the disease remain to be elucidated.

19.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 116-132, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290337

RESUMO

Whole-exome and targeted sequencing of 13 individuals from 10 unrelated families with overlapping clinical manifestations identified loss-of-function and missense variants in KIAA1109 allowing delineation of an autosomal-recessive multi-system syndrome, which we suggest to name Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome (MIM 617822). Shared phenotypic features representing the cardinal characteristics of this syndrome combine brain atrophy with clubfoot and arthrogryposis. Affected individuals present with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, ranging from major cerebral parenchymal thinning with lissencephalic aspect to moderate parenchymal rarefaction, severe to mild ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia with brainstem dysgenesis, and cardiac and ophthalmologic anomalies, such as microphthalmia and cataract. Severe loss-of-function cases were incompatible with life, whereas those individuals with milder missense variants presented with severe global developmental delay, syndactyly of 2nd and 3rd toes, and severe muscle hypotonia resulting in incapacity to stand without support. Consistent with a causative role for KIAA1109 loss-of-function/hypomorphic variants in this syndrome, knockdowns of the zebrafish orthologous gene resulted in embryos with hydrocephaly and abnormally curved notochords and overall body shape, whereas published knockouts of the fruit fly and mouse orthologous genes resulted in lethality or severe neurological defects reminiscent of the probands' features.

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