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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapies for refractory cytomegalovirus infections (with or without resistance [R/R]) in transplant recipients are limited by toxicities. Maribavir has multimodal anti-cytomegalovirus activity through the inhibition of UL97 protein kinase. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label study, hematopoietic-cell and solid-organ transplant recipients with R/R cytomegalovirus were randomized 2:1 to maribavir 400mg BID or investigator-assigned therapy (IAT; valganciclovir/ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir) for 8 weeks, with 12 weeks follow-up. Primary endpoint was confirmed cytomegalovirus clearance at end of Week 8. Key secondary endpoint was achievement of cytomegalovirus clearance and symptom control at end of Week 8, maintained through Week 16. RESULTS: 352 patients were randomized (235 maribavir; 117 IAT). Significantly more patients in the maribavir versus IAT group achieved the primary endpoint (55.7% vs 23.9%; adjusted difference [95% CI]: 32.8% [22.80-42.74]; P<.001) and key secondary endpoint (18.7% vs 10.3%; adjusted difference [95% CI]: 9.5% [2.02-16.88]; P=.01). Rates of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were similar between groups (maribavir, 97.4%; IAT, 91.4%). Maribavir was associated with less acute kidney injury versus foscarnet (8.5% vs 21.3%) and neutropenia versus valganciclovir/ganciclovir (9.4% vs 33.9%). Fewer patients discontinued treatment due to TEAEs with maribavir (13.2%) than IAT (31.9%). One patient per group had fatal treatment-related TEAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Maribavir was superior to IAT for cytomegalovirus viremia clearance, and viremia clearance plus symptom control maintained post-therapy in transplant recipients with R/R cytomegalovirus. Maribavir had fewer treatment discontinuations due to TEAEs than IAT.

3.
Microbes Infect ; : 104895, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756990

RESUMO

Baloxavir, a cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, was recently approved for treatment of severe influenza infections. Combining baloxavir with oseltamivir has been proposed to increase the response rate. We report 2 hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with severe influenza infections who were treated with this combination and discuss possible reasons for their different responses.

4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560310

RESUMO

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) partnered with its Transpl. Infect. Dis. Special Interest Group (TID-SIG) to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious disease guidelines for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A new approach was employed with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious diseases series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQ), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious diseases and HCT content experts developed and answered FAQs. Topics were finalized with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. The fourth topic in the series focuses on the management and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) resistant and refractory infections. The diagnosis, definitions of resistant and refractory CMV, risk factors, virological genotypes and treatment algorithms are reviewed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1292237

RESUMO

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group (TID-SIG) to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious disease guidelines for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A new approach was employed with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious diseases series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQ), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious diseases and HCT content experts developed and answered FAQs. Topics were finalized with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. The fourth topic in the series focuses on the management and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) resistant and refractory infections. The diagnosis, definitions of resistant and refractory CMV, risk factors, virological genotypes and treatment algorithms are reviewed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Transplant cell ther ; 27(9)20210901.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1292255

RESUMO

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious diseases guidelines for the care of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. A new approach was taken with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious disease series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQ), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious disease and HCT content experts developed and answered FAQs. Topics were finalized with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. The third topic in the series focuses on the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in HCT recipients by reviewing prophylaxis and preemptive therapy approaches; key definitions, relevant risk factors, and diagnostic monitoring considerations are also reviewed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Citomegalovirus , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico
7.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(9): 707-719, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452721

RESUMO

The Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy partnered with its Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group to update its 2009 compendium-style infectious diseases guidelines for the care of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. A new approach was taken with the goal of better serving clinical providers by publishing each standalone topic in the infectious disease series as a concise format of frequently asked questions (FAQ), tables, and figures. Adult and pediatric infectious disease and HCT content experts developed and answered FAQs. Topics were finalized with harmonized recommendations that were made by assigning an A through E strength of recommendation paired with a level of supporting evidence graded I through III. The third topic in the series focuses on the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in HCT recipients by reviewing prophylaxis and preemptive therapy approaches; key definitions, relevant risk factors, and diagnostic monitoring considerations are also reviewed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados , Estados Unidos
9.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073490

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. RSV antibodies play a role in preventing reinfection and in clearance of RSV, but data regarding the levels of viral protein-specific antibodies elicited and their contribution to patient recovery from RSV-induced disease are limited. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of RSV-infected adult hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients (n = 40). Serum and nasal-wash samples were obtained at enrollment (acute samples) and convalescence (convalescent samples). We measured (1) humoral IgG and mucosal IgA binding antibody levels to multiple RSV proteins (F, G, N, P, and M2-1) by Western blot (WB); (2) neutralizing antibody (Nt Ab) titers by microneutralization assay; and (3) palivizumab-like antibody (PLA) concentrations by an ELISA-based competitive binding assay developed in the lab. Finally, we tested for correlations between protein-specific antibody levels and duration of viral shedding (normal: cleared in <14 days and delayed: cleared ≥14 days), as well as RSV/A and RSV/B subtypes. Convalescent sera from HCT recipients had significantly higher levels of anti-RSV antibodies to all 5 RSV structural proteins assayed (G, F, N, P, M2-1), higher Nt Abs to both RSV subtypes, and higher serum PLAs than at enrollment. Significantly higher levels of mucosal antibodies to 3 RSV structural proteins (G, N, and M2-1) were observed in the convalescent nasal wash versus acute nasal wash. Normal viral clearance group had significantly higher levels of serum IgG antibodies to F, N, and P viral proteins, higher Nt Ab to both RSV subtypes, and higher PLA, as well as higher levels of mucosal IgA antibodies to G and M2-1 viral proteins, and higher Nt Ab to both RSV subtypes compared to delayed viral clearance group. Normal RSV clearance was associated with higher IgG serum antibody levels to F and P viral proteins, and PLAs in convalescent serum (p < 0.05). Finally, overall antibody levels in RSV/A- and/B-infected HCT recipients were not significantly different. In summary, specific humoral and mucosal RSV antibodies are associated with viral clearance in HCT recipients naturally infected with RSV. In contrast to the humoral response, the F surface glycoprotein was not a major target of mucosal immunity. Our findings have implications for antigen selection in the development of RSV vaccines.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 194(1): 145-157, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124796

RESUMO

Community respiratory viral infections (CRVIs) are associated with pulmonary function impairment, alloimmune lung syndromes and inferior survival in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Although the incidence of viral infections in HLA-haploidentical HCT recipients who receive post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is reportedly increased, there are insufficient data describing the incidence of CRVIs and the impact of donor source and PTCy on transplant outcomes. Analysing patients receiving their first HCT between 2012 and 2017 for acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, we describe comparative outcomes between matched sibling transplants receiving either calcineurin-based GVHD prophylaxis (SibCNI, N = 1605) or PTCy (SibCy, N = 403), and related haploidentical transplants receiving PTCy (HaploCy, N = 757). The incidence of CRVIs was higher for patients receiving PTCy, regardless of donor type. Patients in the HaploCy cohort who developed a CRVI by day +180 had both a higher risk of treatment-related mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2⋅14, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1⋅13-4⋅07; P = 0⋅002] and inferior 2-year overall survival (HR 1⋅65, 99% CI 1⋅11-2⋅43; P = 0⋅001) compared to SibCNI with no CRVI. This finding justifies further research into long-term antiviral immune recovery, as well as development of preventive and treatment strategies to improve long-term outcomes in such patients.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 981-986, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although molecular tests are considered the reference standard for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics, serological and immunological tests may be useful in specific settings. OBJECTIVES: This review summarizes the underlying principles and performance of COVID-19 serological and immunological testing. SOURCES: Selected peer-reviewed publications on COVID-19 related serology and immunology published between December 2019 and March 2021. CONTENT: Serological tests are highly specific but heterogeneous in their sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19. For certain indications, including delayed disease presentations, serological tests can have added value. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 may indicate a recent or past COVID-19 infection. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) antibody tests have the advantages of being easy and fast to perform, but many have a low sensitivity in acute settings. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) have higher sensitivities. Besides humoral immunity, cellular immunity is also essential for successful host defences against viruses. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays can be used to measure T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. The presence of cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in never exposed patients suggests the possibility of cellular immunity induced by other circulating coronaviruses. T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 have also been detected in recovered COVID-19 patients with no detectable antibodies. IMPLICATIONS: Serological and immunological tests are primarily applied for population-based seroprevalence studies to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control measures and increase our understanding of the immunology behind COVID-19. Combining molecular diagnostics with serological tests may optimize the detection of COVID-19. As not all infected patients will develop antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, assessment of cellular immunity may provide complementary information on whether a patient has been previously infected with COVID-19. More studies are needed to understand the correlations of these serological and immunological parameters with protective immunity, taking into account the different circulating virus variants.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoensaio , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(8): 1346-1354, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is one of the most common infectious complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Primary prophylaxis with letermovir demonstrated a reduction in clinically significant CMV infections (CS-CMVi) in clinical trials of CMV-seropositive HCT recipients. This study aims at exploring the effect of primary letermovir prophylaxis in this population on the incidence and outcomes of refractory or resistant CMV infections. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 537 consecutive CMV-seropositive allogeneic HCT recipients cared for between March 2016 and October 2018. Baseline demographics, HCT characteristics, CMV infections, treatment, and mortality data were collected from the electronic medical record. CMV outcomes were defined according to the recently standardized definitions for clinical trials. Characteristics and outcomes were assessed according to receipt of primary letermovir prophylaxis. RESULTS: Of 537 patients identified, 123 received letermovir for primary prophylaxis during the first 100 days after HCT; 414 did not. In a multivariate analysis, primary prophylaxis with letermovir was associated with reductions in CS-CMVi (hazard ratio [HR] 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.41), CMV end-organ disease (HR 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), refractory or resistant CMV infection (HR 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.52), and nonrelapse mortality at week 48 (HR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.93). There was neither resistant CMV nor CMV-related mortality in the primary letermovir prophylaxis group. CONCLUSIONS: Primary letermovir prophylaxis effectively prevents refractory or resistant CMV infections and decreases nonrelapse mortality at week 48, as well as CS-CMVi and CMV disease after allogeneic HCT.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Acetatos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Quinazolinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2710-2719, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed. RESULTS: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement. CONCLUSION: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.


Assuntos
Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Hemorrágicos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13606, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755273

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can lead to life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections in patients with hematologic malignancies, particularly among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. We describe two patients with COVID-19 during the pre-engraftment period after HCT and review previous reports of COVID-19 in HCT recipients. Because of significant mortality from COVID-19, primarily after allogeneic HCT, early, preemptive, and optimal directed therapy may improve outcomes and reduce the mortality rate but still needs to be established in clinical trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Reconstituição Imune , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplantados
16.
Blood ; 137(23): 3291-3305, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657221

RESUMO

Prior studies suggest increased cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after haploidentical donor transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (HaploCy). The role of allograft source and posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in CMV infection is unclear. We analyzed the effect of graft source and PTCy on incidence of CMV infection, and effects of serostatus and CMV infection on transplant outcomes. We examined patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research between 2012 and 2017 who had received HaploCy (n = 757), matched related (Sib) with PTCy (SibCy, n = 403), or Sib with calcineurin inhibitor-based prophylaxis (SibCNI, n = 1605). Cumulative incidences of CMV infection by day 180 were 42%, 37%, and 23%, respectively (P < .001). CMV disease was statistically comparable. CMV infection risk was highest for CMV-seropositive recipients (R+), but significantly higher in PTCy recipients regardless of donor (HaploCy [n = 545]: hazard ratio [HR], 50.3; SibCy [n = 279]: HR, 47.7; SibCNI [n = 1065]: HR, 24.4; P < .001). D+/R- patients also had increased risk for CMV infection. Among R+ or those developing CMV infection, HaploCy had worse overall survival and nonrelapse mortality. Relapse was unaffected by CMV infection or serostatus. PTCy was associated with lower chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) overall, but CMV infection in PTCy recipients was associated with higher chronic GVHD (P = .006). PTCy, regardless of donor, is associated with higher incidence of CMV infection, augmenting the risk of seropositivity. Additionally, CMV infection may negate the chronic GVHD protection of PTCy. This study supports aggressive prevention strategies in all receiving PTCy.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e773-e781, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no antiviral therapies for parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections. DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein, has demonstrated activity in in vitro and in animal models of PIV. METHODS: Adult immunocompromised patients diagnosed with PIV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) who required oxygen supplementation were randomized 2:1 to nebulized DAS181 (4.5 mg/day) or matching placebo for up to 10 days. Randomization was stratified by need for mechanical ventilation (MV) or supplemental oxygen (SO). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients reaching clinical stability survival (CSS) defined as returning to room air (RTRA), normalization of vital signs for at least 24 hours, and survival up to day 45 from enrollment. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients were randomized to DAS181 (n = 74) or placebo (n = 37). CSS was achieved by 45.0% DAS181-treated patients in the SO stratum compared with 31.0% for placebo (P = .15), whereas patients on MV had no benefit from DAS181. The proportion of patients achieving RTRA was numerically higher for SO stratum DAS181 patients (51.7%) compared with placebo (34.5%) at day 28 (P = .17). In a post hoc analysis of solid organ transplant, hematopoietic cell transplantation within 1 year, or chemotherapy within 1 year, more SO stratum patients achieved RTRA on DAS181 (51.8%) compared with placebo (15.8%) by day 28 (P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: The primary endpoint was not met, but post hoc analysis of the RTRA component suggests DAS181 may have clinical activity in improving oxygenation in select severely immunocompromised patients with PIV LRTI who are not on mechanical ventilation. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01644877.


Assuntos
Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pulmão , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(3): e185-e193, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are considered at high risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 on the basis of their immunosuppressed status, but data from large studies in HSCT recipients are lacking. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of HSCT recipients after developing COVID-19. METHODS: In response to the pandemic, the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) implemented a special form for COVID-19-related data capture on March 27, 2020. All patients-irrespective of age, diagnosis, donor type, graft source, or conditioning regimens-were included in the analysis with data cutoff of Aug 12, 2020. The main outcome was overall survival 30 days after a COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimator. Factors associated with mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. FINDINGS: 318 HSCT recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 were reported to the CIBMTR. The median time from HSCT to COVID-19 diagnosis was 17 months (IQR 8-46) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 23 months (8-51) for autologous HSCT recipients. The median follow-up of survivors was 21 days (IQR 8-41) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 25 days (12-35) for autologous HSCT recipients. 34 (18%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients were receiving immunosuppression within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis. Disease severity was mild in 155 (49%) of 318 patients, while severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation occurred in 45 (14%) of 318 patients-ie, 28 (15%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients and 17 (13%) of 134 autologous HSCT recipients. At 30 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19, overall survival was 68% (95% CI 58-77) for recipients of allogeneic HSCT and 67% (55-78) for recipients of autologous HSCT. Age 50 years or older (hazard ratio 2·53, 95% CI 1·16-5·52; p=0·020); male sex (3·53; 1·44-8·67; p=0·006), and development of COVID-19 within 12 months of transplantation (2·67, 1·33-5·36; p=0·005) were associated with a higher risk of mortality among allogeneic HSCT recipients, and a disease indication of lymphoma was associated with a higher risk of mortality compared with plasma cell disorder or myeloma (2·41, [1·08-5·38]; p=0·033) in autologous HSCT recipients. INTERPRETATION: Recipients of autologous and allogeneic HSCT who develop COVID-19 have poor overall survival. These data emphasise the need for stringent surveillance and aggressive treatment measures in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19. FUNDING: American Society of Hematology; Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; Health Resources and Services Administration; Office of Naval Research.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 46, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised children and adults are at increased risk for severe disease and death following varicella zoster virus infection. Varicella zoster immune globulin (human) (VARIZIG) is recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent or attenuate varicella infection in high-risk individuals. METHODS: An open-label, expanded-access program provided VARIZIG to high-risk individuals exposed to varicella or herpes zoster. Immunocompromised participants were stratified by type of immunocompromising condition ("oncologic immunodeficiency", "primary immunodeficiency", "solid organ transplant" [SOT], "hematopoietic cell transplant" [HCT], and "other"). Patient characteristics, type of exposure and varicella outcome, and safety data were assessed. RESULTS: This analysis included 40 adults (primary [n = 6] or oncologic [n = 10] immunodeficiencies, history of SOT [n = 5] or HCT [n = 6], and other [n = 13]), and 263 children (primary [n = 13] or oncologic [n = 152] immunodeficiencies, history of SOT [n = 36] or HCT [n = 17], and other [n = 45]). Among adults and children, 48% vs 72% were exposed to varicella, 38% vs 16% were exposed to herpes zoster, and 15% vs 12% had an unspecified exposure. Overall incidence of varicella infection in adults after VARIZIG use was 6%; incidence of varicella infection in children after VARIZIG use was 7%. Similar rates were noted in each subgroup. Most cases of varicella were mild, with two children developing > 100 lesions and no cases of varicella-related pneumonia or encephalitis. Varicella-related hospitalizations occurred primarily in children with oncologic immunodeficiencies. One serious adverse event (serum sickness) was considered related to VARIZIG and occurred in a child with oncologic immunodeficiency. There were no varicella- or VARIZIG-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that VARIZIG may reduce severity of varicella in immunocompromised children and adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered with the public clinical trial identification NCT00338442 at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov on 20 June 2006.


Assuntos
Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Soros Imunes , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpes Zoster/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Tracking the dissemination of VRE strains is crucial to understand the dynamics of emergence and spread of VRE in the hospital setting. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify dominant VRE strains and potential transmission networks between 35 patients with VRE-positive rectal swabs and their rooms (main rooms and bathrooms) on the leukemia (LKM) and the hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) floors. Sequence types (STs), drug resistance genes, and patients' outcomes were also determined. RESULTS: A total of 89 VRE strains grouped into 10 different STs, of which newly described STs were isolated from both floors (ST736, ST494, ST772, and ST1516). We observed highly genetically related strains transmitted between rooms, floors, and time periods in an average period of 39 days (ranging from 3 to 90 days). Of 5 VRE bacteremia events, 3 strains were lacking the pili operon fms14-17-13 (ST203) and the remaining 2 were resistant to daptomycin (DAP; ST736, ST664). Of 10 patients harboring DAP-resistant strains, only 2 were exposed to DAP within 4 months before strain recovery. CONCLUSION: Our comparisons of VRE strains derived from the environment and immunocompromised patients confirmed horizontal transfer of highly related genetic lineages of multidrug-resistant (particularly to DAP) VRE strains between HCT and LKM patients and their room environment. Implementing WGS can be useful in distinguishing VRE reservoirs where interventions can be targeted to prevent and control the spread of highly resistant organisms.

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