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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131642, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351280

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids are replacement insecticides increasingly used for organophosphates, methylcarbamates, and pyrethroids. Experimental evidence suggests neonicotinoids may affect glucose metabolism and insulin secretion through pancreatic ß cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, no epidemiologic study has investigated neonicotinoids as potential diabetogens. We examined associations between neonicotinoids with insulin and glucose homeostasis parameters among 1381 non-diabetic adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015-2016). Urinary concentrations of acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid were quantified. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were assessed. Insulin resistance was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥2.5. We used weighted linear and logistic regression to estimate associations between detectable neonicotinoids with insulin and glucose homeostasis parameters compared to non-detectable neonicotinoid concentrations. Weighted detection frequencies for imidacloprid, 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid, and N-desmethyl-acetamiprid were 4.4 %, 21.5 %, and 32.8 %, respectively. Detectable imidacloprid (ß = -4.7 µIU/mL, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -8.5, -0.8) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid (ß = -2.4 µIU/mL, 95 % CI -4.6, -0.2) were associated with lower fasting plasma insulin levels. Individuals with detectable 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid had lower odds of insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.2, 0.7). We observed evidence of sexually dimorphic associations between N-desmethyl-acetamiprid with glucose (pint = 0.079) and 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid with HbA1c (pint = 0.038), with patterns suggesting positive associations in males and negative associations in females. Associations between 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid and insulin were modified by body mass index (BMI) (pint = 0.013). We additionally observed age modified associations between 5-hydyroxy-imidacloprid and glucose (pint = 0.048). Results suggest neonicotinoids may be associated with insulin and glucose homeostasis indices and call for prospective studies to examine the metabolic impact of these replacement insecticides in humans.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Insulina , Adulto , Feminino , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is associated with behavioral problems in children, but the age(s) of greatest susceptibility to low-level lead exposure is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of repeated blood lead concentrations with parent-reported behaviors to identify periods of heightened susceptibility during infancy and childhood (HOME Study; Cincinnati, OH; 2003-2006; n = 244). METHODS: We quantified lead in whole blood samples (ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years) and assessed behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2; ages 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years). We used multiple informant models and modified Poisson regression to estimate covariate-adjusted associations of ln-transformed blood lead concentrations with continuous BASC-2 T-scores and the relative risk of behavior scores classified as at-risk or clinically significant, respectively. RESULTS: We observed trends indicating that higher blood lead concentrations at all ages were adversely associated with scores on behavioral scales. On the Externalizing Problems and Adaptive Skills scales, these associations were strongest for blood lead concentrations at age 8 years (ß = 3.1-point; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.4 and ß = -2.2-point; 95% CI = -4.9, 0.5, respectively) compared with other ages. Overall, higher blood lead concentrations were associated with elevated risk of behavior scores classified as at-risk or clinically significant on the Adaptive Skills, Behavioral Symptom Index, and Externalizing Problems scales. SIGNIFICANCE: Contemporary levels of lead exposure during the first 8 years of life were associated with ADHD-related behaviors, specifically aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct problems. IMPACT STATEMENT: Our results highlight the importance of primary lead prevention across childhood.

3.
Environ Res ; : 112396, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The association between social adversity and externalizing behavioral problems in children is well-documented. What is much less researched are biological mechanisms that may mediate such relationships. This study examines the hypothesis that low blood lead mediates the relationship between social adversity and child externalizing behavior problems. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants were 131 children aged 11-12 years (mean = 11.90) from Philadelphia, US. A venous fasting blood sample was taken and analyzed for blood lead levels. A social adversity index was calculated based on 10 total indicators derived from a psychosocial interview of the parent and official neighborhood data, while child behavior outcomes (internalizing and externalizing behavior) were assessed using both parent-report and child self-report. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level was 2.20 µg/dL. Both relatively higher blood lead levels and higher social adversity scores were associated with higher levels of parent-reported and child self-reported externalizing behaviors. Additionally, blood lead mediated the relationship between social adversity and child-reported externalizing behavior (Indirect effect: B = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004, 0.09) and partially mediated the relationship between social adversity and parent-reported externalizing behavior (Indirect Effect: B = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.07). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study is the first to suggest that blood lead levels play a mediating role in the relationship between externalizing behavior problems and social adversity. Findings have potentially important implications for public health and environmental regulation as well as understanding biological mechanisms that link social inequality with health outcomes, especially in youth from low-income, urban areas.

4.
Bone ; 154: 116251, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The developing fetus may be particularly susceptibility to environmental osteotoxicants, but studies of pregnancy phthalate exposures and childhood bone health are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To examine relations of pregnancy phthalate exposure biomarkers with early adolescent bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS: We used data from 223 pregnant mothers and their children enrolled in a Cincinnati, OH area cohort from 2003 to 2006. We quantified monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monoisobutyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), and four metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in maternal urine collected at 16 and 26 weeks gestation, and calculated the average of creatinine-standardized concentrations. Using dual x-ray absorptiometry measures at age 12 years, we calculated BMD and BMC Z-scores for six skeletal sites. In overall and sex-stratified models, we estimated covariate-adjusted associations per 2-fold increase in phthalate biomarker concentrations using linear regression, and estimated joint effects of the phthalate biomarkers mixture using Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and quantile g-computation. RESULTS: In single phthalate models, several biomarkers were positively associated with BMC and BMD. For example, each doubling of MEP and MCPP, 1/3rd distal radius BMD Z-score increased by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.17) and 0.16 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.31), respectively. For phthalate mixtures, associations were generally U-shaped among males and positive-linear among females, using both statistical methods. Mixture associations were strongest with forearm sites: in BKMR models, increasing all biomarkers from the 50th to 90th percentile was associated with a 0.64 (95% CI: 0.01, 1.28) greater 1/3rd distal radius BMD Z-score in males, and a 0.49 (95% CI: -0.13, 1.10) greater ultradistal radius BMD Z-score in females. DISCUSSION: In this study, phthalate exposures during gestation were associated with increased BMD Z-scores in early adolescence, though further research is needed to determine implications for long-term skeletal health.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 714, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the largest genera in Apiaceae, Bupleurum L. is well known for its high medicinal value. The genus has frequently attracted the attention of evolutionary biologist and taxonomist for its distinctive characteristics in the Apiaceae family. Although some chloroplast genomes data have been now available, the changes in the structure of chloroplast genomes and selective pressure in the genus have not been fully understood. In addition, few of the species are endemic to Southwest China, a distribution and diversity center of Chinese Bupleurum. Endemic species are key components of biodiversity and ecosystems, and investigation of the chloroplast genomes features of endemic species in Bupleurum will be helpful to develop a better understanding of evolutionary process and phylogeny of the genus. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of whole chloroplast genomes of 4 Southwest China endemic Bupleurum species in comparison with the published data of 17 Bupleurum species to determine the evolutionary characteristics of the genus and the phylogenetic relationships of Asian Bupleurum. RESULTS: The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the 4 endemic Bupleurum species are 155,025 bp to 155,323 bp in length including a SSC and a LSC region separated by a pair of IRs. Comparative analysis revealed an identical chloroplast gene content across the 21 Bupleurum species, including a total of 114 unique genes (30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes and 80 protein-coding genes). Chloroplast genomes of the 21 Bupleurum species showed no rearrangements and a high sequence identity (96.4-99.2%). They also shared a similar tendency of SDRs and SSRs, but differed in number (59-83). In spite of their high conservation, they contained some mutational hotspots, which can be potentially exploited as high-resolution DNA barcodes for species discrimination. Selective pressure analysis showed that four genes were under positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 21 Bupleurum formed two major clades, which are likely to correspond to their geographical distribution. CONCLUSIONS: The chloroplast genome data of the four endemic Bupleurum species provide important insights into the characteristics and evolution of chloroplast genomes of this genu, and the phylogeny of Bupleurum.


Assuntos
Apiaceae , Bupleurum , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Bupleurum/genética , China , Ecossistema , Filogenia
6.
Environ Res ; : 112220, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between maternal exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) during pregnancy. METHODS: We analyzed data from 346 women with a singleton live birth in the HOME Study, a prospective birth cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. We quantified four OPE metabolites in maternal spot urine samples collected at 16 and 26 weeks pregnancy, standardized by specific gravity. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We extracted the first two recorded BP measurements (<20 weeks), the two highest recorded BP measurements (≥20 weeks), and diagnoses of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) via chart review. Women with two BP measurements ≥140/90 mmHg or HDP noted in the chart at ≥20 weeks pregnancy were defined as HDP cases. We used linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression with covariate adjustment to estimate associations between OPE concentrations as continuous variables or in tertiles with maternal BP and HDP. RESULTS: ICCs of OPEs were 0.17-0.45. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) had the highest geometric mean concentration among OPE metabolites. Increasing the average bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP) concentrations were positively associated with two highest recorded DBP ≥20 weeks pregnancy. Compared with women in the 1st DPHP tertile, women in the 3rd tertile at 16 weeks pregnancy had 1.72 mmHg (95% CI: -0.01, 3.46) higher DBP <20 weeks pregnancy, and women in the 3rd tertile of the average DPHP concentrations had 2.25 mmHg (95% CI: 0.25, 4.25) higher DBP ≥20 weeks pregnancy. 33 women (9.5%) were identified with HDP. Di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) concentrations at 16 weeks were positively associated with HDP, with borderline significance (RR = 2.98, 95% CI 0.97-9.15). Other OPE metabolites were not significantly associated with HDP. CONCLUSION: Maternal urinary BCEP and DPHP concentrations were associated with increased BP during pregnancy. Maternal urinary DNBP concentrations were associated with HDP, with borderline significance.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97011, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may impair bone accrual and strength via endocrine disruption and nuclear receptor agonism, but human studies are primarily of adults or cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of individual PFAS and their mixture during pregnancy with child bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at age 12 y. METHODS: Among 206 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective cohort (2003-2006), we quantified perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in maternal serum collected during gestation or delivery. When children were age 12 y, we performed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated BMC, aBMD, and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) z-scores for six skeletal sites. We estimated covariate-adjusted z-score differences per doubling of individual PFAS using linear regression and assessed the PFAS mixture using quantile g-computation and Bayesian kernel machine regression. We explored whether associations were modified by child's sex or mediated by whole-body lean mass. RESULTS: In covariate-adjusted models, we found that higher maternal serum concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, and the PFAS mixture were associated with lower total hip and forearm (one-third distal radius) BMC z-scores in children. Differences in forearm BMC z-scores were -0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.35, 0.01] and -0.24 (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) per doubling of PFOA and PFNA, respectively, and -0.18 (95% CI: -0.34, -0.02) per quartile increase in the PFAS mixture. Child's sex modified PFOA associations for some skeletal sites; for example, differences in spine BMAD z-score per doubling were -0.31 (95% CI: -0.58, -0.03) among males and 0.07 (95% CI: -0.16, 0.30) among females (modification p=0.04). Except for PFNA among females, these associations were not mediated by whole-body lean mass. DISCUSSION: Maternal PFAS concentrations during pregnancy may be associated with lower bone mineral accrual and strength in early adolescence. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9424.

8.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 31(5): 51-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591390

RESUMO

The study explored the cross-talk between the microRNA miR-34a and prominin 1 in the development of laryngeal cancer (LC), which has an unacceptable high mortality rate. We predicted that miR-34a might target prominin 1. miR-34a and prominin 1 expression was analyzed with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between miR-34a and prominin 1 was determined by linear regression analysis. miR-34a and prominin 1 overexpression and miR-34a inhibition were achieved in LC cells to analyze their relationship. The roles of miR-34a and prominin 1 in LC cell proliferation were studied with CCK-8 assay. The results showed miR-34a was downregulated, and prominin 1 was upregulated in LC. In addition, prominin 1 and miR-34a were inversely correlated across cancer tissue samples. In cancer cells, miR-34a overexpression downregulated prominin 1, while miR-34a knockdown upregulated prominin 1. Moreover, miR-34a overexpression reduced the enchaining effects of prominin 1 on LC cell proliferation. Therefore, miR-34a might suppress LC cell proliferation by targeting prominin 1.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 736505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566898

RESUMO

Background: Evidence from animal studies has indicated that neonatal thyroid function is vital for the reproductive development. Anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal milieu, can be used to predict adult reproductive disorders. However, few human studies have examined the association between neonatal thyroid function and AGD. We aimed to explore their associations in a birth cohort study. Methods: Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (THs), including total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured in cord plasma in the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort. The offspring AGD (AGDAP [anus-penis] and AGDAS [anus-scrotum] for boys and AGDAC [anus-clitoris] and AGDAF [anus-fourchette] for girls), body weight and anogenital index (AGI = AGD/weight [mm/kg]) were obtained at each follow-up visit. In total, 344 children (194 boys and 150 girls) with cord plasma concentrations of THs and TSH and at least one AGD measurement at birth and at 6, 12, and 48 months of age were included. Multiple linear regression and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to examine the associations of cord plasma concentrations of THs and TSH with AGI. Results: Multiple linear regression models showed inverse associations of TT4, FT3, and FT4 with female AGI, although statistical significance was only reached at birth, 6 and 48 months of age. These associations were also found in GEE models: higher TT4 and FT4 concentrations were associated with lower AGIAC (TT4: ß = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.50, -0.03 for middle vs. lowest tertile; FT4: ß = -0.38, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.16 for middle and ß = -0.30, 95% CI: -0.55, -0.04 for highest vs. lowest tertile). Besides, girls with the highest tertile of FT3 concentrations had lower AGIAF than those with the lowest tertile (the highest vs. lowest tertile: ß = -0.22, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.08). Positive associations between TSH and AGI at birth and at 12 months of age were observed in boys. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence on the effects of neonatal thyroid function on reproductive development at an early life stage.

10.
Neurotoxicology ; 87: 149-155, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582899

RESUMO

Many environmental chemicals are being identified as suspected neurotoxicants based on the findings of both experimental and epidemiological studies. Organophosphate esters (OPEs), which are among the chemicals that have replaced neurotoxic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) after 2004, have also become an important public health topic as evidence regarding their potential for early-life neurotoxicity is growing. In 233 mother child pairs from Cincinnati, OH, we measured concentrations of the OPE metabolites bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate (BCEP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), and di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) in the urine of pregnant women at 16 and 26 weeks gestation and at delivery. At age 8 years, we assessed children's cognition using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. In models adjusted for maternal race, income, body mass index, and IQ, maternal urinary BCEP was associated with a modest increase in child full-scale IQ (ß: 0.81 per a ln-unit BCEP increase; 95 % CI: 0.00, 1.61) while other OPEs were not associated with changes in full-scale IQ or any IQ subscales. Maternal serum PBDE concentrations did not confound the relationships between urinary OPE metabolites and child IQ. Using Bayesian kernel machine regression, we did not find that concentrations of a mixture of OPE metabolites during gestation was associated with any child cognition measures. The results of this study are not consistent with other published work, and a larger sample size would be beneficial to explore potential associations more fully. Therefore, additional studies are necessary to continue studying prenatal OPE exposure and child neurodevelopment and behavior.

11.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 88: 107022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies have raised concerns regarding the neurotoxic effects of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). However, observational evidence from human studies investigating the association between childhood PFAS and neurobehavior is limited and remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether childhood PFAS concentrations are associated with neurobehavior in children at age 8 years and whether child sex modifies this relationship. METHODS: We used data from 208 mother-child dyads in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort (Cincinnati, OH, USA). We quantified PFAS in child serum at 3 and 8 years. We assessed neurobehavioral domains using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 at 8 years. We used multiple informant models to estimate score changes per ln-increase in repeated PFAS concentrations. RESULTS: Childhood PFAS were not associated with Externalizing or Internalizing Problems at 8 years. However, we noted effect measure modification by sex, with higher scores in Externalizing Problems among males per ln-unit increase in perfluorononanoate (PFNA) at 3 years (ß = 4.3 points, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.7) while females had lower scores (ß = -2.8 points, 95% CI: -4.7, -1.0). More Internalizing Problems were observed among males per ln-unit increase in concurrent PFNA concentrations (ß = 3.7 points, 95% CI: 0.7, 6.8), but not in females (ß = -1.7 points, 95% CI: -4.6, 1.2). Childhood PFNA concentrations were associated with lower scores for attention problems and activity of daily living. CONCLUSION: While findings do not consistently support an association between childhood PFAS serum concentrations and neurobehavior, child sex may play a role in this relationship.

12.
Environ Int ; 156: 106747, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxicology studies have identified pregnancy as a window of susceptibility for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and cardiometabolic indices in women. No study in humans, however, has examined EDC mixtures and cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy. METHODS: We used the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study to examine whether bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and phthalates are associated with blood pressure, glucose, and lipids in 388 pregnant women. We measured PBDEs and PFAS in serum at 16 weeks gestation, while BPA and phthalate metabolites were quantified in urine at 16 and 26 weeks gestation. We used linear regression and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to estimate covariate-adjusted associations of individual EDCs and their mixtures with cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy. RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in BDE-28 was associated with a 13.1 mg/dL increase in glucose (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.9, 23.2) in linear regression. The BKMR model also identified BDE-28 as having a positive association with glucose. BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99 were positively associated with total cholesterol in both single- and multi-pollutant models, whereas a suggestive negative association was noted with BDE-153. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) (ß = -7.9 mg/dL, 95% CI -12.9, -3.0) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (ß = -6.3 mg/dL, 95% CI -10.6, -2.0) were both associated with significant decreases in cholesterol in linear regression, but only MBzP was identified as an important contributor in the BKMR model. CONCLUSION: Overall, we observed positive associations between PBDEs with glucose and cholesterol levels during pregnancy, while negative associations were found between some phthalate biomarkers and cholesterol. No relationship was noted for BPA or PFAS with cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy across both models.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Teorema de Bayes , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez
13.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(12): 1531-1541, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical examinations to characterize pubertal maturation may be unacceptable for children enrolled in research studies. Studies confirm the utility of pubertal self staging for research, but there has been limited comparison of self examination with hormone biomarkers. Our objective was to assess concordance of pubertal self staging with hormone biomarkers of puberty. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a longitudinal pregnancy and birth cohort study. At age 12 years, 139 females and 112 males completed pubertal self staging including breast and pubic hair development in females and pubic hair development in males. No clinical physical examination was performed. Hormone concentrations were measured in 102 females and 96 males including serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in all; estradiol in females; and testosterone in males. RESULTS: Estradiol was significantly associated with female breast stage, even when adjusted for BMI, with geometric least squares means (95%CI) of 13.2 (8.7, 20.2), 38.3 (29.9, 49.1), 59.4 (39.8, 88.6), and 81.2 (45.6, 144) pg/mL for breast stage 1-2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Testosterone was significantly associated with male pubic hair stage, with adjusted geometric least squares means (95%CI) of 37.6 (19.9, 71.1), 43.4 (27.7, 68.3), 126 (78.4, 203), 275 (146, 521), and 559 (237, 1319) ng/dL for pubic hair stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Self assessed pubertal development was positively associated with hormonal biomarkers of puberty.

14.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e159, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131620

RESUMO

Studying the effects of gestational exposures to chemical mixtures on infant birth weight is inconclusive due to several challenges. One of the challenges is which statistical methods to rely on. Bayesian factor analysis (BFA), which has not been utilized for chemical mixtures, has advantages in variance reduction and model interpretation. Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of 384 pregnant women and their newborns using urinary biomarkers of phthalates, phenols, and organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and serum biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). We examined the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and birth weight using BFA and compared with multiple linear regression (MLR) and Bayesian kernel regression models (BKMR). Results: For BFA, a 10-fold increase in the concentrations of PCB and PFAS mixtures was associated with an 81 g (95% confidence intervals [CI] = -132 to -31 g) and 57 g (95% CI = -105 to -10 g) reduction in birth weight, respectively. BKMR results confirmed the direction of effect. However, the 95% credible intervals all contained the null. For single-pollutant MLR, a 10-fold increases in the concentrations of multiple chemicals were associated with reduced birth weight, yet the 95% CI all contained the null. Variance inflation from MLR was apparent for models that adjusted for copollutants, resulting in less precise confidence intervals. Conclusion: We demonstrated the merits of BFA on mixture analysis in terms of precision and interpretation compared with MLR and BKMR. We also identified the association between exposure to PCBs and PFAS and lower birth weight.

15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1036-1045, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine associations of changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations from birth to age 12 years with adolescent adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Health Outcomes and Measures of Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective birth cohort (Cincinnati, Ohio; N = 166). METHODS: Adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed at age 12 years using anthropometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting serum biomarkers. Cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated by summing age- and sex- standardized z scores for individual cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: Most serum adipocytokine concentrations at birth were not associated with adiposity or cardiometabolic risk outcomes. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations at age 12 years were associated with all outcomes in the expected direction. Adolescents with increasing (ß: 4.2; 95% CI: 3.2 to 5.2) and stable (ß: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.2) leptin concentrations from birth to age 12 years had higher cardiometabolic risk scores than adolescents with decreasing concentrations (reference group). Adolescents with increasing (e.g., fat mass index = ß: -1.04; 95% CI: -1.27 to -0.80) and stable (ß: 0.66; 95% CI: -0.92 to -0.40) adiponectin/leptin ratios had more favorable adiposity outcomes than adolescents with decreasing ratios. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, changes in leptin concentrations and adiponectin/leptin ratios over childhood were associated with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk scores, indicating that adipocytokine concentrations are potential biomarkers for predicting excess adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in adolescence.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiposidade , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Adipocinas/análise , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
16.
Indian J Orthop ; 55(3): 695-701, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995875

RESUMO

Background: This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dual locking plate osteosynthesis for treating 3- or 4-part proximal humeral fractures combined with multiple fractures of the greater tuberosity. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2018, 19 skeletally mature patients, who suffered 3- or 4-part proximal humeral fractures combined with multiple fractures of the greater tuberosity, were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a dual locking plate technique through a delto-pectoral approach. Indexes for evaluation included fracture healing, quality of reduction, and incidence of complications (infections, screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, subacromial impingement, hardware failure, avascular necrosis, and loss of reduction). Shoulder function was evaluated using Constant-Murley scoring. Results: The patients were assessed at a mean time of 25.3 months after surgery. Union of fractures was radiographically confirmed for all 19 patients. The mean Constant-Murley patient score was 85.2 points, and complications were identified in two patients during follow-up evaluations. Conclusions: The method of using dual locking plate osteosynthesis through a delto-pectoral approach resulted in a satisfactory union rate, excellent fracture reduction, low complication rate and good shoulder function for patients with complex proximal humeral fractures. The method is effective for treating 3- or 4-part proximal humeral fractures combined with multiple fractures of the greater tuberosity.

17.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 269, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is controversy about the optimal strategy treatment of unstable distal clavicle fractures. We explored use of a surgical strategy: combination of a distal clavicle locking plate and a titanium cable. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of this new strategy in treating Neer type II distal clavicle fractures. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with Neer type II distal clavicle fracture were treated with a distal clavicle locking plate and a titanium cable. All patients were followed for at least one year. We retrospectively collected and reviewed follow-up data. The clinical outcomes were assessed for union rate, functional score, and complication rate. RESULTS: All patients achieved bony union within 6 months. The average follow-up period was 20.6 months (range12-48 months). The mean Constant score at one-year follow-up was 94.6 ± 3.3 (range 84-98), and the mean UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) score was 33.3 ± 2.6 (range 27-35). Only one complication (wound infection) was observed during follow-up. Two patients received another operation for implant removal due to local irritation. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a distal clavicle locking plate in combination with a titanium cable for treatment of Neer type II fractures results in high union rate, a low complication rate, and good shoulder function. This combined surgical strategy can be considered an effective method for treating unstable distal clavicle fractures.


Assuntos
Clavícula , Fraturas Ósseas , Placas Ósseas , Clavícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Clavícula/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Titânio , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Environ Res ; 197: 111027, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational exposure to chemical mixtures, which is prevalent among pregnant women, may be associated with adverse childhood neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined relations between gestational chemical mixture exposure and children's cognitive abilities. METHODS: In a cohort of 253 pregnant women and their children from Cincinnati, OH (enrolled 2003-2006), we quantified biomarker concentrations of 43 metals, phthalates, phenols, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, and environmental tobacco smoke in blood or urine. Using k-means clustering and principal component (PC) analysis, we characterized chemical mixtures among pregnant women. We assessed children's cognitive abilities using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV at ages 5 and 8 years, respectively. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in children's cognitive ability scores ]=cross clusters, and with increasing PC scores and individual biomarker concentrations. RESULTS: Geometric mean biomarker concentrations were generally highest, intermediate, and lowest among women in clusters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Children born to women in clusters 1 and 2 had 5.1 (95% CI: 9.4,-0.8) and 2.0 (95% CI: 5.5, 1,4) lower performance IQ scores compared to children in cluster 3, respectively. PC scores and individual chemical biomarker concentrations were not associated with cognitive abilities. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, combined prenatal exposure to phenols, certain phthalates, pesticides, and perfluoroalkyl substances was inversely associated with children's cognition, but some individual chemical biomarker concentrations were not. Additional studies should determine if the aggregate impact of these chemicals on cognition is different from their individual effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(9): 1803-1813, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779718

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social communication and stereotypic behaviors, affects 1%-2% of children. Although prenatal exposure to toxicants has been associated with autistic behaviors, most studies have been focused on shifts in mean behavior scores. We used Bayesian quantile regression to assess the associations between log2-transformed toxicant concentrations and autistic behaviors across the distribution of behaviors. We used data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals study, a pan-Canadian cohort (2008-2011). We measured metal, pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, phthalate, bisphenol-A, and triclosan concentrations in blood or urine samples collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. Using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), in which higher scores denote more autistic-like behaviors, autistic behaviors were assessed in 478 children aged 3-4 years old. Lead, cadmium, and most phthalate metabolites were associated with mild increases in SRS scores at the 90th percentile of the SRS distribution. Manganese and some pesticides were associated with mild decreases in SRS scores at the 90th percentile of the SRS distribution. We identified several monotonic trends in which associations increased in magnitude from the bottom to the top of the SRS distribution. These results suggest that quantile regression can reveal nuanced relationships and, thus, should be more widely used by epidemiologists.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Triclosan/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(9): 1793-1802, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778842

RESUMO

Production of organophosphate esters (OPEs), which represent a major flame-retardant class present in consumer goods, has increased over the past 2 decades. Experimental studies suggest that OPEs may be associated with thyroid hormone disruption, but few human studies have examined this association. We quantified OPE metabolites in the urine of 298 pregnant women from Cincinnati, Ohio, in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study (enrolled 2003-2006) at 3 time points (16 and 26 weeks' gestation, and at delivery), and thyroid hormones in 16-week maternal and newborn cord sera. Urinary bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)-phosphate concentrations were generally associated with decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in maternal and newborn thyroid hormones in quartile dose-response analyses and multiple informant models. There was weaker evidence for thyroid hormone alterations in association with diphenyl-phosphate and di-n-butyl-phosphate. Bis-2-chloroethyl-phosphate was not associated with alterations in thyroid hormones in any analyses. We did not observe any evidence of effect modification by infant sex. These results suggest that gestational exposure to some OPEs may influence maternal and neonatal thyroid function, although replication in other cohorts is needed.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido/sangue , Organofosfatos/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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