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1.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of radioresistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a significant problem in cancer treatment, contributing to the lack of improvement in survival trends in recent decades. Effective strategies to overcome radioresistance are necessary to improve the therapeutic outcomes of radiotherapy in OSCC patients. METHODS: Cells and xenograft tumors were irradiated using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform. AKT inhibitor capivasertib (AZD5363) was encapsulated into cathepsin B-responsible nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor-specific delivery. Cell viability was measured by alamarBlue, cell growth was determined by colony formation and 3D culture, and apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry with the staining of Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) Annexin V and PI. An orthotopic tongue tumor model was used to evaluate the in vivo therapeutic effects. The molecular changes induced by the treatments were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We show that upregulation of AKT signaling is the critical mechanism for radioresistance in OSCC cells, and AKT inactivation by a selective and potent AKT inhibitor capivasertib results in radiosensitivity. Moreover, relative to irradiation (IR) alone, IR combined with the delivery of capivasertib in association with tumor-seeking NPs greatly enhanced tumor cell repression in 3D cell cultures and OSCC tumor shrinkage in an orthotopic mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that capivasertib is a potent agent that sensitizes radioresistant OSCC cells to IR and is a promising strategy to overcome failure of radiotherapy in OSCC patients.

2.
FEBS Lett ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049361

RESUMO

Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) has been shown to participate in the regulation of endothelial cells (ECs), as well as local and systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we find that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of ADAR1 in lung ECs is impaired in aged mice, an animal model with high rates of sepsis and mortality. Endothelial cell-specific ADAR1 knockout (ADAR1ECKO ) mice suffer from higher mortality rates, aggravated lung injury, and increased vascular permeability under LPS challenge. In primary ADAR1 knockout ECs, expression of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), a downstream effector of ADAR1, is significantly elevated. MDA5 knockout completely rescues the postnatal offspring death of ADAR1ECKO mice. However, there is no reduction in mortality or apoptosis in lung cells of ADAR1ECKO /MDA5-/- mice challenged with LPS, indicating the involvement of an MDA5-independent mechanism in this process.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The inflammation of glomerular endothelial cells induces and promotes the activation of macrophages and contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the gene regulatory effect and potential role of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in inflammatory response in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: The plasma PKM2 levels of patients with diabetes were evaluated. Eight-week-old mice were divided into three groups (WT, db/db mice, and db/db mice treated with TEPP-46) and raised for 12 weeks. Blood and kidney samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Endothelial cells were stimulated with high glucose with or without TEPP-46. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), phospho-PKM2, PKM2, phospho-STAT3, STAT3, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), and phospho-NF-kB in vivo and in vitro were determined using Western blot. The activation of macrophages (CD68+CD86+) in the glomeruli was assessed via fluorescent double staining. Moreover, immune endothelial adhesion experiments were performed. RESULTS: The plasma PKM2 levels of patients with type 2 diabetes increased. P-PKM2 was up-regulated in vivo and in vitro. TEPP-46 decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and ICAM-1 expression in vivo and in vitro and inhibited the differentiation of macrophages to M1 cells in db/db mice with diabetic nephropathy. PKM2 regulated the phosphorylation of STAT3 and NF-kB. Furthermore, high glucose levels induced the transition from tetramer to dimer and the nuclear translocation of PKM2. CONCLUSION: The gene regulatory effect of PKM2 is involved in renal inflammation in type 2 diabetic nephropathy by promoting the phosphorylation of STAT3 and NF-kB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Thus, the down-regulation of phosphorylated PKM2 may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting renal inflammation.

4.
Chest ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is commonly used to evaluate suspicious lung lesions. The yield is likely dependent on patient, radiographic, and bronchoscopic factors. Few studies have assessed these factors simultaneously while also including the preprocedure physician-assessed probability of cancer (pCA) when assessing yield. METHODS: This study is a secondary data analysis from a prospective multicenter trial. Diagnostic yield of standard bronchoscopy with biopsy ± fluoroscopy, endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), electromagnetic navigation, and combination bronchoscopies was assessed. Definitions for diagnostic and nondiagnostic bronchoscopies were rigorously predefined. The association of diagnostic yield with individual variables was examined by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 687 patients were included from 28 sites. Overall diagnostic yield was 69%; 80% for EBUS, 55% for bronchoscopy with biopsy ± fluoroscopy, 57% for electromagnetic navigation, and 74% for combination procedures (P < .001). Patients with larger, central lesions with adenopathy were significantly more likely to undergo a diagnostic bronchoscopy. Patients with pCA < 10% and 10% to 60% had lower yields (44% and 42%, respectively), whereas pCA > 60% yielded a positive result in 77% (P < .001). In multivariate logistic regression, the use of EBUS-TBNA, larger sized lesions, and central location were significantly associated with a diagnostic bronchoscopy. Seventeen percent of those with a malignant diagnosis and 28% of those with a benign diagnosis required secondary procedures to establish a diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to assess the yield of bronchoscopy according to physician-assessed pCA in a large, prospective multicenter trial. The yield of bronchoscopy varied greatly according to physician suspicion that cancer is present, the patients' clinical/radiographic features, and the type of procedure performed. Of the procedures performed, EBUS-TBNA was the most likely to provide a diagnosis.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(2): 328-340, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following protein replacement therapy, one-third of severe hemophilia A patients develop antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII), which also hinders the efficacy of gene therapy. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a naturally suppressive function that potentially reduces the immune response to FVIII therapy. Furthermore, antigen-specific Tregs are functionally much more potent than polyclonal cells. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific Tregs can effectively suppress anti-FVIII antibody responses. OBJECTIVE: Develop a clinically feasible protocol to enrich and expand Tregs specific to FVIII for suppressing anti-FVIII immune responses. METHODS: Regulatory T cells are isolated from FVIII-sensitized mice, sorted on CD25high markers, and expanded specifically with FVIII, antigen-presenting cells, and interleukin 2 (IL 2). Subsequently, Tregs are further cultured with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 beads, anti-Crry antibodies, and IL 2 to achieve 10-fold to 20-fold expansion. Expanded Tregs are characterized and tested for their suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro FVIII-specific suppressive assays indicate that FVIII specifically expanded Tregs are more suppressive than non-specifically expanded and naive Tregs. Adoptive transfer of expanded Tregs into HemA mice showed that FVIII-specifically expanded Tregs are significantly more potent in suppressing anti-FVIII immune responses in FVIII plasmid-treated HemA mice. Moreover, the FVIII-specific immune tolerance is maintained after a secondary challenge with FVIII plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the FVIII-specific sensitization and expansion protocol yields more potent Tregs to suppress anti-FVIII antibody responses and induce long-term tolerance to FVIII, increasing the potential for adoptive Treg cell therapy to modulate anti-FVIII immune responses.

7.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The capability of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary nodules (PPNs) remains limited. Despite decades of effort, evidence suggests that the diagnostic accuracy for electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (EMN) and radial endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) approach only 50%. New developments in robotic bronchoscopy (RB) may offer improvements in the assessment of PPNs. METHODS: A prospective single-blinded randomized controlled comparative study to assess success in localization and puncture of PPNs, using an ultrathin bronchoscope with radial EBUS (UTB-rEBUS) vs EMN vs RB in a human cadaver model of PPNs < 2 cm, was performed. The primary end point was the ability to successfully localize and puncture the target nodule, verified by cone-beam CT comparing RB and EMN. Secondary end points included needle to target position "miss" distance, and UTB-rEBUS comparisons. RESULTS: Sixty procedures were performed to target 20 PPNs over the study period. Implanted PPNs were distributed across all lobes, with 80% located within the lung periphery. The target PPN mean diameter was 16.5 ± 1.5 mm, with 50% noted to have a CT bronchus sign. The rate of successful PPN localization and puncture was superior when using RB, compared with EMN (80% vs 45%; P = .02). Among unsuccessful needle passes, the median needle to target "miss" distance was significantly different when comparing UTB-rEBUS, EMN, and RB (P = .0014). CONCLUSIONS: In a cadaver model, use of RB significantly increased the ability to localize and successfully puncture small PPNs when compared with existing technologies. This study demonstrates the potential of RB to precisely reach, localize, and puncture small nodules in the periphery of the lung.

8.
Nature ; 574(7780): 696-701, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645760

RESUMO

The ability of the immune system to eliminate and shape the immunogenicity of tumours defines the process of cancer immunoediting1. Immunotherapies such as those that target immune checkpoint molecules can be used to augment immune-mediated elimination of tumours and have resulted in durable responses in patients with cancer that did not respond to previous treatments. However, only a subset of patients benefit from immunotherapy and more knowledge about what is required for successful treatment is needed2-4. Although the role of tumour neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour rejection is well established5-9, the roles of other subsets of T cells have received less attention. Here we show that spontaneous and immunotherapy-induced anti-tumour responses require the activity of both tumour-antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, even in tumours that do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In addition, the expression of MHC class II-restricted antigens by tumour cells is required at the site of successful rejection, indicating that activation of CD4+ T cells must also occur in the tumour microenvironment. These findings suggest that MHC class II-restricted neoantigens have a key function in the anti-tumour response that is nonoverlapping with that of MHC class I-restricted neoantigens and therefore needs to be considered when identifying patients who will most benefit from immunotherapy.

9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(11): 2387-2392, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Polypharmacy is associated with delirium, but the mechanisms for this connection are unclear. Our goal was to determine the frequency of supratherapeutic psychotropic drug levels (SPDLs) in older hospitalized patients and if it is associated with the duration of emergency department (ED) delirium. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: ED patients 65 years or older who were admitted to the hospital. MEASUREMENTS: Delirium was assessed in the ED and during the first 7 days of hospitalization using the modified Brief Confusion Assessment Method. Drug concentrations were determined in serum samples collected at enrollment via a novel platform based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry capable of identifying and quantitating 78 clinically approved medications including opioids, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and amphetamines. Patients with serum psychotropic drug concentrations above established reference ranges were considered supratherapeutic and have a SPDL. We performed proportional odds logistic regression to determine if SPDLs were associated with ED delirium duration adjusted for confounders. Medical record review was performed to determine if the doses of medications associated with SPDLs were adjusted at hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients were enrolled; of these, 66 were delirious in the ED. SPDLs were present in 11 (17%) of the delirious and 4 (4%) of the non-delirious ED patients. SPDLs were significantly associated with longer ED delirium duration (adjusted proportional odds ratio = 6.0; 95% confidence interval = 2.1-17.3) after adjusting for confounders. Of the 15 medications associated with SPDLs, 9 (60%) were prescribed at the same or higher doses at the time of hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: SPDLs significantly increased the odds of prolonged ED delirium episodes. Approximately half of the medications associated with SPDLs were continued after hospital discharge at the same or higher doses. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2387-2392, 2019.

10.
J Infect ; 79(5): 426-434, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NmB) vaccines are licensed in the United States. To estimate their potential coverage, we examined the vaccine antigen diversity among meningococcal isolates prior to vaccine licensure. METHODS: NmB vaccine antigen genes of invasive isolates collected in the U.S. from 2009 to 2014 were characterized by Sanger or whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: During 2009-2014, the predominant antigen types have remained similar to those reported in 2000-2008 for NmB and 2006-2008 for NmC, NmY, with the emergence of a few new types. FHbp of subfamily B or variant 1 (B/v1) remained prevalent among NmB whereas FHbp of subfamily A or variant 2 and 3 (A/v2-3) were more prevalent among non-NmB. FHbp peptide 1 (B24/1.1) remains the most prevalent type in NmB. Full-length NadA peptide was detected in 26% of isolates, primarily in NmB and NmW. The greatest diversity of NhbA peptides was detected among NmB, with p0005 as the most prevalent type. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and diversity of the NmB vaccine antigens have remained stable with common antigen types persisting over time. The data collected prior to NmB vaccine licensure provide the baseline to understand the potential impact of NmB vaccines on antigen diversity and strain coverage.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446068

RESUMO

Freshwater (FW) fishes inhabit dilute environments and must actively absorb ions in order to counteract diffusive salt loss. Neuroendocrine control of ion uptake in FW fishes is an important feature of ion homeostasis and several important neuroendocrine factors have been identified. The role of serotonin (5-HT), however, has received less attention despite several studies pointing to a role for 5-HT in the control of ion balance. Here, we used a gene knockout approach to elucidate the role of 5-HT in regulating Na+ and Ca2+ uptake rates in larval zebrafish. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting step in 5-HT synthesis and we therefore hypothesized that ion uptake rates would be altered in zebrafish larvae carrying knockout mutations in tph genes. We first examined the effect of tph1b knockout (KO) and found that tph1bKO larvae, obtained from Harvard University, had reduced rates of Na+ and Ca2+ uptake compared to wild-type (WT) larvae from our institution (uOttawa WT), lending support to our hypothesis. However, further experiments controlling for differences in genetic background demonstrated that WT larvae from Harvard University (Harvard WT) had lower ion uptake rates than those of uOttawa WT, and that ion uptake rate between Harvard WT and tph1bKO larvae were not significantly different. Therefore, our initial observation that tph1bKO larvae (Harvard source) had reduced ion uptake rates relative to uOttawa WT was a function of genetic background and not of knockout itself. These data provide a cautionary tale of the importance of controlling for genetic background in gene knockout experiments.

12.
ACS Infect Dis ; 5(9): 1570-1580, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268295

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is lined with a layer of viscoelastic mucus gel, characterized by a dense network of entangled and cross-linked mucins together with an abundance of antibodies (Ab). Secretory IgA (sIgA), the predominant Ab isotype in the GI tract, is a dimeric molecule with 4 antigen-binding domains capable of inducing efficient clumping of bacteria, or agglutination. IgG, another common Ab at mucosal surfaces, can cross-link individual viruses to the mucin mesh through multiple weak bonds between IgG-Fc and mucins, a process termed muco-trapping. Relative contributions by agglutination versus muco-trapping in blocking permeation of motile bacteria through mucus remain poorly understood. Here, we developed a mathematical model that takes into account physiologically relevant spatial dimensions and time scales, binding and unbinding rates between Ab and bacteria as well as between Ab and mucins, the diffusivities of Ab, and run-tumble motion of active bacteria. Our model predicts both sIgA and IgG can accumulate on the surface of individual bacteria at sufficient quantities and rates to enable trapping individual bacteria in mucins before they penetrate the mucus layer. Furthermore, our model predicts that agglutination only modestly improves the ability for antibodies to block bacteria permeation through mucus. These results suggest that while sIgA is the most potent Ab isotype overall at stopping bacterial penetration, IgG may represent a practical alternative for mucosal prophylaxis and therapy. Our work improves the mechanistic understanding of Ab-enhanced barrier properties of mucus and highlights the ability for muco-trapping Ab to protect against motile pathogens at mucosal surfaces.

13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(12): 1513-1522, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253938

RESUMO

Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) cause great morbidity and mortality worldwide, necessitating effective treatment. Salvianic acid A sodium (SAAS) is an active compound derived from the well-known herbal medicine Danshen, which has been widely used for clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. This study aimed to confirm the cardioprotective effects of SAAS in rats with myocardial infarction and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms based on proteome and transcriptome profiling of myocardial tissue. The results showed that SAAS effectively protected against myocardial injury and improved cardiac function. The differentially expressed proteins and genes included important structural molecules, receptors, transcription factors, and cofactors. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that SAAS participated in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, phagosome, focal adhesion, tight junction, apoptosis, MAPK signaling, and Wnt signaling pathways, which are closely related to cardiovascular diseases. SAAS may exert its cardioprotective effect by targeting multiple pathways at both the proteome and transcriptome levels. This study has provided not only new insights into the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction but also a road map of the cardioprotective molecular mechanisms of SAAS, which may provide pharmacological evidence to aid in its clinical application.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(7): 4611-4626, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104361

RESUMO

It is well-established that homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Hcy can promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, it plays a key role in neointimal formation and thus contribute to arteriosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism on VSMCs proliferation underlying atherosclerosis is not well elucidated. Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) is an important transmembrane GTPase in the mitochondrial outer membrane and it can block cells in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle. To investigate the contribution of aberrant MFN2 transcription in Hcy-induced VSMCs proliferation and the underlying mechanisms. Cell cycle analysis revealed a decreased proportion of VSMCs in G0/G1 and an increased proportion in S phase in atherosclerotic plaque of APOE-/- mice with hyperhomocystinaemia (HHcy) as well as in VSMCs exposed to Hcy in vitro. The DNA methylation level of MFN2 promoter was obviously increased in VSMCs treated with Hcy, leading to suppressed promoter activity and low expression of MFN2. In addition, we found that the expression of c-Myc was increased in atherosclerotic plaque and VSMCs treated with Hcy. Further study showed that c-Myc indirectly regulates MFN2 expression is duo to the binding of c-Myc to DNMT1 promoter up-regulates DNMT1 expression leading to DNA hypermethylation of MFN2 promoter, thereby inhibits MFN2 expression in VSMCs treated with Hcy. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Hcy-induced hypermethylation of MFN2 promoter inhibits the transcription of MFN2, leading to VSMCs proliferation in plaque formation, and the increased binding of c-Myc to DNMT1 promoter is a new and relevant molecular mechanism.

15.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 32(3): 318-328, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving uptake of colorectal cancer screening has the potential of saving thousands of lives. We compared the effectiveness of automated and live prompts and reminders as part of a mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach program. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1767 adults aged 50 to 75 eyars who were not up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening recommendations at a participating community health center clinic. In addition to a mailed FIT kit, participants were randomized to receive (1) a text message prompt and 2 automated phone call reminders (automated condition); (2) up to 3 live call reminders (live condition); or (3) a text message prompt, 2 automated call reminders, and up to 3 live reminders (combined automated plus live condition). We assessed FIT completion rates in each group 6 months following randomization. KEY RESULTS: Nearly one-third of participants completed an FIT within 6 months. Compared with adults allocated to the automated condition, FIT completion rates were higher in adults allocated to the live condition (32.3% vs 26.0%; adjusted difference, 6.3 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and in adults allocated to the combined automated plus live condition (35.7% vs 26.0%; adjusted difference, 9.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 4.4-14.9). The number of kits needed to mail to achieve a completed FIT ranged from 2.8 in the combined automated plus live condition to 3.8 in the automated condition. CONCLUSIONS: Among unscreened individuals in this population, live phone call reminders either alone or in combination with automated prompts and reminders outperformed automated approaches alone.

16.
Mol Omics ; 15(4): 271-279, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099812

RESUMO

Salvianic acid A sodium (SAAS), derived from a well-known herbal medicine Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), is a new drug involved in phase I clinical trials in China for the treatment of coronary heart disease and stable angina pectoris. However, the direct binding protein(s) of SAAS are not understood and the broader cardioprotective effects as well as the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation to investigate the cardioprotective effect of SAAS against myocardial infarction (MI). Moreover, a human proteome microarray was used to identify the direct binding proteins of SAAS, which was further verified by metabolomic profiling of rat serum after MI using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) based approach. Our results demonstrated that SAAS significantly improved cardiac function and protected against MI-induced injury. In total, 370 proteins were identified to specifically bind SAAS and strikingly enriched in metabolic pathways. Rat serum metabolomic profiling identified 26 potential biomarkers including various glycerophospholipids (GPLs) and an array of fatty acids. Metabolic pathway analysis found increased phospholipid catabolism, sphingolipid metabolism and linoleic acid metabolism, decreased tryptophan metabolism, and impaired glycerophospholipid metabolism and primary bile acid biosynthesis in MI animals, while SAAS remarkably reversed these metabolic changes. SAAS may protect against myocardial infarction in rats by reversing multiple metabolic changes-induced by MI injury. Our findings will shed light on the cardioprotective mechanism of SAAS and aid its clinical use. Moreover, the SAAS-binding proteins identified by the proteome microarray are expected to be a valuable resource for its greater development.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lactatos/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 135, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999892

RESUMO

AIMS: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that regulates sphingosine-1-phosphate-triggered cellular response. However, the role of S1PR2 in diabetes-induced glomerular endothelial cell dysfunction remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect of S1PR2 blockade on the morphology and function of mitochondria in human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs). METHODS: HRGECs were pretreated with a S1PR2 antagonist (JTE-013) or a Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitor (Y27632) for 30 min and then cultured with normal glucose (5.5 mM) or high glucose (30 mM) for 72 h. The protein expression levels of RhoA, ROCK1, and Dynmin-related protein-1(Drp1) were evaluated by immunoblotting; mitochondrial morphology was observed by electron microscopy; intracellular levels of ATP, ROS, and Ca2+ were measured by ATPlite, DCF-DA, and Rhod-2 AM assays, respectively. Additionally, the permeability, apoptosis, and migration of cells were determined to evaluate the effects of S1PR2 and ROCK1 inhibition on high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction. RESULTS: High glucose induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction, indicated by increased mitochondrial fragmentation, ROS generation, and calcium overload but decreased ATP production. High glucose also induced endothelial cell dysfunction, indicated by increased permeability and apoptosis but decreased migration. However, inhibition of either S1PR2 or ROCK1 almost completely blocked these high glucose-mediated cellular responses. Furthermore, inhibiting S1PR2 resulted in the deceased expression of RhoA, ROCK1, and Drp1 while inhibiting ROCK1 led to the downregulated expression of Drp1. CONCLUSIONS: S1PR2 antagonist modulates the morphology and function of mitochondria in HRGECs via the positive regulation of the RhoA/ROCK1/Drp1 signaling pathway, suggesting that the S1PR2/ROCK1 pathway may play a crucial role in high glucose milieu.

18.
Brain Behav ; 9(4): e01238, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common clinical complication, with an underlying pathophysiology linked to heightened levels of neuroinflammation. However, it requires clarification as to whether the depth of anesthesia modulates postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated the association between depth of anesthesia and POCD in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery. METHODS: A total of 120 patients aged 60 years or older who were planned for abdominal surgery under total intravenous anesthesia were included in this study. The depth of anesthesia was guided by monitoring Bispectral Index (BIS) data. All study participants completed a battery of nine neuropsychological tests before surgery and at 7 days and 3 months after surgery. POCD was calculated by using the reliable change index. Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-10, S-100ß, and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. RESULTS: The incidence of POCD at 7 days after surgery in the deep anesthesia group was 19.2% (10/52), which was significantly lower (p = 0.032) than the light anesthesia group 39.6% (21/53). The depth of anesthesia had no effect on POCD at 3 months after surgery (10.3% vs 14.6%, respectively, p = 0.558). Similarly, plasma levels of CRP and IL-1ß in deep anesthesia group were lower than that in light anesthesia group at 7 days after surgery (p < 0.05), but not at 3 months after surgery (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the plasma concentration of IL-10, S-100ß, and NE between the groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Deep anesthesia under total intravenous anesthesia could decrease the occurrence of short-term POCD and inhibit postoperative peripheral inflammation in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery, compared with light anesthesia.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neurite (Inflamação)/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anestésicos Combinados , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Período Pós-Operatório , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/metabolismo
19.
Regen Biomater ; 6(1): 39-48, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740241

RESUMO

A portable device was designed and constructed for studying the properties of biomaterials in physiologically relevant fluids under controllable flow conditions that closely simulate fluid flow inside the body. The device can fit entirely inside a cell incubator; and, thus, it can be used directly under standard cell culture conditions. An impedance-driven pump was built in the sterile flow loop to control the flow rates of fluids, which made the device small and portable for easy deployment in the incubator. To demonstrate the device functions, magnesium (Mg) as a representative biodegradable material was tested in the flow device for immersion degradation under flow versus static conditions, while the flow module was placed inside a standard cell incubator. The flow rate was controlled at 0.17 ± 0.06 ml/s for this study; and, the flow rate is adjustable through the controller module outside of incubators for simulating the flow rates in the ranges of blood flow in human artery (0.05 ∼0.43 ml/s) and vein (0.02 ∼0.08 ml/s). Degradation of Mg under flow versus static conditions was characterized by measuring the changes of sample mass and thickness, and Mg2+ ion concentrations in the immersion media. Surface chemistry and morphology of Mg after immersion under flow versus static conditions were compared. The portable impedance-driven flow device is easy to fit inside an incubator and much smaller than a peristaltic pump, providing a valuable solution for studying biomaterials and implants (e.g. vascular or ureteral stents) in body fluids under flow versus static conditions with or without cells.

20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 316(5): H1039-H1046, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767669

RESUMO

Endothelial inflammation plays an important role in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-associated vascular diseases. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a pro-inflammatory danger molecule produced by endothelial cells. However, whether HMGB1 is involved in vascular endothelial inflammation of HHcy is poorly understood. Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) mediates inflammatory response and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway that has been reported to be involved in regulation of HMGB1. The aim of this study was to determine the alteration of HMGB1 in HHcy, and the role of NRP1 in regulation of endothelial HMGB1 under high homocysteine (Hcy) condition. In the present study, we first observed that the plasma level of HMGB1 was elevated in HHcy patients and an experimental rat model, and increased HMGB1 was also observed in the thoracic aorta of an HHcy rat model. HMGB1 was induced by Hcy accompanied with upregulated NRP1 in vascular endothelial cells. Overexpression of NRP1 promoted expression and secretion of HMGB1 and endothelial inflammation; knockdown of NRP1 inhibited HMGB1 and endothelial inflammation induced by Hcy, which partially regulated through p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, NRP1 inhibitor ATWLPPR reduced plasma HMGB1 level and expression of HMGB1 in the thoracic aorta of HHcy rats. In conclusion, our data suggested that Hcy requires NRP1 to regulate expression and secretion of HMGB1. The present study provides the evidence for inhibition of NRP1 and HMGB1 to be the novel therapeutic targets of vascular endothelial inflammation in HHcy in the future. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows for the first time to our knowledge that the plasma level of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is elevated in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) patients, and homocysteine promotes expression and secretion of HMGB1 partially regulated by neuropilin-1 in endothelial cells, which is involved in endothelial inflammation. Most importantly, these new findings will provide a potential therapeutic strategy for vascular endothelial inflammation in HHcy.

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