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1.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1192-1204, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571602

RESUMO

In 2009, China launched a major health-care reform and pledged to provide all citizens with equal access to basic health care with reasonable quality and financial risk protection. The government has since quadrupled its funding for health. The reform's first phase (2009-11) emphasised expanding social health insurance coverage for all and strengthening infrastructure. The second phase (2012 onwards) prioritised reforming its health-care delivery system through: (1) systemic reform of public hospitals by removing mark-up for drug sales, adjusting fee schedules, and reforming provider payment and governance structures; and (2) overhaul of its hospital-centric and treatment-based delivery system. In the past 10 years, China has made substantial progress in improving equal access to care and enhancing financial protection, especially for people of a lower socioeconomic status. However, gaps remain in quality of care, control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), efficiency in delivery, control of health expenditures, and public satisfaction. To meet the needs of China's ageing population that is facing an increased NCD burden, we recommend leveraging strategic purchasing, information technology, and local pilots to build a primary health-care (PHC)-based integrated delivery system by aligning the incentives and governance of hospitals and PHC systems, improving the quality of PHC providers, and educating the public on the value of prevention and health maintenance.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , China , Educação em Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia
2.
Cancer ; 125(15): 2631-2637, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions for operative or nonoperative management remain challenging for patients with spinal metastases, especially when life expectancy and quality of life are not easily predicted. This study evaluated the effects of operative and nonoperative management on maintenance of ambulatory function and survival for patients treated for spinal metastases. METHODS: Propensity matching was used to yield an analytic sample in which operatively and nonoperatively treated patients were similar with respect to key baseline covariates. The study included patients treated for spinal metastases between 2005 and 2017 who were 40 to 80 years old, were independent ambulators at presentation, and had fewer than 5 medical comorbidities. It evaluated the influence of operative care and nonoperative care on ambulatory function 6 months after presentation as the primary outcome. Survival at 6 months and survival at 1 year were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-nine individuals eligible for inclusion were identified, with 402 (201 operative patients and 201 nonoperative patients) retained after propensity score matching. Patients treated operatively had a lower likelihood than those treated nonoperatively of being nonambulatory 6 months after presentation (3% vs 16%; relative risk [RR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.46) as well as a reduced risk of 6-month mortality (20% vs 29%; RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that in a group of patients with similar demographic and clinical characteristics, those treated operatively were less likely to lose ambulatory function 6 months after presentation than those managed nonoperatively. For patients with spinal metastases, our data can be incorporated into discussions about the treatments that align best with patients' preferences regarding surgical risk, mortality, and ambulatory status.

3.
Spine J ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the treatment of spinal metastases the risks of surgery must be balanced against potential benefits, particularly in light of limited life-expectancy. Patient experiences and preferences regarding decision-making in this context are not well explored. PURPOSE: We performed a qualitative study involving patients receiving treatment for spinal metastatic disease. We sought to understand factors that influenced decision-making around care for spinal metastases. STUDY SETTING: Three tertiary academic medical centers. PATIENT SAMPLE: We recruited patients presenting for treatment of spinal metastatic disease at one of three tertiary centers in Boston, MA. OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted semistructured interviews using a guide that probed participants' experiences with making treatment decisions. METHODS: We performed a thematic analysis that produced a list of themes, subthemes, and statement explaining how the themes related to the study's guiding questions. Patients were recruited until thematic saturation was reached. RESULTS: We interviewed 23 participants before reaching thematic saturation. The enormity of treatment decisions, and of the diagnosis of spinal metastases itself, shaped participant preferences for who should take responsibility for the decision and whether to accept treatments bearing greater risk of complications. Pre-existing participant beliefs about decision-making and about surgery interacted with the clinical context in a way that tended to promote accepting physician recommendations and delaying or avoiding surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of spinal metastatic disease played an outsized role in shaping participant preferences for agency in treatment decision-making. Further research should address strategies to support patient understanding of treatment options in clinical contexts-such as spinal metastases-characterized by ominous underlying disease and high-risk, often urgent interventions.

4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 19(1): 429, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meniscal tears often accompany knee osteoarthritis, a disabling condition affecting 14 million individuals in the United States. While several randomized controlled trials have compared physical therapy to surgery for individuals with knee pain, meniscal tear, and osteoarthritic changes (determined via radiographs or magnetic resonance imaging), no trial has evaluated the efficacy of physical therapy alone in these subjects. METHODS: The Treatment of Meniscal Tear in Osteoarthritis (TeMPO) Trial is a four-arm multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial designed to establish the comparative efficacy of two in-clinic physical therapy interventions (one focused on strengthening and one containing placebo) and two protocolized home exercise programs. DISCUSSION: The goal of this paper is to present the rationale behind TeMPO and describe the study design and implementation strategies, focusing on methodologic and clinical challenges. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The TeMPO Trial was first registered at clinicaltrials.gov with registration No. NCT03059004 . on February 14, 2017.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Lesões do Menisco Tibial/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos
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