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1.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115204, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745991

RESUMO

A major health scandal involving DEHP-tainted (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan in 2011. We investigated temporal relationships between urinary DEHP metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in two cohorts of potentially affected children during that food scandal. One cohort was collected from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital in southern Taiwan between May and June of 2011 (the KMUH cohort). This cohort was followed up at 2, 6, and 44 months. The other cohort was collected from a nationwide health survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (the NHRI cohort) for potentially affected people between August 2012 and January 2013. Both cohorts only included children 10 years old and younger who had provided enough urine for analysis of urinary DEHP oxidative metabolites and two markers of oxidative stress: 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The KMUH cohort had a simultaneous and significant decrease in urinary DEHP metabolites, 8-OHdG, and MDA, with the lowest concentrations found at the 6-month follow up and maintained until the 44-month follow up, consistent with those from NHRI cohort at ∼15-18 months post-scandal (p > 0.05). There were decreases in both DEHP metabolites and oxidative stress markers across the populations, but no association was observed between DEHP metabolites and oxidative stress markers in individuals in the two cohorts. Continued follow-up is needed to determine long-term health consequences in these children.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Biomarcadores , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Taiwan
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139833, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526583

RESUMO

The present study assessed the association between phthalate exposure and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLG) methylation along with the potential effect on the characteristics of body fat in children. A total of 152 children were enrolled. The urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat, and bisulfite-treated DNA was subjected to a pyrosequencing assay. In total, 17 CpG sites in the exon 2 region of POLG were included in the analysis. A multivariable regression model was applied to determine whether characteristics of body fat were associated with phthalate exposure and methylation of POLG. After adjustment for covariates, male children with a ten-fold increase in mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) or mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations had significantly higher measurements for total body fat (MMP: ß = 6.47%; MBzP: ß = 3.54%), and trunk fat (MMP: ß = 6.67%; MBzP: ß = 3.90%). Male children who had hypermethylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG also had high measurements for BMI (ß = 1.66 kg/m2), waist (ß = 4.49 cm) and hip (ß = 4.81 cm) circumference, total body fat (ß = 5.48%), and trunk fat (ß = 6.21%). A dose-response relationship existed between methylation at the 2nd CpG site in exon 2 of POLG and characteristics of body fat (p for trend<0.01). This study suggested that male children who are exposed to phthalic acid esters have high body weight, BMI, and body and trunk fat percentages. Methylation of the exon 2 region of POLG is a possible mechanism behind the causal effect of endocrine-disrupting substances.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(2): 415-427, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987713

RESUMO

The unintentional ingestion of toxic compounds in herbs is not uncommon in many parts of the world. To provide timely and life-saving care in the emergency department, it is essential to develop a point-of-care analytical method that can rapidly identify these toxins in herbs. Since electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (ELDI/MS) has been successfully used to characterize non-volatile chemical compounds without sample preparation, it was used to identify toxic herbal compounds in this study. The herbal toxins were collected either by sweeping a metallic probe across the surface of a freshly cut herb section or by directly sampling extracts of ground herbal powder. The analytes on the probe were then desorbed, ionized and detected using ELDI/MS, wherein analysis of the herbal toxins was completed within 30 s. This approach allows for the rapid morphological recognition of herbs and early point-of-care identification of herbal toxins for emergency management and is promising in providing important toxicological information to ensure appropriate medical treatment.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Aconitina/análise , Flavanonas/análise , Humanos , Piridoxina/análogos & derivados , Piridoxina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
4.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(2): 439-450, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987715

RESUMO

In this study the recently developed technique of thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (TD-ESI/MS) was applied to the rapid analysis of multiple controlled substances. With the reallocation of mass spectral resources [from a standard ESI source coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) to an ambient TD-ESI source], this direct-analysis technique allows the identification of a wider range of illicit drugs through a dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening/conventional quantitative confirmation). Through 60-MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) analysis-in which the MS/MS process was programmed to sequentially scan 60 precursor ion/product ion transitions and, thereby, identify 30 compounds (two precursor/product ion transitions per compound)-of a four-component (drug) standard, the signal intensity ratios of each drug transition were comparable with those obtained through 8-MRM analysis, demonstrating the selectivity of TD-ESI/MS for the detection of multiple drugs. The consecutive analyses of tablets containing different active components occurred with no cross-contamination or interference from sample to sample, demonstrating the reliability of the TD-ESI/MS technique for rapid sampling (two samples min-1). The active ingredients in seized drug materials could be detected even when they represented less than 2 mg g-1 of the total sample weight, demonstrating the sensitivity of TD-ESI/MS. Combining the ability to rapidly identify multiple drugs with the "plug-and-play" design of the interchangeable ion source, TD-ESI/MS has great potential for use as a pretreatment-free qualitative screening tool for laboratories currently using LC-MS/MS techniques to analyze illicit drugs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
5.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(2): 451-459, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987716

RESUMO

Foods and drinks have been adulterated with illicit drugs to facilitate criminal activities. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods are incapable of rapidly characterizing these drugs in samples, as serious interferences from sample matrices must be removed through tedious and time-consuming pretreatment. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry (AMS) generally does not require sample pretreatment and is thus a suitable tool for directly and rapidly detecting illicit drugs in samples in different physical states. In this study, thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD-ESI/MS), an AMS technique, was utilized to efficiently characterize illicit drugs spiked in samples including drinks, powders, and jelly candies. To perform sensitive analysis, the mass analyzer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode to monitor the molecular and fragment ions of the target analytes. The time required to complete a typical TD-ESI/MS analysis was less than 30 s. The limits of detection (LODs) for illicit drugs were found to be 100 ppb in drinks, 100-1000 ppb in instant powders, and 1.3-6.5 ng/mm2 on stamp surfaces. FM2 and nitrazepam laced in the inner layer of a jelly candy were detected by TD-ESI/MS, showcasing the advantage of the technique for direct and rapid analysis as opposed to conventional methods.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Adulto , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
6.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(2): 510-517, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987722

RESUMO

Vitamin D has been considered to regulate calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and to preserve skeletal integrity. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the best indicator of vitamin D levels. The association of serum 25(OH)D deficiency with increased risk of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is controversial. We investigated serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 levels in diabetes patients by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 levels were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray ionization positive mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of methanol. The total 25(OH)D levels were calculated as the sum of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 levels. A total of 56 patients with T1DM and 41 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. There were 42 and 28 non-diabetic, age-matched volunteers who participated as the T1DM controls and the T2DM controls, respectively. The total 25(OH)D levels were lowest in the 21-40 age group. The levels of both 25(OH)D3 and the total 25(OH)D were significantly higher in the T1DM and T2DM groups than in the controls (p < 0.01 in T1DM and p < 0.05 in T2DM group, respectively). The 25(OH)D2 levels were only significantly higher in T1DM patients than in the controls. The percentages of vitamin D deficiency (total 25(OH)D less than 20 ng/mL) in the T1DM, T2DM, the T1DM controls and the T2DM controls were 7.1%, 0%, 14.3% and 3.6%, respectively. The percentages of vitamin D insufficiency (total 25(OH)D less than 30 ng/mL) in the T1DM, T2DM, the T1DM controls and the T2DM controls were 26.8%, 7.3%, 54.8% and 17.9%, respectively. The percentages of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were significantly lower in the T1DM patients than in the T1DM controls (p < 0.01). In the present study, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients had higher serum 25(OH)D levels and lower percentages of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Hormones (Athens) ; 18(2): 179-187, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is postulated to be involved in insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, is an oral antidiabetic drug for T2DM. Acarbose suppresses inflammatory cytokine production in patients with T2DM, though the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the exact mechanisms of acarbose in human monocytic THP-1 cells. METHODS: THP-1 cells were pretreated with acarbose and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of Th1-related chemokines, including interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), and proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular signaling pathways were explored by Western blot analysis and using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: Acarbose suppressed the levels of IP-10, MCP-1, MDC, and TNF-α and downregulated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-kappa B-p65 (NF-κB-p65) in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Acarbose suppressed LPS-induced acetylation of histones H3 (H3) and H4 in the IP-10 and MCP-1 promoter regions. These findings revealed the suppressive effects of acarbose on IP-10, MCP-1, MDC, and TNF-α production in THP-1 cells via, at least partially, the p38, JNK, ERK, and NF-κB-p65 pathways, as well as through epigenetic regulation via histone H3 and H4 acetylation. CONCLUSION: Our study points to the therapeutic anti-inflammatory potential of acarbose.


Assuntos
Acarbose/farmacologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL22/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Res Nurs Health ; 41(6): 563-571, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281818

RESUMO

Self-management among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is poorer than in other age groups during childhood. A valid and reliable short-form scale to measure self-management in adolescents with T1D is prudent for enhancing their self-management in clinical settings. We used a cross-sectional design to develop a short-form Chinese version of the Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes for Adolescents Scale (C-SMOD-A) and test its psychometric characteristics. Two hundred adolescents with T1D were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan through convenience sampling. Content validity, exploratory factor analysis, and corrected item-total correlations were used to shorten the 52-item C-SMOD-A. Confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-related validity, and reliability testing were used to examine the psychometric characteristics of the short-form C-SMOD-A. Finally, the 23-item C-SMOD-A (C-SMOD-A-23) with five inter-correlated factors was developed. Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with each subscale of the C-SMOD-A-23 with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.18 to -0.31. The composite reliability and test-retest reliability of the five subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 and from 0.78 to 0.93 respectively. Accordingly, the C-SMOD-A-23 has acceptable validity and reliability to measure five specific domains of self-management for adolescents with T1D. Health-care providers could use the C-SMOD-A-23 as a clinical reference to assess specific domains of self-management and provide interventions to enhance self-management for adolescents with T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Autocuidado/normas , Autogestão/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoeficácia , Taiwan
9.
Endocr Res ; 43(4): 228-234, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630425

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are chronic T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Metformin is a widely used drug for type 2 DM that reduces the need for insulin in type 1 DM. However, whether metformin has an anti-inflammatory effect for treating DM is unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin in the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was pretreated with metformin and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of T-helper (Th)-1-related chemokines including interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine, and the proinflammatory chemokine tumor necrosis factor-α was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular signaling pathways were investigated using Western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. RESULTS: Metformin suppressed LPS-induced IP-10 and MCP-1 production as well as LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Moreover, metformin suppressed LPS-induced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the IP-10 promoter. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin suppressed the production of Th1-related chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 in THP-1 cells. Suppressive effects of metformin on IP-10 production might be attributed at least partially to the JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB pathways as well as to epigenetic regulation through the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. These results indicated the therapeutic anti-inflammatory potential of metformin.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
J Food Drug Anal ; 26(1): 380-384, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389577

RESUMO

In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years. All immunoassay screen-positive urine specimen drug tests were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found that the mean 5-year prevalence of tampering (dilute, substituted, or invalid tests) in urine specimens from the workplace and court settings were 1.09% and 3.81%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the workplace were 89.2%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the court were 94.8%, 1.4%, and 3.8%, respectively. No adulterated cases were found among the workplace or court samples. The most common drug identified from the workplace specimens was amphetamine, followed by opiates. The most common drug identified from the court specimens was ketamine, followed by amphetamine. We suggest that all urine specimens taken for drug testing from both the workplace and court settings need to be tested for validity.


Assuntos
Toxicologia Forense , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/urina , Local de Trabalho , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/normas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas
11.
Food Chem ; 252: 189-197, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478531

RESUMO

Ambient mass spectrometry using an interchangeable thermal desorption/electrospray ionization source (TD-ESI) is a relatively new technique that has had only a limited number of applications to date. Nevertheless, this direct-analysis technique has potential for wider use in analytical chemistry (e.g., in the rapid direct detection of contaminants, residues, and adulterants on and in food) when operated in dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening and conventional quantitative confirmation) after switching to a TD-ESI source from a conventional ESI source. Herein, we describe the benefits and challenges associated with the use of a TD-ESI source to detect adulterants on traditional Chinese pastries (TCPs), as a proof-of-concept for the detection of illegal colorants. While TD-ESI can offer direct (i.e., without any sample preparation) qualitative screening analyses for TCPs with adequate sensitivity within 30 s, the use of TD-ESI for semi-quantification is applicable only for homogeneous matrices (e.g., tang yuan).


Assuntos
Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Temperatura , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(3): 530.e1-530.e5, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290509

RESUMO

A 25-year-old man suffered from consciousness change was sent to our emergency department by friends who reported that they were not sure what had happened to him. Physical examination revealed bilateral pupils dilatation, lethargy, slurred speech, and ataxia. Computer-aided tomographic scan of the brain revealed no definite evidence of intracranial lesions. Routine laboratory tests revealed total physiological turmoil. Despite immediate commencement of aggressive treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated long before the traditional drug screen provided an answer for the identities of the multiple drugs overdose. It ended up with the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but in vain. At the end of the tragic event, under the suggestion of a colleague, a portion of the patient's urine specimen was sent to our university esoteric laboratory for rapid analysis by means of a newly-developed thermal desorption-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine were identified in the urine sample within 30s. Conventional toxicological testing techniques like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are currently used for identifying abused drugs. One concern is their time-consuming sample pretreatment which leads to relatively low efficiency in terms of turnaround time for revealing the identity of the consumed drugs particularly when the patients are severely overdosed. We learned a lesson from this case that a more efficient toxicological identification technique is essential to expedite the process of emergency care when the patients are so heavily overdosed that they are under critical life-threatening conditions.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Psicotrópicos/envenenamento , 3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/envenenamento , 3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/urina , Adulto , Transtornos da Consciência/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Overdose de Drogas/urina , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Ketamina/envenenamento , Ketamina/urina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/envenenamento , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/urina , Psicotrópicos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
Environ Pollut ; 235: 453-461, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310089

RESUMO

Melamine and phthalate, mainly di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are ubiquitously present in the general environment. We investigated whether urine melamine levels can modify the relationship between DEHP exposure and markers of early renal damage in children. A nationwide health survey for Children aged ≤12 years possibly exposed to phthalates were enrolled between August 2012 and January 2013. They were administered questionnaires to collect details regarding past DEHP exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Urine samples were measured melamine levels, phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of renal damage, including urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), and ß2-microglobulin. The study included 224 children who had a median urine melamine level (µg/mmol creatinine) of 1.61 ranging 0.18-47.42. Positive correlations were found between urine melamine levels and urine ACR as well as urine NAG levels (both Spearman correlation coefficients r = 0.24, n = 224, p < .001). The higher the past DEHP exposure or urine melamine levels, the higher the prevalence of microalbuminuria. An interaction effect was also found between urine melamine levels and past DEHP exposure on urine ACR. Melamine levels may further modify the effect of past DEHP exposure on urine ACR in children.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Triazinas/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos , Taiwan , Triazinas/metabolismo , Urinálise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 635-644, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055577

RESUMO

The contamination of a clouding agent with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a substitute emulsifier-containing compound used in a variety of foods was announced on May 23, 2011. The aims of this study were as follows (1) compare the urine phthalates (PAE) metabolites concentration and estimate the daily intake (DI) of PAEs in pregnant women before and after the tainted food scandal and (2) examine the effect of relatively high PAEs exposure on birth outcome. One-hundred twelve pregnant women in Northern Taiwan participated in this study from March to December 2010, i.e., before the tainted food scandal. After the tainted food scandal, we collected 69, 73, and 180 urine specimens (January 2013 to August 2014) from women whom were in their first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. We measure urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations to estimate the DI of DEHP and the hazard quotient (HQ) of subjects. This was the first study to assess the effects of DEHP-tainted food scandal exposure in pregnant women across the three trimesters of pregnancy. After the tainted food report, the concentrations of urine PAE metabolite were significantly decreased, especially those of DEHP metabolites. Based on different reference limit values, the percentages of pregnant women whose HQDEHP value exceeded the limit ranged from 0.53% to 8.93%. Despite this low frequency, the higher ΣPAE exposure during the second trimester may significantly increase the risk of relatively low birth height compared to the lower exposure group (ß=-0.63 (-1.20 to -0.06)). Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to relatively high concentrations of DEHP in pregnant Taiwanese women may have an adverse effect on birth outcomes. The percentage of subjects whose exposure level exceeded the exposure limit was low; however, high PAEs exposure appears to be significantly associated with birth outcomes. Therefore, we suggest that reference dose for PAEs should be revised.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taiwan
15.
Forensic Sci Int ; 282: 35-40, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149685

RESUMO

According to domestic and international epidemiological investigation, the proportion of substance involved sexual assault has the trend of ascent. In the past, laboratory methods that investigated urine sample of the sexual assault victims was to screen with enzyme immunoassay and then confirmed with mass spectrometry. The objective of the study is to simultaneously identify abused drugs in 126 decoded urine samples of sexual assault victims by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring with an electro-spray positive ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated with ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22µm PVDF filter before injection into the system. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.2 to 10ng/mL. The precision (CV) results were below 12.9% (intraday) and 15.0% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 84.8 to 121.0%, interday accuracy ranged from 72.0 to 117.3%. We found that 29 (23.0%) were positive for drugs. The most common drug identified is flunitrazepam (11.1%), followed by nimetazepam and ketamine (7.9%), some new psychoactive substances, such as 2C-B, mephedrone, methylone, PMA and PMMA were also identified. We identified abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine of sexual assault victims by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Entorpecentes/urina , Psicotrópicos/urina , Estupro , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Benzodiazepinas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 30(6): 663-667, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central precocious puberty (CPP), predominant in girls, is defined by early development of secondary sexual characteristics driven by the early secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and subsequent gonadotropin. Recent studies have shown variation in the LIN28B gene is associated with timing of puberty, but only a few have show it to be associated with CPP. METHODS: This study attempted to investigate the relation between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LIN28B and girls with precocious puberty. Genotype and alleles frequencies of selected SNPs were compared between 116 girls with CPP and 102 controls. RESULTS: We found genotype frequencies in rs314276 and rs221634 were significantly correlated with girls with CPP; while the C allele frequency in rs314276 showed the dominant trait. Standard deviation score (SDS) of weight and body mass index (BMI) were higher in CC homozygotes of rs314276 in girls with CPP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the genotype of rs314276 in LIN28B is associated with girls with CPP, carrying dominant trait in the C allele.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Puberdade Precoce/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Puberdade Precoce/fisiopatologia
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(5): 869-879, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457892

RESUMO

Phthalate exposure is omnipresent and known to have developmental and reproductive effects in children. The aim of this study was to determine the phthalate exposure sources and their relative contributions among children in Taiwan. During the first wave of the Risk Assessment of Phthalate Incident in Taiwan (RAPIT), in 2012, we measured 8 urinary phthalate metabolites in 226 children aged 1-11 years old and in 181 children from the same cohort for the wave 2 study in 2014. A two-stage statistical analysis approach was adopted. First, a stepwise regression model was used to screen 80 questions that explored the exposure frequency and lifestyle for potential associations. Second, the remaining questions with positive regression coefficients were grouped into the following 6 exposure categories: plastic container/packaging, food, indoor environment, personal care products, toys, and eating out. A mixed model was then applied to assess the relative contributions of these categories for each metabolite. The use of plastic container or food packaging were dominant exposure sources for mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). The indoor environment was a major exposure source of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). The consumption of seafood showed a significant correlation with MEHP. The children's modified dietary behavior and improved living environment in the second study wave were associated with lower phthalate metabolite levels, showing that phthalate exposures can be effectively reduced.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Plastificantes/análise , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crustáceos , Dieta , Feminino , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Alimentos Marinhos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
18.
Environ Res ; 156: 158-166, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phthalate exposure may reduce intellectual development in young children. In 2011, numerous Taiwanese children had been reported to have consumed phthalate-tainted products. We investigated the effects of phthalate exposure on the intellectual development of these children after the 2011 Taiwan di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) episode. METHODS: We recruited 204 children, aged 3-12 y, from 3 hospitals in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. First-morning urine samples were collected for analyzing 5 phthalate metabolites. We applied a Bayesian model to estimate the past DEHP exposure (estDEHPADD) of each participant before the 2011 DEHP episode. Demographic information, consumption of phthalate-tainted products, and maternal education, of each participant were obtained using a questionnaire. We used the Wechsler intelligence evaluation tools for assessing the children's and maternal intelligence quotient. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The median levels of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, and mono-iso-butyl phthalate in the children were 9.97, 45.8, 32.2, 46.2, and 24.3µg/g creatinine, respectively. Using the aforementioned urinary phthalate metabolites, we found that the children's verbal comprehension index (N =98) was significantly negatively associated with urinary log10 MEOHP (ß, -11.92; SE, 5.33; 95%CI, -22.52~ -1.33; P=0.028) and log10 ΣDBP metabolites (ß, -10.95; SE, 4.93; 95%CI, -20.74~ -1.16; P=0.029) after adjustment for age, gender, maternal IQ and education, passive smoking, estDEHPADD, active and passive smoking during pregnancy. Through a tolerable daily intake-based approach, we only found a significant negative association between past estimate DEHPADD and VIQ≥3-<6 in preschool children whereas no correlation was observed between current DEHP exposure and IQ≥3-<6 score with/ without estimate DEHPADD adjustment. It revealed that the effect of past high-DEHP exposure on verbal-related neurodevelopment of younger child are more sensitive. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to DEHP and DnBP affects intellectual development in preschool and school-aged children, particularly their language learning or expression ability.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan
19.
Muscle Nerve ; 56(3): 479-485, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: c.250G>A (p.Ala84Thr) in ETFDH is the most common mutation that causes later-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in the southern Chinese population. No functional study has targeted this mutation. METHODS: Using cells expressing ETFDH-wild-type (WT) or ETFDH-mutant (p.Ala84Thr), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and neurite length were analyzed, followed by pathomechanism exploration and drug screening. RESULTS: Increased ROS production and marked neurite shortening were observed in the cells expressing the ETFDH-mutant, compared with WT. Further studies demonstrated that suberic acid, an accumulated intermediate metabolite in MADD, could significantly impair neurite outgrowth of NSC34 cells, but neurite shortening could be restored by supplementation with carnitine, riboflavin, or Coenzyme Q10. CONCLUSIONS: Neurite shortening caused by the c.250G>A mutation in ETFDH suggests that neural defects could be underdiagnosed in human patients with MADD. This impairment might be treatable with mitochondrial cofactor supplementation. Muscle Nerve 56: 479-485, 2017.


Assuntos
Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/biossíntese , Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/biossíntese , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação/fisiologia , Crescimento Neuronal/fisiologia , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/biossíntese , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Deficiência Múltipla de Acil Coenzima A Desidrogenase/genética , Deficiência Múltipla de Acil Coenzima A Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neuritos/metabolismo , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
20.
Nurs Outlook ; 65(1): 68-76, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27640101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) need to adapt physically and psychologically to the impact of diabetes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the pathways of emotional autonomy, depressive symptoms, and self-care behaviors to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and quality of life (QoL) in adolescents with T1DM. METHODS: Cross-sectional design was used in this study. Self-reported questionnaires and medical records were used to collect data from 265 adolescents with T1DM by convenience sampling in Taiwan. DISCUSSION: Structural equation modeling indicated that self-care behaviors directly positively influenced life satisfaction QoL but negatively influenced HbA1c levels. Depressive symptoms directly negatively influenced self-care behaviors and life satisfaction QoL. Emotional autonomy directly negatively influenced self-care behaviors and life-satisfaction QoL but directly positively influenced depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Emotional autonomy seems to be a risk factor contributing to poor health adaptation. Health care providers need to help adolescents with T1DM to balance the pursuit of emotional autonomy and health adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
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