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1.
Compr Psychiatry ; 97: 152159, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with inflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, detailed molecular mechanisms linking mood, neuroinflammation and AD remain unclear. Although changes in peripheral inflammatory factors such as Interleukin 18 (IL18), and AD-associated amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides have been linked to depression, a solid relationship between these factors in depressive disorder has yet to be established. This study aims to further determine whether plasma IL18, Aß40, Aß42, and the AD-associated tangle component Tau, as well as IL18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be biomarkers for depression. METHODS: We measured plasma IL18, Aß40, Aß42, and Tau in 64 depressive patients and 75 healthy controls, and characterized genotypes of three IL18 SNPs (rs187238, rs1946518 and rs1946519) in these subjects. Comparisons between depressive patients and controls were carried out in males, in females or in combination. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between these parameters. RESULTS: We found that none of the plasma levels of IL18, Aß40, Aß42, and Tau, the ratio of Aß42/Aß40, and the genotypes of IL18 SNPs were significantly different between combined depressive patients and combined healthy controls, or between male depressive patients and male controls. However, IL18 levels were less in females than in males in healthy people and were significantly increased in female depressive patients compared to female controls. Moreover, IL18 and standardized IL18 were correlated with standardized Aß42/Aß40 ratio and standardized Tau in depressive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma IL18 may be a potential biomarker for depression in women.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102583, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 is an important RNA-binding protein that affects the RNA processing, splicing, transport and stability of many genes. hnRNPA2/B1 is expressed during proliferation and metastasis of various cancer types and promotes such processes. However, the precise role and mechanism of hnRNPA2/B1 in breast cancer remain unclear. METHODS: The association of hnRNPA2/B1 with breast cancer metastasis was assessed using tissue chips, mouse models and publicly available data. The role and mechanism of hnRNPA2/B1 in breast cancer metastasis were studied in cell lines and mouse models. FINDINGS: In contrast to other cancer research findings, hnRNPA2/B1 expression was negatively correlated with breast cancer metastasis. hnRNPA2/B1 inhibited MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo. hnRNPA2/B1 knockout activated ERK-MAPK/Twist and GR-beta/TCF4 pathways but inhibited STAT3 and WNT/TCF4 signalling pathways. Profilin 2 (PFN2) promoted breast cancer cell migration and invasion, whereas hnRNPA2/B1 bound directly to the UAGGG locus in the 3'-untranslated region of PFN2 mRNA and reduced the stability of PFN2 mRNA. INTERPRETATION: Our data supported the role of hnRNPA2/B1 in tumour metastasis risk and survival prediction in patients with breast cancer. The inhibitory role of hnRNPA2/B1 in metastasis was a balance of downstream multiple genes and signalling pathways. PFN2 downregulation by hnRNPA2/B1 might partly explain the inhibitory mechanism of hnRNPA2/B1 in breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, hnRNPA2/B1 might be used as a new prognostic biomarker and valuable molecular target for breast cancer treatments.

3.
Psych J ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943910

RESUMO

The associations among parenting behaviors, effortful control, and student engagement in math were examined in a sample of Chinese children. The sample was composed of 778 students (Mage = 10.43 years, SD = 0.99) from Grades 4 to 6 in Shanghai, China. Children completed questionnaires to assess parental warmth and hostility, effortful control, and student engagement in math. The results indicated that parental warmth was positively correlated with math engagement whereas parental hostility was negatively correlated with math engagement. In addition, mediational analyses indicated that effortful control fully mediated the association between parental hostility and math engagement, but partially mediated the association between parental warmth and math engagement. This study offers insights into a mediating mechanism linking the relationships among parenting behaviors, effortful control, and math engagement.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare long-term survival outcomes and sequelae between children and adult nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on 285 NPC patients aged ≤ 18 years old at diagnosis and treated with IMRT between January 2004 and November 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity score matching method was adopted to screen matched adult NPC patients at a ratio of 1:3. Survival outcomes and treatment-related toxicities between children and adult groups were compared. RESULTS: In total, 159 children and 477 adult NPC patients were included in this study. The 5-year overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) between children and adult were 89.2% vs 83.6% (P = 0.144), 88.7% vs 83.5% (P = 0.124), 96.4% vs 89.1% (P = 0.013), and 86.5% vs 77.3% (P = 0.021), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the young age was an independent prognostic factor of OS, DMFS and LRRFS in advanced N stage (N2-3) group, and DFS in advanced T stage (T3-4) group, N2-3 and stage III-IVA groups. The most common sequela was ototoxicity (68.9%) in children patients and xerostomia (70.8%) in adult patients. Adult survivors had a significantly higher incidence of grade 3-4 late toxicities in xerostomia (17.6% vs. 8.9%, P = 0.004), skin dystrophy (9.3% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.022), neck fibrosis (8.3% vs. 4.4%, P < 0.001) and radiation encephalopathy (0.8% vs. 0, P = 0.006). Children survivors were more likely to develop grade 3-4 growth retardation and endocrine insufficiency (3.0% vs. 0.3%, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Children NPC patients achieved significantly better survival outcomes but less late toxicities than adult patients. However, we should pay great attention to growth problems of children survivors.

5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1917): 20192097, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847773

RESUMO

The external environment has traditionally been considered as the primary driver of animal life history (LH). Recent research suggests that animals' internal state is also involved, especially in forming LH behavioural phenotypes. The present study investigated how these two factors interact in formulating LH in humans. Based on a longitudinal sample of 1223 adolescents in nine countries, the results show that harsh and unpredictable environments and adverse internal states in childhood are each uniquely associated with fast LH behavioural profiles consisting of aggression, impulsivity, and risk-taking in adolescence. The external environment and internal state each strengthened the LH association of the other, but overall the external environment was more predictive of LH than was the internal state. These findings suggest that individuals rely on a multitude and consistency of sensory information in more decisively calibrating LH and behavioural strategies.

6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e196, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744559

RESUMO

It is emphasized that environmental predictability is another important condition that plays roles in slow strategies that are related to innovation; that economic inequality, except as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, influences innovation; and that switching global life history from a slow to a fast strategy is a response adopted in response to new challenges during the post-Industrial Revolution period.

7.
Retina ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the ability of nonperfusion, vessel density, and morphologic measurements using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography to detect early retinal microvasculature impairments in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild nonproliferative DR and age-matched controls imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography. Foveal avascular zone-related metrics and extrafoveal avascular area were measured in optical coherence tomography angiography images. Vessel density and fractal dimension were calculated with and without a skeletonization process. The vessel diameter index and vessel tortuosity were computed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) estimated diagnostic performances. RESULTS: Dilated capillary diameter was observed in the deep capillary plexus in the diabetic groups. Vessel density and fractal dimension of skeletonized deep capillary plexus significantly and progressively decreased in the no DR and mild nonproliferative DR groups compared with controls. Superficial extrafoveal avascular area, vessel density, and fractal dimension of the skeletonized deep capillary plexus had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate mild nonproliferative DR from control eyes, with AUCs of 0.885, 0.876, and 0.876, respectively. CONCLUSION: Vessel density and fractal dimension from the skeletonized deep capillary network may be the most sensitive for detecting early retinal capillary loss in diabetes mellitus.

8.
Chembiochem ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483539

RESUMO

The vibration of a cell membrane plays a key role in the regulation of cell shape and the behavior of cells. However, most existing approaches for the measurement of cell vibration require either exogenous modification or sophisticated techniques, and the main challenge lies in developing methods that can monitor membrane vibration of living cells directly. Herein, a noninvasive strategy based on ultrasmall quartz nanopipettes is introduced. With a tip size of less than 100 nm, nanopipettes can be spatially controlled for precision targeting of a specific location on the membrane of single living cells. Surprisingly, by employing a constant voltage, stable cyclic oscillations are observed from the continuous current versus time traces. The time-domain current can be decomposed into two basic waves: the high-frequency one indicates the local membrane vibration driven by the electro-osmotic flow from the nanopipette, whereas the low-frequency one indicates the natural frequency of the whole cell. This provides a simple but reliable method to test local and global membrane vibration of single living cells simultaneously with little damage, which provides a tool for the quantification of drugs, disease, or mutations of the cell structure.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(65): 9681-9684, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347618

RESUMO

Here, we report a convenient, fast labeling strategy for the imaging of cell surface sialic acids (SAs, nine-carbon monosaccharides located at the terminals of cell surface sugar chains). This strategy is based on the synthesis of sticky, furry and fluorescent "wool-balls", which are wound into nanoclusters from p-benzoquinone/ethylenediamine polymer "wires". With abundant amino groups at the surface, the wool-balls can easily stick to the C-7 aldehyde group generated at the ends of periodate treated SAs in less than 30 min.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/química , Etilenodiaminas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Ácidos Siálicos/análise , Animais , Benzoquinonas/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Etilenodiaminas/síntese química , Fluorescência , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Neuraminidase/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polímeros/síntese química , Células RAW 264.7 , Bases de Schiff/síntese química , Bases de Schiff/química , Ácidos Siálicos/química
10.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 270: 165-190, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265929

RESUMO

Carbon dots (CDs), as a new type of luminescent zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterial, have been applied in a variety of fields. Currently, functionalization of CDs is an extremely useful method for effectively tuning their intrinsic structure and surface state. Heteroatom doping and surface modification are two functionalization strategies for improving the photophysical performance and broadening the range of applications for fluorescent CDs. Heteroatom doping in CDs can be used to tune their intrinsic properties, which has received significant research interests because of its simplicity. Surface modification can be applied for varying active sites and the functional groups on the CDs surface, which can endow fluorescent CDs with the unique properties resulting from functional ligand. In this review, we summarize the structural and physicochemical properties of functional CDs. We focused our review on the latest developments in functionalization strategies for CDs and discuss the detailed characteristics of different functionalization methods. Ultimately, we hope to inform researchers on the latest progress in functionalization of CDs and provide perspectives on future developments for functionalization of CDs and their potential applications.

11.
Dev Psychol ; 55(4): 890-903, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507220

RESUMO

Safety is essential for life. To survive, humans and other animals have developed sets of psychological and physiological adaptations known as life history (LH) tradeoff strategies in response to various safety constraints. Evolutionarily selected LH strategies in turn regulate development and behavior to optimize survival under prevailing safety conditions. The present study tested LH hypotheses concerning safety based on a 6-year longitudinal sample of 1,245 adolescents and their parents from 9 countries. The results revealed that, invariant across countries, environmental harshness, and unpredictability (lack of safety) was negatively associated with slow LH behavioral profile, measured 2 years later, and slow LH behavioral profile was negatively and positively associated with externalizing behavior and academic performance, respectively, as measured an additional 2 years later. These results support the evolutionary conception that human development responds to environmental safety cues through LH regulation of social and learning behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Geografia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Características de Residência , Segurança
12.
J Res Adolesc ; 29(3): 752-762, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911742

RESUMO

This study explored how maternal involvement in sibling relationships and coparenting behaviors were associated with adolescents' sibling conflicts. Adolescents (Mage  = 12.25 years; 47.8% boys) and their mothers from 542 families in China participated in this research. Mothers completed questionnaires that assessed their strategies of involvement in sibling relationships, as well as their perceptions of the quality of their coparenting behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents completed questionnaires that assessed sibling conflicts. Results revealed that the mother's positive guidance was negatively related and their authoritarian control was positively related to sibling conflict. A significant interaction was also found between positive maternal guidance in sibling relationships and undermining coparenting behaviors. These findings underscore the unique and interactive effects of mothers' direct involvement in sibling relationships and coparenting behaviors in adolescents' sibling conflicts.

13.
Talanta ; 191: 443-448, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262082

RESUMO

The highly sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), a biomarker of the biological threat-agent anthrax, is strongly associated with the sensing of Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) in environmental and food samples. In this study, we developed a novel, ultrasensitive method for the detection of DPA by using a ratiometric fluorescent terbium ions modified carbon dots (CDs-Tb). The CDs-Tb showed two fluorescent emission bands at 459 nm and 495 nm when excited at the single wavelength of 260 nm. DPA could specifically bind with terbium ions on the surface of CDs through strong chelate-conjugation to produce antenna effect, resulting in significantly enhancement of the 495 nm emission peak without affecting the 459 nm emission peak. The fluorescence intensity ratio (I495/I459) of CDs-Tb was proportional to the concentration of DPA in the range of 0.5 nM to 2.5 µM with the limit of detection as low as 100 pM. This selective and ultrasensitive assay had a great application prospect in the complex matrixes owing to its simplicity and specificity for DPA. Meanwhile, the CDs-Tb-based paper sensor was successfully developed for sensitive and visual detection of DPA.

14.
Chem Senses ; 43(7): 503-513, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955865

RESUMO

Olfaction plays an important role in human social communication, including multiple domains in which people often rely on their sense of smell in the social context. The importance of the sense of smell and its role can however vary inter-individually and culturally. Despite the growing body of literature on differences in olfactory performance or hedonic preferences across the globe, the aspects of a given culture as well as culturally universal individual differences affecting odor awareness in human social life remain unknown. Here, we conducted a large-scale analysis of data collected from 10 794 participants from 52 study sites from 44 countries all over the world. The aim of our research was to explore the potential individual and country-level correlates of odor awareness in the social context. The results show that the individual characteristics were more strongly related than country-level factors to self-reported odor awareness in different social contexts. A model including individual-level predictors (gender, age, material situation, education, and preferred social distance) provided a relatively good fit to the data, but adding country-level predictors (Human Development Index, population density, and average temperature) did not improve model parameters. Although there were some cross-cultural differences in social odor awareness, the main differentiating role was played by the individual differences. This suggests that people living in different cultures and different climate conditions may still share some similar patterns of odor awareness if they share other individual-level characteristics.


Assuntos
Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metacognição/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Odorantes , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Evol Psychol ; 16(2): 1474704918776176, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759010

RESUMO

This study used the life history (LH) theory to investigate how environmental cues are associated with Machiavellianism. A total of 252 undergraduate students completed self-report measures of social rank uncertainty, Machiavellianism, fast LH strategy, and dominance. The results indicated that Machiavellianism was related to a fast LH strategy. Furthermore, a fast LH strategy mediated an association between social rank uncertainty and Machiavellianism. Finally, Machiavellianism was positively associated with dominance. These findings may enhance our understanding of the evolutionary origin of Machiavellianism.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Maquiavelismo , Predomínio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Radiol ; 103: 19-24, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) in identifying cervical small lymph node metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board. From July 2014 to March 2016, 114 sLNs from 62 newly diagnosed NPC patients (47 men, 15 women) were assessed. Target small lymph nodes (sLNs), which were undiagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were defined as scattered cervical lymph nodes that had no evidence of central necrosis or extracapsular spread and exhibited a maximum transverse diameter ≥5 mm and <10 mm in MRI. The mean (Emean), minimum (Emin) and maximum (Emax) of the elasticity indices (EIs) were measured by SWE at the stiffest part of the sLN (kPa). Biopsy pathology was served as the reference standard. Diagnostic performances were assessed using receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis on a node-by-node basis. RESULTS: Of the 114 small cervical lymph nodes, 88 (77.2%) were benign, and 26 (22.8%) were malignant. All SWE EIs were significantly higher in malignant sLNs than in benign sLNs (p < 0.001). Emean exhibited the highest diagnostic value (area under the curve = 0.879 ±â€¯0.036) (p < 0.001) and the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 84.6%, 83.0%, 59.5%, 94.8% and 83.3%, respectively. The intra-observer reproducibility of all SWE EIs were significant, with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.745 in Emean, 0.716 in Emax and 0.702 in Emin. CONCLUSION: Shear wave elastography is an optional supplementary imaging modality to routine MRI examination to diagnose cervical lymph nodes in NPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Pescoço , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Sci ; 109(6): 1909-1919, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624824

RESUMO

Little is known about the value of the nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) scale in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a large-scale study to address this issue. We employed a big-data intelligence database platform at our center and identified 3232 eligible patients treated between 2009 and 2013. Of the 3232 (12.9% of 24 986) eligible patients, 469 (14.5%), 13 (0.4%), 953 (29.5%), 1762 (54.5%) and 35 (1.1%) had NRS2002 scores of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Survival outcomes were comparable between patients with NRS2002 <3 and ≥3 (original scale). However, patients with NRS2002 ≤3 vs >3 (regrouping scale) had significantly different 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 82.7% vs 75.0%, P < .001), overall survival (OS; 88.8% vs 84.1%, P = .001), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 90.2% vs 85.9%, P = .001) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS; 91.6% vs 87.2%, P = .001). Therefore, we proposed a revised NRS2002 scale, and found that it provides a better risk stratification than the original or regrouping scales for predicting DFS (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.530 vs 0.554 vs 0.577; P < .05), OS (AUC = 0.534 vs 0.563 vs 0.582; P < .05), DMFS (AUC = 0.531 vs 0.567 vs 0.590; P < .05) and LRRFS (AUC = 0.529 vs 0.542 vs 0.564; P < .05 except scale A vs B). Our proposed NRS2002 scale represents a simple, clinically useful tool for nutritional risk screening in NPC.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anal Chem ; 90(6): 4003-4009, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493236

RESUMO

Highly selective and sensitive detection of guanosine 3'-diphosphate-5'-diphosphate (ppGpp), namely, the stringent in plants or microorganisms responding to strict or extreme environmental conditions such as stress and starvation, which plays an important role in gene expression, rRNA and antibiotics production, regulations of virulence of bacteria, and growth of plants, faces a great challenge owing to its extreme similarity to normal nucleotides. By modifying the surface groups of a facile two-step hydrothermal route prepared carbon dots (CDs) with terbium ions (Tb3+) in this contribution, a novel fluorescent probe with excellent properties such as highly physical and chemical stability, narrow emission and excitation wavelength-independent emission was prepared. The Tb3+ ions on the surface of CDs cannot only preserve the intrinsic fluorescence (FL) of CDs but also keep its own coordination capacity with rare earth complex, and thus the clamp structure (four phosphate groups) of ppGpp can specific binding with Tb3+ ions on the surface of CDs to produce antenna effect. Therefore, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent ratiometry of ppGpp was developed by terbium-modified carbon dots (CDs-Tb) with the limit of detection as low as 50 nM based on the synergistic effect of antenna effect of Tb3+ ions and specific recognition capacity of CDs. The applicability of this assay was demonstrated by CDs-Tb-based paper sensor for high distinguishing ppGpp from other nucleotides with similar structure.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Guanosina Tetrafosfato/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Térbio/química , Cátions/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Papel , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
19.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; 36(2): 158-167, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The reaction of firstborns to the impending arrival of a sibling has received little attention from family psychologists. The present study examined whether firstborns' positive feelings about their sibling before the birth were related to the time at which they were told about the mother's pregnancy and their effortful control, which was defined as the self-regulatory ability to inhibit a dominant response to perform a subdominant response. The goal of this research was to provide preliminary evidence in the social context of the two-child policy in China. METHODS: The sample included 52 Chinese parents and their firstborns when mothers were in their third trimester of pregnancy with their second child. Data were obtained by means of observation and parent-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: Firstborn children who were told earlier in their mothers' pregnancy were more likely to have positive feelings about their sibling before the birth. In addition, firstborns' effortful control was positively associated with positive feelings about a sibling before the birth. Last, firstborns' effortful control moderated the association between the time at which they were told and positive feelings about the sibling before the birth. Specifically, only when firstborns had low levels of effortful control, being told later about the pregnancy, was related to lower levels of positive feelings about the sibling. CONCLUSIONS: Findings enhanced our understanding of how parents' preparation and firstborns' individual characteristics may have a role on firstborns' positive adjustment before the birth of a sibling.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Cancer ; 9(6): 978-986, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581777

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients by comparing the physical dosimetry, delivery efficiency and clinical outcomes with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: A prospective matched study was performed for patients with newly diagnosed NPC who underwent VMAT or IMRT. The patients in two groups were equally matched in terms of gender, age, tumor stage and chemotherapy. The target coverage, homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs) sparing, average treatment time and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: From June 2013 to August 2015, a total of 80 patients were enrolled in this study, with 40 patients in each group. The coverage of PTV was similar for both groups. D2 was observed slight difference only in early stage disease (T1-2) (VMAT vs. IMRT, 7494±109 cGy vs. 7564±92 cGy; p=0.06). The HI of VMAT group was better than that of IMRT group (p=0.001), whereas CI was slightly worse (p=0.061). The maximum doses received by the brain stem, spinal cord, and optic nerve of VMAT were higher than those of IMRT (p<0.05). But the irradiation volumes in healthy tissue were generally lower for VMAT group, with significant differences in V20, V25 and V45 (p<0.05). With regard to the delivery efficiency compared with IMRT (1160 ± 204s), a 69% reduction in treatment time was achieved by VMAT (363 ± 162s). Both groups had 5 cases of nasopharyngeal residual lesions after radiotherapy. The 2-year estimated local relapse-free survival, regional relapse-free survival and locoregional relapse-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival were similar between two groups, with the corresponding rates of 100%, 97.4%, 97.4%, 90.0%, 90.0% and 92.4% in VMAT group, and 100%, 100%, 100%, 95.0%, 95.0% and 97.5% in IMRT group, respectively. Conclusions: Both VMAT and IMRT can meet the clinical requirements for the treatment of NPC. The short-term tumor regression rates and 2-year survival rates with the two techniques are comparable. The faster treatment time benefits of VMAT will enable more patients to receive precision radiotherapy.

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