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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131032, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500294

RESUMO

Both microbiological and chemical food spoilages remain to be the major challenges in the food industry's efforts to combat food waste and loss because of the lack of high efficacy food preservatives. In this study, dual-functional conjugates that simultaneously suppress both lipid oxidation and microorganism growth are fabricated by covalently conjugating natural antioxidant gentisic acid (GA) on native antibacterial lysozyme (Lys). The mixing ratio of Lys and GA determines the particle size, morphology, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial performance of the ensuing conjugates. With more of GA being grafted, a drastic decrease in the net surface charge with the concomitant occurrence of aggregations are observed in the conjugates. The maximum antioxidant activity and antibacterial performance of the conjugates is achieved when Lys:GA molar ratio is 1:112. The findings could guide the rational design of future functional food ingredients that combine multiple natural bioactive compounds to effectively intervene food waste and loss.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Alimentos , Gentisatos , Muramidase
2.
Food Chem ; 376: 131943, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971894

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dihydric alcohol chain length (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol) on the structure of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and the properties of the extracted oat proteins. Herein, five anhydrous and nine hydrated DESs were successfully prepared by mixing choline chloride, dihydric alcohol, and/or water in a heating method. The structures of DESs were confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR. Among them, only four anhydrous and six hydrated DESs were able to extract oat proteins from flours by one-step extraction. SDS-PAGE and FTIR analyses indicated that the structural properties of the oat proteins were highly reliant on the composition of the DESs; while physicochemical properties were primarily ruled by the environmental pH. Overall, the hydrated DES composing of all food-grade compounds, including choline chloride, 1,3-propanediol, and water at a molar ratio of 1:3:1, demonstrated its great potential for one-step biorefinery of oat proteins.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43085-43093, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478257

RESUMO

Multiple-enzyme cooperation simultaneously is an effective approach to biomass conversion and biodegradation. The challenge, however, lies in the interference of the involved enzymes with each other, especially when a protease is needed, and thus, the difficulty in reusing the enzymes; while extracting/synthesizing new enzymes costs energy and negative impact on the environment. Here, we present a unique approach to immobilize multiple enzymes, including a protease, on a metal-organic material (MOM) via co-precipitation in order to enhance the reusability and sustainability. We prove our strategy on the degradation of starch-containing polysaccharides (require two enzymes to degrade) and food proteins (require a protease to digest) before the quantification of total dietary fiber. As compared to the widely adopted "official" method, which requires the sequential addition of three enzymes under different conditions (pH/temperature), the three enzymes can be simultaneously immobilized on the surface of our MOM crystals to allow for contact with the large substrates (starch), while MOMs offer sufficient protection to the enzymes so that the reusability and long-term storage are improved. Furthermore, the same biodegradation can be carried out without adjusting the reaction condition, further reducing the reaction time. Remarkably, the simultaneous presence of all enzymes enhances the reaction efficiency by a factor of ∼3 as compared to the official method. To our best knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of using aqueous-phase co-precipitation to immobilize multiple enzymes for large-substrate biocatalysis. The significantly enhanced efficiency can potentially impact the food industry by reducing the labor requirement and enhancing enzyme cost efficiency, leading to reduced food cost. The reduced energy cost of extracting enzymes and adjusting reaction conditions minimize the negative impact on the environment. The strategy to prevent protease damage in a multi-enzyme system can be adapted to other biocatalytic reactions involving proteases.

6.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 8907-8919, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378612

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of protein type (sodium caseinate and pea protein isolate) and protein to sugar beet pectin mixing ratio (5 : 1 and 2 : 1) on complex coacervate formation, as well as the impact of the finishing technology (freeze-drying and spray-drying) for improving the viability of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in complex coacervates during simulated sequential gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. The physicochemical properties of LGG encapsulated microcapsules in liquid and powder form were evaluated. The state diagram and ζ-potential results indicated that pH 3.0 was the optimum pH for coacervate formation in the current systems. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), viscoelastic analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that the gel-like network structure of the complex coacervates was successfully formed between the protein and SBP at pH 3.0 through electrostatic interaction. In terms of physiochemical properties and viability of LGG encapsulated in the microcapsule powder, the drying method played a crucial role on particle size, microstructure and death rate of encapsulated LGG during simulated sequential GI digestion compared to protein type and biopolymer mixing ratio. For example, the microstructure of spray-dried microcapsules exhibited smaller spherical particles with some cavities, whereas the larger particle size of freeze-dried samples showed a porous sponge network structure with larger particle sizes. As a result, spray-dried LGG microcapsules generally had a lower death rate during simulated sequential gastrointestinal digestion compared to their freeze-dried counterparts. Among all samples, spray-dried PPI-SBP microcapsules demonstrated superior performance against cell loss and maintained more than 7.5 log CFU per g viable cells after digestion.

7.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100676, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308381

RESUMO

Enzyme encapsulation in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)/covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) provides advancement in biocatalysis, yet the structural basis underlying the catalytic performance is challenging to probe. Here, we present an effective protocol to determine the orientation and dynamics of enzymes in MOFs/COFs using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The protocol is demonstrated using lysozyme and can be generalized to other enzymes. For complete information on the generation and use of this protocol, please refer to Pan et al. (2021a).

8.
Food Funct ; 12(15): 6950-6963, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137413

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and aroma differences of yellow pea flours fermented by five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains including two Lactiplantibacillus, two Lactobacillus, and one Lacticaseibacillus with different fermentation time. The cell population and the pH of pea flour slurry, as well as the proximate chemical composition, amino acids, thermal and pasting properties, surface morphology, and aromatic differences of fermented flours were characterized. The cell population of all strains except for Lactobacillus helveticus was observed to reach above 107 CFU mL-1 after 24 h of fermentation. The fermentation with Lactobacilli resulted in the increase of amino acids and ash contents, and the reduction of fat content. Rapid viscosity analysis indicated that short time (18 h) fermentation with L. helveticus drastically improved the pasting properties of the flours by facilitating starch granule expansion. The aromatic compounds of the fermented yellow pea flours were highly reliant on the strains and fermentation time. The untargeted metabolomics analysis with the aid of multivariate data analysis can discriminate the aroma differences among the fermented yellow pea flours. L. acidophilus fermentation led to the production of three aromatic compounds which may contribute to an improved aromatic profile.

9.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(3): 3036-3060, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798275

RESUMO

Consumers' preference to have a healthy eating pattern has led to an increasing demand for more nutrient-dense and healthier plant-based foods. Pulse proteins are exceptional quality ingredients with potential nutritional benefits, and might act as health-promoting agents for addressing the new-generation foods. However, the utilization of pulse protein in foods has been hampered by its relatively poor functionality and unpleasant flavor. Protein structure modification has been proved to be a useful means to improve the functionality and flavor profile of pulse protein. This paper begins with a brief introduction of hierarchical structure of pulse protein materials to better understand the structure characteristics. A comprehensive review is presented on the current techniques including chemical and enzymatic modifications and molecular breeding on pulse protein structure and functionality/flavor. The mechanism and the limitations and the toxicological concerns of these approaches are discussed. We conclude that understanding protein structure-functionality relationship is extremely valuable in tailoring proteins for specific functional outcomes and expanding the availability of pulse proteins. Furthermore, selective protein modification is a valuable in-depth toolkit for generating novel protein constructs with preferable functional attributes and flavor profiles. Innovative structure modification with special focus on the molecular basis for the exquisite protein designs is a pillar of pulse protein access to the desired functionality.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Paladar , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos
10.
Food Chem ; 343: 128485, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172750

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to prepare a supporting carrier, namely highly branched corn starch (HBCS), and to investigate its encapsulation property with ascorbic acid (AA). High amylose corn starch was converted into HBCS via dual enzymatic modification by successively using α-amylase and glycogen branching enzyme. The results showed that the ratio of α-1, 6 linkage of HBCS increased by 1.93%, and a short-to-medium chain length distribution with a compact branched conformation was formed, which suggested HBCS could be a potential highly branched carrier. The HBCS-AA inclusion complex was formed as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. The release of AA conformed to the pseudo-Fickian diffusion mechanism and followed the first-order kinetics. Meanwhile, the photostability and thermostability of the embedded AA were moderately enhanced. These findings suggest that HBCS provides new insights into the preparation of wall materials and can be potentially used to deliver AA into food systems.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Amido/química , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Cápsulas , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 345: 128760, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302101

RESUMO

Yellow pea (Pisum sativum L., YP) grain is generally milled into flour for further processing or direct consumption. However, the comprehensive relationship between milling configurations and YP flour properties remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of configurations (screen aperture size and rotor speed) of ultracentrifugal mill on the physicochemical properties and aromatic profiles of YP flours. Starch damage, morphology, particle size distribution, pasting, thermal property, and aromatic profiles of YP flours were studied. Results show that starch damage increased significantly as the screen aperture size decreased. The YP flour produced with a 500 µm aperture screen had the most stable pasting and thermal properties. With untargeted metabolomic approaches, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol could potentially be applied as an aroma maker to distinguish if an excessive milling or inappropriate configurations of ultracentrifugal mill are applied. This work has furnished fundamentals for the milling and application of YP flour.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Odorantes , Ervilhas/química , Ultracentrifugação/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Amido/química
12.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(3): 928-953, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331688

RESUMO

Mycotoxins contamination in cereal-based food is ubiquitous according to systematic review of the scientific documentation of worldwide mycotoxin contamination in cereal and their products between 2008 and 2018, thus representing food safety issue especially in developing tropical countries. Food processing plays a vital role to prevent mycotoxin contamination in food. Therefore, it is with great urgency to develop strategies to inhibit fungi growth and mycotoxin production during food processing. This review begins by discussing physicochemical properties of five most common mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) found in cereal grains, regulation for mycotoxins in food, and their potential negative impact on human health. The fate of mycotoxins during major cereal-based food processing including milling, breadmaking, extrusion, malting, and brewing was then summarized. In the end, traditional mitigation strategies including physical and chemical and potential application of biocontrol agent and essential oil nanoemulsions that can be applied during food processing were discussed. It indicated that no single method is currently available to completely prevent mycotoxin contamination in cereal foods.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Micotoxinas , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pão , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais , Óleos Voláteis
13.
Food Funct ; 11(12): 10329-10340, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185638

RESUMO

In this study, the influence of sunflower wax (SFX) concentration (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 wt%) on the properties of oleogels prepared using expeller-pressed corn germ oil (EPC) or high oleic soybean oil (EPS) was comprehensively investigated. Overall, oleogels can be prepared from both EP oils at an SFX level ≥3 wt%. The strength of oleogels depends on SFX concentration. EPS oleogels had better rheological properties and a higher amount of platelet-like crystals than EPC oleogels. The characteristics of cookies prepared with both oleogels were evaluated and compared to cookies prepared with commercial shortening. The lipid distribution in the cookies as visualized by CLSM suggested that EPS oleogels with a 5 or 7 wt% SFX had a greater possibility of replacing commercial shortening as they exhibited even lipid distribution which enabled good air-incorporation and air retention abilities. This research provides a foundation for developing healthy bakery products by using minimally processed oil based oleogels.


Assuntos
Óleo de Milho/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Óleo de Soja/análise , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos , Reologia , Zea mays
14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-19, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226273

RESUMO

Traditional fermented soybean food has emerged as an important part of people's dietary structure because of the unique flavors and improved health benefit. During fermentation, the nutrients in soybean undergo a series of biochemical reactions catalyzed naturally by microorganism secreted enzymes. Thereafter, many functional and bioactive substances such as bioactive peptides, unsaturated fatty acids, free soy isoflavones, vitamins and minerals are produced, making fermented soy products more advantageous in nutrition and health. This review comprehensively discusses the historical evolution, distribution, traditional fermentation processing, main sources and characteristics of fermented strains, flavor components, nutritional properties, and biological activities of four traditional fermented soybean foods including douchi, sufu, dajiang, and soy sauce. In the end, we introduce four major challenges encountered by traditional fermented soybean foods including high salt content, formation of biogenic amine, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and mycotoxins, and quality inconsistency. We conclude that the establishment of scientific quality standard and innovated fermentation processing is the potential solutions to combat the issues and improve the safety of traditional fermented soybean products.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt B): 1675-1685, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058979

RESUMO

The impact of secondary polysaccharide, i.e., low methoxyl pectin (LMP) or κ-carrageenan (KC), and its concentration (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6%) on particle size, shape, morphological, textural properties and swelling behavior of sodium alginate (ALG)- based double-network hydrogel particles, as well as the viability of encapsulated probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in simulated sequential gastrointestinal (GI) digestion was investigated. We found the addition of LMP impaired the sphericity of double-network hydrogel particles, while the incorporation of KC increased the particle size. The FT-IR results indicated the miscibility and cross-linking capacity of the two polysaccharides in forming double-network hydrogel particles. With respect to the swelling behavior in simulated GI digestion, all hydrogel particles shrank in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) but swelled in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Among the two types of double-networking, ALG-KC hydrogel particles showed noticeable shrank in SGF in conjunction with the reduced swelling in SIF, which was unfavorable for protection and the controlled release of probiotics. In the case of death rate of encapsulated LGG, the presence of LMP at a lower level (0.2 or 0.4%) exhibited protective effect against LGG death during the sequential GI digestion, while addition of KC demonstrated an opposite role.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Biopolímeros/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Liofilização , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/ultraestrutura , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia , Soluções , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(37): 10157-10166, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820920

RESUMO

Diverse saccharides are effectively grafted to pea protein isolate (PPI) through Maillard-driven chemistry. The development of conjugates (glyco-PPI) was validated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography. The impact of covalent conjugation on color development, structural modification, solubility, thermal stability, and volatiles of glycoprotein was examined. The protein solubility was improved, while its thermal stability seemed to be negatively influenced. The principle proposed involves Maillard-driven generation of the conjugates, which enhanced the surface hydrophilicity and unfolding of protein architecture of glyco-PPI. Additionally, both molecular mass and the grafted number of saccharides played a vital role in determining the solubility and thermal stability of glyco-PPI. Protein tends to denature at reaction conditions of 80 °C and pH 10.0, and its cross-linkage occurred in the aqueous system. The two potential routes of molecular interactions between PPI and saccharides were denaturation and glycation or self-cross-linkage. Flavor profile alteration of glycoprotein before and after conjugation was depicted, and relevant off-odors were quantified via headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These outcomes could furnish valuable in-depth information for dictating functionalities of plant-based protein for food application.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Açúcares/química , Glicosilação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Reação de Maillard , Peso Molecular , Solubilidade
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(37): 41794-41801, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830486

RESUMO

Immobilizing enzymes on nanoparticles (NPs) enhances the cost-efficiency of biocatalysis; however, when the substrates are large, it becomes difficult to separate the enzyme@NP from the products while avoiding leaching or damage of enzymes in the reaction medium. Metal-organic framework (MOF)-coated magnetic NPs (MNPs) offer efficient magnetic separation and enhanced enzyme protection; however, the involved enzymes/substrates have to be smaller than the MOF apertures. A potential solution to these challenges is coprecipitating metal/ligand with enzymes on the MNP surface, which can partially bury (protect) the enzyme below the composite surface while exposing the rest of the enzyme to the reaction medium for catalysis of larger substrates. Here, to prove this concept, we show that using Ca2+ and terephthalic acid (BDC), large-substrate enzymes can be encapsulated in CaBDC-MOF layers coated on MNPs via an enzyme-friendly, aqueous-phase one-pot synthesis. Interestingly, we found that using MNPs as the nuclei of crystallization, the composite size can be tuned so that nanoscale composites were formed under low Ca2+/BDC concentrations, while microscale composites were formed under high Ca2+/BDC concentrations. While the microscale composites showed significantly enhanced reusability against a non-structured large substrate, the nanoscale composites displayed enhanced catalytic efficiency against a rigid, crystalline-like large substrate, starch, likely due to the improved diffusivity of the nanoscale composites. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on aqueous-phase one-pot synthesis of size-tunable enzyme@MOF/MNP composites for large-substrate biocatalysis. Our platform can be applied to immobilize other large-substrate enzymes with enhanced reusability and tunable sizes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Muramidase/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Biocatálise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/metabolismo , Muramidase/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 245: 116546, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718639

RESUMO

The beany flavor of pea protein limits its application in the food industry. This study aimed at addressing this problem by combining the advantages of solid-based spray drying technique and the ability of cyclodextrins (CD) to entrap volatiles. Pea protein isolates (PPI) was extracted by alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation, followed by co-spray drying with CD. The resulted PPI-CD showed no major structure changes. HS-SPME-GC-MS coupled to untargeted metabolomics successfully identified 23 aroma compounds that represent the different odorants among PPI-control, physically mixed PPI-CD, and co-spray dried PPI-CD samples. Heat map analysis also showed a remarkable beany odor mitigation effect upon the addition of CD, which was further proved to be due to CD entrapping aroma compounds during spray drying. In the meantime, the functional attributes of PPI-CD were not adversely impacted by the addition of CD.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Odorantes/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Ervilhas/química , Secagem por Atomização , Óleo de Milho/química , Emulsões , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pós/química , Solubilidade , Paladar , Água/química
19.
Food Res Int ; 131: 109045, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247471

RESUMO

In the current study, the impact of alkaline extraction pH (8.5, 9.0, and 9.5) on chemical composition, molecular structure, solubility and aromatic profile of PPI was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the quantification of free sulfhydryl group and disulfide bond contents, size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle static light scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALS-RI), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and headspace solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC-MS). We found that protein recovery yield increased from 49.20% to 57.56% as the alkaline extraction pH increased from 8.5 to 9.5. However, increasing the extraction pH promoted the formation of protein aggregates which decreased the percent protein solubility although there was no influence on protein secondary structure. PPI extracted at pH 9.0 possessed the lowest beany flavor as revealed by the selected six beany flavor markers including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and pyrazine. The lowest lipoxygenase activity at pH 9.0 may contribute to the least beany flavor in PPI. Therefore, pH 9.0 was found to be the optimal condition for preparing premium PPI in terms of yield, functionality, and aromatic profile using alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation process. The findings could have fundamental implications for the preparation and utilization of pea proteins in food applications.


Assuntos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/isolamento & purificação , Ervilhas/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Dissulfetos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Solubilidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 2498-2508, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134421

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to fabricate crude soybean oil oleogels (CSO) using ß-sitosterol (BS) and/or monoacylglycerol (MAG) and compare their role with that of refined soybean oil oleogels (RSO) in cookie making. Both crude and refined soybean oil oleogels were formed with BS or MAG, or the combination of both (1 : 1) at a fixed concentration of 10 wt%. The thermal behavior of the oleogels was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal structure and morphology of the oleogels were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). The hardness of the oleogel and commercial vegetable shortening was compared using a texture analyzer. The characteristics of cookies made with the oleogels were compared with those of cookies made with commercial vegetable shortening. Overall, the incorporation of BS and/or MAG into crude and refined soybean oil can produce oleogels with solid-like properties. Refined soybean oil formed stronger and firmer oleogels as compared to crude soybean oil. RSO structured by BS presented branched fiber-like, elongated plate-like, and needle-like crystals while the same oil gelled by MAG contained spherulite crystals. RSO made with the combination of BS and MAG displayed crystal morphologies from both BS and MAG. The same crystal morphologies were observed in CSO with lower quantities. Comparing the quality of cookies made with the oleogels and commercial vegetable shortening, equal or better performance of both RSO and CSO in terms of weight, thickness, width, spread ratio, and hardness of cookies than that of commercial vegetable shortening was observed. By combining the results of the physical characterization and cookie making performance, it can be concluded that both crude and refined soybean oleogels could resemble commercial shortening, which offers the possibility of using oleogels to replace shortening in the baking industry.


Assuntos
Culinária , Monoglicerídeos/química , Sitosteroides/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química
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