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1.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 36(11): 1428-1433, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382463

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the characteristics of the occurrence and development of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), and to review the important regulatory role of immune cells in the progression of ONFH. Methods: The domestic and foreign literature on the immune regulation of ONFH was reviewed, and the relationship between immune cells and the occurrence and development of ONFH was analyzed. Results: The ONFH region has a chronic inflammatory reaction and an imbalance between osteoblast and osteoclast, while innate immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and immune effector cells such as T cells and B cells are closely related to the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Conclusion: Immunotherapy targeting the immune cells in the ONFH region and the key factors and proteins in their regulatory pathways may be a feasible method to delay the occurrence, development, and even reverse the pathology of ONFH.


Assuntos
Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteonecrose , Humanos , Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/etiologia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo
2.
Int Orthop ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-operative bleeding after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a frequent cause of post-operative complications. This study compared blood loss and indicators of coagulation and fibrinolysis between TKA patients living at low or high altitudes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 120 patients at our institution who underwent primary TKA from May 2019 to March 2020, and we divided them into those living in areas about 500 m or > 3000 m above sea level. We compared the primary outcome of total blood loss between them. We also compared them in terms of several secondary outcomes: coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters, platelet count, reduction in hemoglobin, hidden blood loss, intra-operative blood loss, transfusion rate, and incidence of thromboembolic events and other complications. RESULTS: Total blood loss was significantly higher in the high-altitude group than in the low-altitude group (mean, 748.2 mL [95% CI, 658.5-837.9] vs 556.6 mL [95% CI, 496.0-617.1]; p = 0.001). The high-altitude group also showed significantly longer activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time before surgery and on post-operative day one, as well as increased levels of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation product on post-operative days one and three. Ecchymosis was significantly more frequent in the high-altitude group (41.7 vs 21.7%; relative risk (RR) = 1.923 [95% CI, 1.091-3.389]; p = 0.019). The two groups showed similar transfusion rates, and none of the patients experienced venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, or infection. CONCLUSION: High altitude may alter coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters in a way that increases risk of blood loss after TKA. Such patients may benefit from special management to avoid bleeding events.

3.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422010

RESUMO

Smi1 is a protein required for cell cycle progression, morphogenesis, stress response and life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FaSmi1 was identified as a Smi1 homolog in a wheat scab pathogenic fungus Fusarium asiaticum strain 2021. The deletion of FaSmi1 leads to defects in mycelial growth, asexual reproduction, and virulence. The FaSmi1 deletion mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic stresses generated by NaCl and KCl, but increased tolerance to oxidative stresses and cell wall integrity inhibitors. All of these defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutant with the whole parental FaSmi1 gene. Interestingly, the antioxidant system-associated genes exhibit a lower expression level and the mycotoxins' DON content was decreased in the FaSmi1 deletion mutant compared with the parental strain 2021. These results indicate that FaSmi1 plays a critical role in the vegetative development, asexual reproduction, DON production and virulence of F. asiaticum.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(38): 11911-11922, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102348

RESUMO

Colletotrichum acutatum, the main pathogen causing anthracnose on chili worldwide, is controlled by tebuconazole [a sterol C14-demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide, abbreviated as Teb] with excellent efficacy. Our previous study exhibited that all C. acutatum isolates were sensitive to Teb while the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides population had developed resistance to Teb on the same fungicide-pressure selection. Therefore, the assessment of Teb-resistance in C. acutatum is impending. Twenty Teb-resistant (TebR) mutants obtained by fungicide domestication and ultraviolet (UV)-mutagenesis displayed similar fitness compared to parental isolates. Data in the current study exhibited that mutations at CaCYP51A and/or overexpression of CaCYP51s were responsible for Teb-resistance. Furthermore, the deletion mutants ΔCaCYP51A and ΔCaCYP51B played different roles in sensitivities to DMIs. Taken together, this study first reported that mutations at CaCYP51A and/or overexpression of CaCYP51s conferred resistance to Teb in C. acutatum, CaCYP51A and CaCYP51B are functionally redundant, but differentially regulated in DMI resistance.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Fungicidas Industriais , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas , Esteróis
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 75: 128973, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075370

RESUMO

In the past decade, Wee1 inhibition has received widespread attention as a cancer therapy. Our research aims to discover effective, selective and drug-like Wee1 inhibitors. Herein, a series of compounds with pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based heterocycles were designed, synthesized and confirmed to inhibit Wee1 kinase. The inhibitors afforded good potency in Wee1 Kinase inhibitory activity in enzymatic assays. These compounds showed strong proliferation inhibition against NCI-1299 cell lines and had acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. These derivatives are promising inhibitors that warrant further evaluation, towards the development of potential anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Pirimidinas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
6.
J Inflamm Res ; 15: 4159-4169, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912401

RESUMO

Background: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a complex disease resulting in degeneration of the hip joint. The pathogenesis of ONFH is largely unknown, but alterations in immunological factors have been proposed to play a role. Methods: We included 109 patients with ONFH and 109 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls in this study. The percentage of circulating CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes among the total lymphocytes was identified by flow cytometry and compared between the cases and controls. Subgroup analysis within each etiological group and correlation analysis of T-cell subset levels with disease duration were performed. Furthermore, we compared the expression patterns of CD4, RANKL, and FoxP3 in the femoral head of healthy and glucocorticoid (GC)-treated ONFH rats. Results: The results showed that CD3+ and CD4+ T-cell counts and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly higher in patients with ONFH and that CD3+ lymphocyte levels were negatively correlated with disease duration. The CD4+ T-cell levels and CD4+/CD8+ ratios in the GC-ONFH etiological group were lower than those in the idiopathic-, traumatic-, and alcoholic-ONFH groups, while the CD8+ T-cell levels were higher. Furthermore, the CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cell counts and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were higher in the GC-ONFH group than in the control group. Finally, we observed diminished levels of FoxP3/CD4 double-positive T regulatory cells and increased RANKL+ T-cell levels in the bone marrow of the femoral head in GC-ONFH rats. Conclusion: The imbalance of T-cell subsets might be involved in the pathophysiological process of ONFH, and diminished CD4+/FoxP3+ T regulatory cells may be associated with increased RANKL+ T cells in the bone marrow of the femoral head in GC-ONFH, which may facilitate bone resorption and collapse of the femoral head. Trial Registration: This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Registration number: ChiCTR2100042642).

7.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol ; 39(3): 545-552, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950110

RESUMO

Introduction: Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCDLBCL) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rare. Aim: The literature that analyses the cutaneous manifestations of PCDLBCL and assesses the effect and the outcome of treatment is scarce. Material and methods: We described a case of PCDLBCL after TKA, whose cutaneous mass develops around surgical sites, mimicking a prosthetic joint infection. In addition, we conducted a systematic review of 29 reported cases with PCDLBCL. Primary endpoint for the review was main cutaneous manifestations of PCDLBCL. Secondary endpoint included treatment options of PCDLBCL and optimal therapeutic method. Results: We found that the main cutaneous manifestations include infiltrative cutaneous lesions such as macules, papules or nodules, some of them presented as ulcerations or formation of vesicles, subcutaneous nodules or both. The treatment options include excision, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and even "watchful waiting" as spontaneous regression was noted in some cases. Systemic chemotherapy is the most frequent initial treatment approach chosen, of which rituximab is often combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy and patients who received systemic rituximab tend to have a better overall survival (OS) time than those who did not. Conclusions: PCDLBCL is a rare disease after TKA, however, an early recognition and distinguishing from infection is still needed. Patients with PCDLBCL may profit from rituximab-based chemotherapy, increasing the survival rate, despite the high relapse rate and limited OS time in some cases.

8.
Plant Dis ; 106(11): 2892-2903, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412334

RESUMO

Many species in the fungal Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) genus have become a group of the most important pathogens that cause seed decay, stem and pot blight, and stem canker in soybean production worldwide, resulting in significant yield loss. Due to increased disease prevalence but a lack of research, we performed an extensive field survey to isolate and identify the Diaporthe species associated with soybean stem blight in six provinces of China between 2019 and 2020. A total of 92 Diaporthe isolates were identified based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic analysis and classified into six species: D. longicolla, D. unshiuensis, D. sojae, D. caulivora, D. tectonigena, and an unknown Diaporthe sp. The most frequently identified species was D. longicolla with 57 isolates. High genetic diversity was observed for the D. longicolla isolates, and haplotype network analysis revealed a mixed structure among the population in the six provinces. In comparative pathogenicity assays, different virulence levels were observed among the 92 Diaporthe isolates. The results of this study provide new insights into the Diaporthe spp. associated with soybean stem blight in China and can help in the development of effective management strategies.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Saccharomycetales , Soja/microbiologia , Virulência , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Filogenia
9.
J Comput Chem ; 43(3): 215-224, 2022 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751974

RESUMO

Molecular dynamics simulation is important in the computational study of the biomolecules. In this paper, we upgrade our previous FSATOOL to version 2.0. It is no longer a plugin as before. Besides the existed enhanced sampling and Markov state model analysis module, FSATOOL 2.0 has three new features now. First, it contains a molecular dynamics simulation engine on both CPU and GPU device. The engine works with an embedded enhanced sampling module. Second, it can do the free energy calculation by various practical methods, including the weighted histogram analysis method and Gaussian mixture model. Third, it has many subroutines to process the trajectory data, such as principal component analysis, time-structure based independent component analysis, contact analysis, and Φ-value analysis. Most importantly, all these calculations are integrated into one package. The trajectory data format is compatible with all the modules. With a proper input parameter file, users can do the molecular dynamics simulation and data analysis work by only a few simplified commands. The capabilities and theoretical backgrounds of FSATOOL 2.0 are introduced in the paper.

10.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 9(1)2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675846

RESUMO

In model fungi, mitochondrial transport proteins (MTPs), also known as "mitochondrial carriers" (MC), are known to facilitate the exchange of biochemical substances across the mitochondrial inner membrane. In this study, we characterized an MTP in Botrytis cinerea homologous to the known MTPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae designated BcMtp1. The BcMtp1 deletion mutant phenotype was strikingly defective in vegetative development, conidiation, and sclerotia production. In addition, ΔBcMtp1 showed increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, oxidative stress, and cell wall biogenesis inhibitors. In the pathogenicity assay, ΔBcMtp1 displayed compromised virulence on various host-plant tissues. The BcMtp1 deletion mutant phenotype was rescued by transforming the wild-type BcMtp1 variant into the mutant. Together, these data indicate that BcMtp1 is critical for vegetative development, asexual reproduction, stress tolerance, and virulence of B. cinerea.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13006-13019, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723519

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is one of the phytopathogenic fungi causing cereal fusarium head blight worldwide. Flubeneteram (Flu) is a novel succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) which exhibits strong fungicidal activity against F. graminearum. In this study, four Flu-resistant (FluR) mutants were generated by fungicide domestication from the wildtype strain PH-1. Sequencing alignment results of FgSdh from PH-1 and FluR mutants showed that all the mutations could be categorized into three resistant genotypes. Genotype I had an A-to-T mutation at the -57 bp of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of FgSdhC1, while genotypes II and III carried nonsynonymous mutations conferring T77I or R86C in FgSdhC2, respectively. All the mutations conferring the Flu resistance and causing fitness penalty were validated. The genotype I mutant showed high Flu-resistance, while genotype II and III mutants exhibited low Flu resistance. Additionally, all the FluR genotypes showed distinct cross-resistance patterns among the five SDHIs.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Mutação Puntual , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Ácido Succínico
12.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2171-2185, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424830

RESUMO

The S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1) plays a crucial role in methylation and lipid metabolism in yeast and mammals, yet its function remains elusive in filamentous fungi. In this study, we characterized Sah1 in the phytopathogenic fungus F. graminearum by generating knockout and knockout-complemented strains of FgSAH1. We found that the FgSah1-GFP fusion protein was localized to the cytoplasm, and that deletion of FgSAH1 resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual and sexual reproduction, stress responses, virulence, lipid metabolism, and tolerance against fungicides. Moreover, the accumulations of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) (the methyl group donor in most methyl transfer reactions) in ΔFgSah1 were seven- and ninefold higher than those in the wild-type strain, respectively. All of these defective phenotypes in ΔFgSah1 mutants were rescued by target gene complementation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgSah1 plays essential roles in methylation metabolism, fungal development, full virulence, multiple stress responses, lipid metabolism, and fungicide sensitivity in F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the systematic functional characterization of Sah1 in F. graminearum.


Assuntos
Adenosil-Homocisteinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium , Fusarium/enzimologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Virulência
13.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kümmell disease usually occurs in the elderly osteoporosis population and develops gradually into symptomatic, progressive kyphosis of the spine. However, current surgical methods to deal with stage III Kümmell disease are less satisfying. The objective of this study was to describe a less invasive technique for treating stage III Kümmell disease. TECHNIQUE: A less invasive technique of intravertebral insertion of interbody fusion cage via transpedicular approach with posterior spine stabilization was applied to treat stage III Kümmell disease. RESULTS: This study details a modified technique applied in a patient with stage III Kümmell disease, showing significant improvement in pain relief, anterior column height recovery, and kyphotic angle correction. And no complications were reported during our follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Intravertebral insertion of interbody fusion cage via transpedicular approach provides advantages of acceptable correction of kyphosis, bony fusion, minimal invasion. Thus, our method was a good alternative choice for stage III Kümmell disease.

14.
Orthop Surg ; 13(3): 920-931, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of the combination of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve blocks (LFCNB) and iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve blocks (IHINB) on postoperative pain and functional outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA) via the direct anterior approach (DAA). METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients undergoing THA via the DAA between January 2019 and November 2019 were stratified into two groups based on their date of admission. Sixty-seven patients received LFCNB and IHINB along with periarticular infiltration analgesia (PIA) (nerve block group), and 75 patients received PIA alone (control group). The outcomes included postoperative morphine consumption, postoperative pain assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS), the QoR-15 score, and functional recovery measured as quadriceps strength, time to first straight leg rise, daily ambulation distance, and duration of hospitalization. The Oxford hip score and the UCLA activity level rating were assessed at 1 and 3 months after surgery. In addition, postoperative complications were recorded. Patients were also compared based on the type of incision used during surgery (traditional longitudinal or "bikini" incision). RESULTS: Patients in the nerve block group showed significantly lower postoperative morphine consumption, lower resting VAS scores within 12 h postoperatively, lower VAS scores during motion within 24 h postoperatively, and better QoR-15 scores on postoperative day 1. These patients also showed significantly better functional recovery during hospitalization. At 1-month and 3-month outpatient follow up, the two groups showed no significant differences in Oxford hip score or UCLA activity level rating. There were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative complications. Similar results were observed when patients were stratified by type of incision, except that the duration of hospitalization was similar. CONCLUSION: Compared to PIA alone, a combination of LFCNB and IHINB along with PIA can improve early pain relief, reduce morphine consumption, and accelerate functional recovery, without increasing complications after THA via the DAA.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Int Orthop ; 45(8): 1923-1932, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use is prevalent in the general population. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to evaluate whether it affects patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following total hip or knee arthroplasty. METHODS: The following databases were systematically searched on February 5, 2020: Medline, Embase (Ovid), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Studies were included if they compared patients who received opioids or not before total hip or knee arthroplasty. Outcomes of interest were rates of post-operative revision, peri-prosthetic infection, and readmission. RESULTS: Ten retrospective studies were included for review. Pre-operative opioid use was identified as a risk factor for post-operative revision [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.73, p<0.01], peri-prosthetic infection (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71, p=0.01), and readmission (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.20-1.75, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The available evidence indicates that pre-operative opioid use increases the risk of adverse outcomes following total hip or knee arthroplasty. Orthopedic physicians should consider these risks when treating their patients.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Proteins ; 89(7): 832-844, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576138

RESUMO

Protein folding is a popular topic in the life science. However, due to the limited sampling ability of experiments and simulations, the general folding mechanism is not yet clear to us. In this work, we study the folding of the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9 (NTL9) in detail by a mixing replica exchange molecular dynamics method. The simulation results are close to previous experimental observations. According to the Markov state model, the folding of the protein follows a nucleation-condensation path. Moreover, after the comparison to its 39-residue ß-α-ß motif, we find that the helix at the C-terminal has a great influence on the folding process of the intact protein, including the nucleation of the key residues in the transition state ensemble and the packing of the hydrophobic residues in the native state.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Dobramento de Proteína , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Termodinâmica
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 538-547, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium asiaticum is one of predominant pathogens of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in China. Pydiflumetofen (Pyd) is a novel succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) which has been commercialized in China for the controlling of wheat FHB since 2019. In the current study, a risk assessment of the pydiflumetofen-resistance selected in Fusarium asiaticum was investigated. RESULTS: One PydMR mutant [resistance factor (RF) < 80] and four PydHR mutants (RF > 3000) were generated by fungicide-taming from 1000 mycelial discs of the wild-type strain 2021. Nucleotide sequences alignment results of FaSdh from the wild-type strain and resistant mutants showed that all the mutations were categorized into three genotypes, i.e. FaSdhBH248Y from PydMR mutant, both FaSdhC1 A64V and FaSdhC1 R67K from PydHR mutants. All the resistant mutants possessed no fitness penalty based on the data of mycelial linear growth, conidiation and virulence. In addition, the FaSdhC1 A64V mutants showed positive cross-resistance between pydiflumetofen and boscalid or thifluzamide, but no cross-resistance between pydiflumetofen and Y13149 or Y12196, while the FaSdhC1 R67K mutants exhibited positive cross-resistance between pydiflumetofen and boscalid, thifluzamide or Y12196, and no cross-resistance between pydiflumetofen and Y13149. Furthermore, positive cross-resistance between the five tested SDHIs was detected in the FaSdhBH248Y mutants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a moderate to high resistance risk of F. asiaticum to pydiflumetofen, and provide essential data for monitoring the emergence of resistance and resistance management strategies for pydiflumetofen, which will be useful for scientific application of this fungicide in China.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , China , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis , Medição de Risco , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Ácido Succínico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of teriparatide versus salmon calcitonin for the treatment of osteoporosis in Asian patients and to investigate whether the results of global studies could be applicable to Asian patients. METHODS: PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE up to December 2018 were searched. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared teriparatide versus salmon calcitonin in Asian osteoporosis population were included. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used for data synthesis, and Cochrane Collaboration software Review Manager 5.3 was used to analyze the pooled data. RESULTS: Three RCTs involving 529 patients were included (mean age 68.7 yr; 93.4% females; mean follow-up 6 months); outcome measures included bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine; bone markers and adverse events. We found that the period of 6-months of teriparatide treatment was helpful for the improvement of the BMD of lumbar vertebra, however, the improvement of BMD was not significant in the femoral neck and total hip joint. There was a positive correlation between bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and osteocalcin (OCN) and the response of Asian patients to subcutaneous injection of 20 micrograms per day of teriparatide. The proportion of the occurrence of adverse effects was more obvious in the teriparatide group compared with salmon calcitonin, but there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Results suggested that the use of teriparatide could improve the lumbar BMD by shortterm (six months) application in Asian osteoporosis patients, which is beneficial to the patients who cannot tolerate adverse events of long-term treatment. The BSAP and OCN bone markers could be useful to monitor the responses of Asian osteoporosis patients to teriparatide treatment. Finally, both of teriparatide and salmon calcitonin were well tolerated by Asian patients.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Calcitonina/farmacologia , Humanos , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Plant Dis ; 105(8): 2222-2230, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048591

RESUMO

Black spot, caused by Alternaria alternata, poses a severe threat to the industry of Dendrobium officinale, a Chinese indigenous medicinal herb. Dicarboximide fungicides (DCFs) have been intensively used to control this disease for decades in China, and offer excellent efficacy. The resistance of phytopathogenic pathogens against DCFs are reportedly selected in fields; however, the DCF resistance of A. alternata from D. officinale is not well understood. The isolates of A. alternata with low procymidone resistance (ProLR) were detected in the commercial orchards of D. officinale in China in 2018 and biochemically characterized in this study. The result showed that the ProLR isolates were selected in the commercial orchards with a resistance frequency of 100%, and no significant difference in mycelial growth, sporulation, and virulence was observed among the ProLR and procymidone-sensitive (ProS) isolates. A positive cross-resistance pattern was exhibited between procymidone and iprodione. Results of amino acid sequence alignment of AaOS-1 from the tested isolates showed that all of the ProLR genotypes could be categorized into two groups, including group I (mutations at AaOs-1) and group II (no mutation). Under procymidone (5.0 µg/ml) treatment conditions, the AaOs-1 expression levels increased in the ProS isolates and ranged from approximately 2.94- to 3.69-fold higher than those under procymidone-free conditions, while the AaOs-1 expressions of the ProLR isolates were significantly lower than those in the ProS isolates under the same conditions. The data indicated that the mutations at AaOs-1 are involved in the DCF resistance of A. alternata selected in the D. officinale orchards.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Plantas Medicinais , Alternaria/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética
20.
Plant Dis ; 105(7): 1951-1959, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044142

RESUMO

Garlic leaf blight caused by Stemphylium eturmiunum was first reported in Jiangsu Province in China. The dicarboximide fungicide (DCF) procymidone is reported to possess broad-spectrum action in inhibiting filamentous fungi and is widely used to control leaf disease of various plants. Of 41 Stemphylium eturmiunum isolates collected in this study from commercial garlic farms in Pizhou and Dafeng counties of Jiangsu Province, eight isolates were resistant to procymidone. The following three phenotypes were categorized according to in vitro responses to DCFs: sensitive, low resistance to iprodione and procymidone, and high resistance to all iprodione and procymidone. The fitness of all resistant isolates was decreased in accordance with data on mycelial growth, conidiation, and virulence. After treatment with 10 µg/ml of procymidone for 4 h, mycelial intracellular glycerol concentrations of resistant isolates were significantly lower than those of sensitive isolates. Positive cross-resistance was observed between dicarboximides and phenylpyrroles, but there was no cross-resistance between dicarboximides and fluazinam or difenoconazole in the two resistant phenotypes. Nucleotide sequence alignment of two-component histidine kinase genes from sensitive and resistant isolates indicated that amino acid mutations were located at the histidine kinase, adenylyl cyclase, methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein and at the phosphatase domain of the N-terminal region and the response regulator domain of the C-terminal region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DCF resistance in Stemphylium eturmiunum, and these findings will help establish a rational strategy to manage DCF-resistant populations of Stemphylium eturmiunum in the field.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Alho , Ascomicetos/genética , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética
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